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Full text of "Articles on anthroplogical subjects, contributed to the Annual report of the Smithsonian institution from 1863 to 1877"

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Articles on 
anthropological subjects 

Charles Rau, Jacob Baegert, 
FI6ris Romer, Smithsonian Institution 




I OS I KIM 1 !■ c 1 1 1 ritr. 


KKOM I 's^;:; TO 1K77 

c II A n L i:s i: aw 









FBOM 1863 TO 1877 

. • • • • * • I 


M • • • i ••• • • • 

.• • • • 

» • • • 



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An Account of the Aborigin&l InliabitAnts of the Califomian Peninsula, as givei^ by 

Jacob Baegert, a German Jesuit Missionary, who lived there seventeen years 

during the second half of the last Century. Translated and arranced for tlie 

Smithsonian Institution by Charles Rau. [Smithsoniau Reports for 1863 and 

1864, pp. 352 and 378, respectively) 




niaas; also, whence and how they may have come to California 


Chapter II. — Their Habitations, Apparel, Implements, and Utensils 


Chapter III. — Of their I-ood and the manner of preparing it 

Chapter IV. — Of their Marriacrcs and the Education of their Children 


Chaptkr V. — Their Character _ __ 

Chaitkr VI. — Tlifir Character, conlimicd. — An Account of the As- 

sassination of the Jesuit Fathers Tamaral and Carranco 


Chapter VII. — Their Treatment of the Sick. — Funeral Customs 



Chapter IX. — How they lived Ijcfore and after their Conversion 

CHAri i:K X. " Their Lan^^ua^'e . _ 


Aifricultiiral Implements of the North American Stone Period [^Smithsonian Report 

for 1S63, p. 3791 - -- 


Artificial Shell-Deposits in New Jersey {Smithsonian Report for 1864^ p. 370) 





A Deposit of Agricultural Flint Implements in Southern Illinois {Smithsonian., Re*. ; .* 

port for 186S, p. 401) ;j- _™.^.^.__:V-Js.. I 


i " - - V 

Memoir of C. F. P. von Martius {Smithsonian Report for 186^,' p. 169)^, 


Ancient Alwriginal Trade in North America {Smithsonian Report fytx%j:ti^ 34*)- 



■ '." 


(Jalena > '.'..'..l 




Slate — — — - — — — 


Flint - 



Shells ^ 


Pearls -— - 





North American Stone Implements {Smithsonian Report for 1872, p. 395) 135 

The Prehistoric Antiquities of Hungary. An Address delivered by Prof. F. F. 

Romcr at Uic ()i>cnint; of the International Anthropological Congress, held at 
Budapest, September, 1876. From the " Matiiriaux pour THistoire Primitive et 
Naturelle de rHommc." — Translated for the Smithsonian Institution by Charlks 
Rau. (Smithsonian Report for 1876, p. 394) 149 

The Stoclc-in-Tradeof an Aboriginal Lapidary {Smithsonian Report for 1877, p. 291 ) IS7 

Observations on a Gold Ornament fron^ a Mount! in Florida [Smithsonian Report for 

1877. P< 298) _ — l6s 



The earKor articlee contained in this volume appeared many years ago, 
when my sources of information were more limited than at present. Some 
Btateinents, therefore, would be ouiitted, if these articles were to be written 
again ; while, on the other hand, the results of later experience might be 
added. The present collection, however, is printed from the electrotyped 
plates of the Annual Smithsonian Reports, and the only corrections which 
could be made are of a typographical character.* In order to remedy, in 
some degree at least, the imperfections alluded to, I avail myself of this 
opportunity for indicating such changes and additions as seem to me most 

JFagea 43 and 89. — ^In qpeaking of the use of native copper among the 
aborigines of North America, I stated that it was chiefly employed as a 
material for ornaments. This view was fisrmerly held, but may no longer 
be tenable, considering that of late years many copper implements have 
been found in different parts of this country, more especially in the State of 
Wisconsin, which borders on the copper region of the North. The archieo- 
logical follection of the United States National Museum compriso^s now 
seventy-lour copper objects, forty-six of which are implements, the remainder 
consisting of ornaments, each string of beads being considered as a specimen. 
It would be interesting to know the whde number of prehistoric copper 
implements and ornaments preserved in the collections of the United States, 
in order to find out the true proportion. 

Page 60. — Concerning the bronze tube mentioned in the note, Mr. John 
Evans observes as follows : — 

**In tbe Klemm collection, formerly at Dresden, is a bronze tube, five inches long and 
threc-qunrter'; of an inch in diameter, found near Camen/, in Saxony, which its late owner 
regarded as one of tlic l>oring tools usctl in the manufacture of stone axes. This is now in 
the British Museum, and does not appear to me to have been employed for any such pur- 
pose." — THe Ancieni S/otu Ifn^ementSt Wtt^mtSt tmd Ornaments of Great Britain, p. 


* The necessity of preserving the plates in their original condition will also account for 
some want of uniformity in the appearance of the articles, which should be considered as 
special impresskms brought into book-form as well as circumstances peimitted. 

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Page 60. — I figure on this page a partly perforated ceremonial weapon, 
formerly belonging to Dr. E. H. Davis, but now in my possessiou. Cur- 
iously enough, not one of the five or six implements of similar shape which 
1 had seen at the time was drilled entirely through, but only to a certain 
depth. Hence I concluded that in these iipecimens the bore had been 
intentionally left in that state, the handle being driven as &r as possible into 
the cylbdrical cavity, and probably more firmly attached to the blade by 
ligatures. Of course, T have changed my opinion long ago, and coimder 
partly drilled objects ol thin character iu» unfinished. 

Page 64. — ^The " mound-pipcf*,"' obtained by Mes^irs. Squier and Davis 
during their survey of earth-works iu Ohio, are not chiefly made of por- 
phyry. The error originated with the authors of "Ancient Monuments of 
the MiBsissippi Valley," who refer in several places of their work to por- 
phyry as the material from which the pipes in question are mostly carved. 
I have thus corrected this erroneous statement in my essay on andent 
aboriginal trade in North America: — *^ It was formerly believed most of these 
pipes were composed of a kind of porphyry ; but since their transfer to the 
Blackraore Museum, they wore carefully examined and partly analyzed by 
Professor A. H. Church, who louiid them to consist of softer materials." 
(Page lUO of this publication. 1 also quote there Mr. E. T. Stevens's work, 
" Flint Chips," which contains Professor Church's observations). 

Page 77. — ^The anoestor of Professor C. F. P. von Afartius represents ofte 
of the characters in Sir Walter Scott's *' Qnentin Durward," playing in that 
novel the part of an astrologer at the court of Louis XI of France, and is 
thus introduced by the Scottish romancer: — 

" Ix)ui.s therefore led the wny. followed by tiic imp.ititr.t Qiientin, to a separate tower of 
the Castle of Plc«;sis, in wliicli wa- installc-d. iti no small ease antl splendor, the eelebratcd 
astrologer, |K)cl, and philosopher, Galeotli Marti, or Martins, or Mariivalle, a native of Narni. 
in Italy, the audior of the famous treatise, De Vui^o Jiuo^nitis, and the sabject of hii> age\ 
adminition, and of tbe panegyrics of Builns Jovtus. lie had laog flourished at the coait of 
the celebrated Matthias Cor\'in«s, King of Hungary, from whom he was in some measure 
decoyed by Louis, wiio j^riidped the Ilunjjarian monarch the society and the counsels of a 
sfige, accounted so skillful in reading the decrees of heaven. 

" Maitivalle was none of those ascetic, withered, [>ai^ jTofessors of mystic learning of 
those days, who bleared their eyes over the midnight furnace, and macerated their bodies by 
OUtwatching the ]>olar bear. He indulged in all courtly pleasures, and, until he grew cor- 
pident, had excelled in all martial sports and gymnastic ever(ri>es. as well a. in tlie use of 
arms; insomuch that Janus Tannonius has left a Latin epigram, upon a \vre.-.tlln- match be 
twixt Galcotti and a renowned champion of that art, in the presence of the Hungarian king 
and court, in which the astrologer was completdy victorious.** 

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Elsewhere the uovelist stated iu u note that the astrologer died in the ser- 
vice of Louii} XI. 

Btge 92. — Reference is made to a east eopper axe, ploughed up near Au- 
burn, Cayuga County, New York, and first described aud figured by Mr. 
iSquier, ou page 78 of his "Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New 
York" (Washington, 1849> Several years ago, while in conversation with 
Mr. Bquier, at his residence in New York, I happened to see the same aze 
lying on the maotel-piecc. In handling the object, I noticed that a small 
portion had been ramored from it^for close examination by an expert, as 
Mr. Sqnier infi>rmed me. This examination resulted in the discovery that 
the axe wss not east, but hammered into shape from native copper. The 
former inhabitants of North America, I still believe, — ^notwithstanding all 
assertions to the contrary — were unacquainted with the art of melting 

Bctge 96.— Since my statements regarding obsidian were made, the occur- 
rence of that mineral in geolo^^cal formations in Washington, Oregon, Gbd- 
ifemia, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and New Mexico, has been ascertained 

by the surveys conducted under the auspices of the United States Gov- 
ernment. In some localities it is found iu iuinicnse ina.ssos. 1 will only 
allude to the extensive deposits of obsidiau iu the Yellowstone National 
Park, which were examined by Mr. W. TI. Holmes, and described by him 
in the " American Naturalist" (April, 1879, page 247). He found there 
some leaf*8haped implements of obsidian and a large number of obsidian 
flakes and chips. 

jBtjjPS 101. — ^In the meantime ancient mica mines, in the shape of open 
excavations, have been discovered. There are several of these diggings in 
Mitchell County, North Carolina, and a do«en or more are known to exist in 
Macon County, in the same state. See "Ancient Mica Mines in North Cto- 
olina" by C. D. Smith, in the Smithsonian Beport for 1876, page 441. 

Btge 103.~Later experience has taught me that the number of drilled 
ceremonial weapons is much larger than I formerly believed. 

Page 104. — ^Teu years have now passed by since I composed my essay 
on ancient aboriginal trade in North America, a short section of which 
treats of slate, more especially the striped or banded variety, out of which 
so nuuiy pierced tablets, boat and bird*aliaped objects, drilled ceremonial 
weapons, tubes, etc., are made. I was aware at the time that the field of 

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thfiir distributioii rMches from the Atlsntio Gout to the State of IfiMOUzi; 
bat my eflbrte to learn where the peculiar material compoeing them oocois 
were fraitletB. Kiviog applied to the Smithsonian Institution for informa- 
tion, I was referred to a gentleman in the State of New York, who, it was 

said, could enlightt-n me on the subject. I wrote to the genllenmu (now 
dead;, and learned from him that the slate " appears as the oldest sedi- 
mentary formation in quite considerable masses along the Atlantic Coast, 
and has been observed from Rhode Island to Canada." Subsequent inqui* 
ries, however, led me to doubt the correctness of the information, at leaat 
with regard to the banded variety of slate. Morsover, I had occasion to see 
water>wom pebbles of that material, found in Ohio, where objects made of 
it seem to be more abundant than in any other part of the United States. 
These pebbles, I was further informed, arc quite frequent in Ohio, and, 
according to Dr. H. II. Hill, of Cincinnati, it would not retiuiro much time 
to find a piece of the size and shape de.siied lor any particular implement or 
ornament. A brief but graphic notice regarding banded slate was published 
by Colonel Charles Whittlesey in the "Final Report of the Ohio State 
Board of Centennial Managers to the General Assembly of the State ot 
Ohio" (Columbus, 1877). He says on page 122 :— 

"This variegated slate i.s not known in Ohio, except among the drift gravel. It consti- 
tutes large masses on Lake Superior and the waters of Green Bay, where it is known, geo- 
logically, as the silidotts metamoriduc slate of the Huronian and Lanrentian series. This is 
the source of the pieces found in our gravel, transported fnun the North during the ice 

There are in the collection ot the National Musiiim objects of banded 
slate from Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Penusylvauia, Ohio, lu- 
diaua, Kentucky, Illinois, Iowa, Louis^iana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. I 
have myself a specimen from Missouri, shaped like a very small double axe, 
with vertical, slightly grooved edges. It caonot be supposed that the occur* 
fence of pebbles of the banded slate is co-ezteusive with the area occupied 
by these states, and hence I probably was not wrong in regarding the ma- 
terial as one which formed a valued article of traiBc among the ancient 
occupants of this country. 

Boffe 113. — have become somewhat doubtful as to the occurrence of 
jbisi? shells in the mounds of the United States ; but, notwithstanding my 
endeavors to arrive at the truth, I am not yet prepared for a positive con- 
tradiction of my statement. 

J^tge 114. — ^Allusion is made in a note to flat shell beads, found in the 

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grotto of AuriguAC (Haute-Gorouoe), " which aerved as a hurial-place at a 
period when the cave-bear, cave-hyena, mammoth, rhinocetoe, tAo., still - ez- 
kttd" This was then the opiuioo of promineiit European ardmolopits. 
In the meantime, however, M. £«mile Owtailhac had cai^olly examined the 
Anrignac grotto, uad an aooount of his inyestigation appeared in " Mat^naaz 
pour THistoire Primitive et Natarelle de raomme" (Vol. VII, p. 207). 
According to his view, the skeletons ibond in the grotto belong to a much 
later period than the hiyer inclosiug the bones of extinct animals and 
objects of human workmausliip, which covered the floor of the grotto, and 
extended in front of it. M. Cartailhac's reasons for referring the human 
remains Ibund in the grotto to neolithic times appear very plausible. 

Page 119. — The statement that " Loskiel never visited America" is incor- 
rect, though his work to ^vhic•h I refer was compiled in Europe from 
August Gottlieb Spangcnberg's and David Zeisbcrger's reports, and printed 
at JBarby (Prussian Baxony) in 1789, thirteen years before the author 
crossed the Atlantic Ocean, He came to the United States in 1802, was 
superintendent of the Moravian churches and pastor at Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, where he died in 1814 The error was pointed out to me by Mr. 
Isaac Smucker, of Newark, Ohio. 

Par/c 127. — Mr. Caleb Lyon's account of arrow-head-uiaking by a Shasta 
Indian thus far stands alone, not having been confirmed by later observers. 

On the other hand, the Indian method of manu£u}turing flint or obsidian 

ari^w-heads, etc., by pressure with a horn or bone tool, has of late years 

lepeatedly been witnessed and described. Major J. W. Powell, who is wdl 

acquainted with many western tribes, describes on pages 27 and 28 of his 

"Beport of Explorations in 1873 of the Colorado of the West ahd its 

Tributaries'* (Washington, 1874) the fabrication of such articles as follows : 

" The obsidian or other stone of which the implement is lu L>c made !:> lir^t selected by 
breaking up larger nwmww of the rock, and choosing those which exhibit the fracture desired, 
and which are free of flaws; then these pieces are baked or steamed, perhaps I mig^t say 
annealed, b) placing them in damp earth covered with a brisk fire f*r twenty-four hours ; 

then, with sharp blows, they are still further broken into flakes approxima'ing the shafic and 
size desired. For the more complete fashioning of the implement, a tool of horn, usually 
of the mountain sheep, but sometimes of the deer or antelope, is used. The flake of stone 
is held in one hand, placed on a little cushion made of untanned skin of some animal, to 

protect the hand from the flakes which are to be chipped oflF; and, with a sudden pressure of 
the bone tool, the proper shape is i^ivcn. They acquire great skill in this, and the art seems 
to be confined to but few persons, who exchange their manufactures for otlier articles." 

Major Powell, I may add, informed me that he saw the Shasta Indians 
making obsidian arrow-heads in exactly the same manner. 

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Mr, Paul Schumaclier found the same method m vogue am(»ig the In- 
diane near Klamath Biver, and has deecribed it in an iUustrated article (Die 
Eneugmg der Slemwq/m) in the ** Arehiv far Anthropologies* (Vol. VII, 
1675, page 263). He also gives a short account of the operation in the 
Srnithsonian Report for 1873 (page 355), which appeared after the publica- 
tion of his German article. Mr. Stephen I\)\vers repeatedly calls attention 
to the practice of this method in his work entitled "Tribes of California" 
(Vol. Ill of Coatributions to North American Ethnology, Washington, 
1877 ). A very complete corroborative statement, finally, was published in 
the "American Natuialist" (November, 1879, page 667). The author, Mr. 
B. B. Bedding, witneesed in Northern Galifomia the fitbrication of a fine 
ebsidian arrow-head by Consolulu, an aged ex-chief of the Wintoons. The 
process is described in all its details* 

Figure 340 on page 95 of my Smithsonian publication, " The ArchsBo- 
logical Collection of the United States National Museum" (Wajibiugtou, 
1876), represents, in one-fifth of the natural size, one of the chipping tools 
of the collection, and in a note on page 22 of the same work I allude to the 
mode of application of such implements. 

These are r^rdecl us the most important emendations which should 
receive the attention of the reader, before he entefs upon a perusal of the 
following treatises. 


fciaUTHaoKiAN Institution , 

Washinqion, D. C, February, 1882. 

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numLAisD Am ABRiKesD f OR TBX sMmMoniAii nmtnmoii it chakus tuu, or sew tork citt. 


When, in 17G7, by a decree ofCIiarlos ITT, all members of the order of the 
Jesuits were banished from Spain and the transatlantic provinces enbject to that 
realm, thoac Jesuits who superintended the missious cstabiishcd by tiiu Spaniards 
since 1697 in Lower California were compelled to leave their Indian converts, and 
to transfer their spiritual authority to a number of friars of the Franciscan order. 
One of the banished Jesuit?', a German, who had t<pent seventeen years in th(; 
Californiou jpcniusula, published, after his return to his native country, a book 
which contains a description of that remote part of the American continenti and 
gives also quite a detailed account of its aboriginal inhabitants, with whom the 
inthor had become thoroughly acquainted during the many years devoted to 
their conversion to Chris«tianity. This book, which is now very scarce in 
Germany, and, of course, still more so in this country, bears the title : Account 
tf tke Amenean Penmnda of California ; a twofold Appendix of False 
Meportt* Writtc7i hi{ a Priest of the Society of JenUy who lived there man]f 
years past. Puhliahcd icitk the I'ermission of my Superiors. jMaroiJu-im, liTS."^ 

Modesty, or perhaps other luutivcs, induced the author to k main anonymous, 
bat widi little snccees ; for his name, which was Jae^ Baegcrt, is sometimes 
met with in old catalogues, in connexion with the title of his book. That his 
home was on the Upper Ilhitie, he pt ites himf^elf in the text, but further par- 
ticulars relative to his privatt; aflairs, before or after his missionary lal)ors in 
California, have not come to my knowledge. Jiu dt»es not even mention over 
which of the fifteen missions existing at his time on the peninsula he presided* 
but merely says that liv had lived in California under the twenty-fifth dcgi-ee, 
and twelve leagues distant from the Pacific coast, opposite the little bay «f St. 
Magdalen. On the map accompanying his work there are two missionary sta- 
tions marked under that latitude— the mission of St. Aloysius and that of the 

* Nachrichten von dcr Amcrikanischen Halbinsel Calirornicu: niU einom zwojfachen 
Anbaag Faladier Nachrichten. Gcschrieben von eiaem Priester der GoaeUachaflt Jesu* 
frtMwr lang darinn diew letstere Jahr gelebet hat Mit EtlsalniiMS der Oberan. Ifaan- 
bdou 1773. 

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Seven Dolor;?, (Septem Dolorum,) of which the first named evidentlj wan hb 

place of residence. 

The work in question constitutes a small octavo volume of 358 pages, and If 
divided into three parte. The first division (of which I will give a short 
synopsis in this introduction) treats of the topography, physical geography, 
geoh>gy,ani1 n.itmal lii.>»tory of the peninsula; the pecond part gives an account 
of the inhabitants, and tlie third embraces a nhort but interesting history of the 
missions iu Lower California. In the appendices to the work the author refutes 
certain exaggerated reports that had heen published concerning the Galifomiui 
peninsula, and he is particularly very severe upon Ven/^a^ " Noticia de la 
Calit'ornia." (Madrid, 1757, 3 volt?.,) a work which is also translated into the 
English, Frencli, and German languages. He accuses the Spanish author of 
having given by far too favorable, and, iu many instances, utterly false 
accounts of the country, its productions and inhabitants, which is rather a 
noticeable circumstance, since Venegoi is considered as an authority in mattw 
relating to the ethnology of California. 

While reading the work of the German missionary, I was struck with the 
amount of ethnological in&rmation contained in it, especially in the second 
part, which is ezdusively devoted to the aboriginal inhabitants, as stated 
before ; and upon conversing on the gtjhjcct with .^ome friends, members of the 
American Kthn()logi"al Society, they advised me to translate for publication if 
not the whole book, at least that ^jart of it which relates to the native popula- 
tion, of which we know, comparatively, pt rhaps less than of any other portion 
of the indigenous race of North America. As there is a growing taste for the 
study of etinioiogy m niifi sted in ihii couTitry, and, consequently, a tendency 
prevailing to collect all materials iihjstrating the former condition of the Ameri- 
can aborigines in different parts of the continent, I complied with the request 
of my friends, and devoted my hours of leisure to the preparation of this little 
work, supposing that the account of a man who lived among those Californians 
a century ago, when their original state had been but little changed Ity inter- 
course with Europeans, might be an acceptable addition to our stock of 
ethnological knowledge. 

I have to state, however, that the following pa^s are not a translation in 
the strict sense of tlie word, but a reproduction of the work only as far as it 
refers to ethnological maifer.-*. The reasons which induced me tlms to deviate 
from the usual course of a translator are obvious ; for even that portion of the 
text which treats of the native race contains many things that are not in the 
least connected with ethnology, the good father being somewhat garrulous and 
rather fond of moralizing and eidarging upon religion?? matters, as might be 
expected from one of his calling; and, although he places the natives of the 
peninsula exceedingly low in the scale of human development, he takes, never- 
theless, occasion to draw comparisons between their barbaric simplicity and the 
over-refined habits of the Europeans, much in the manner of Tacitus, who seizes 
upon every opportunity to rebuke the luxury and extravagance of his country- 
men, while ho describes the rude sylvan life of the ancient inhabitants of Ger- 
many. My object being simply to rescue from oblivion a number of facts 
relating to a portion of the American race, I have omitted all superfluous com* 
mentaries indulged in by the aulhor, and, iu order to bring kindred sulijrctfl 
under common heads, I liave now and then used some freedom in the arrango 
ment of the matter, which is not always properly linked iu the original. 
Although the second part of the book has chiefly furnished the material for 
this reproduction, I have transftorred to the English text, and inserted in the 
proper places, all those passages in the other divisions, and even in the two 
appendices that have a bearing upon ethnology, giving thus unity and com- 
pleteness to the subject, which induced me to prepare these pages. For the 
rest I have preserved, so fiw as feasible, the language of the author. Not 

23 8 63 

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macb can be Midi however, in &Tor of the aiylo exhibited in the oiisinal, and 
even die apeUing of tbu words defies all rules of cmliogTapby, which were 

adopted a century ago in the German language ; nor is our father unaware of 
bis deficiencies, but hoiu sily states in bis preface that " if his style was none 
of the smoothest, and his orthography incorrect in some places, the reader 
might consider that daring the seventeen years of his sojonm in Oalifomia*. 
comprising the period from 1751 to 1768, no hardly ever had conversed ia 
Gerioan, and, consequently, almost forgotten the use of his mother language,** 

Of the peoiusula l^'athcr iiaegert gives a rather woel'ul account. He describes 
that region as an arid, monntainons country, covered with rocks and sand, 
deficient in water, and almost without shade-trees, but abounding in thoruy 
plants and shrubs of various kinds. The .-tcrility of the soil is caused by the 
scantiness of water. "No one," says the author, "need be afraid to drowu 
himself in water; but the danger of dying from thii-st is mucii greater." There 
falls some rain, accompanied by short thunder-storms, during the months of 
Joly, August, September, and October, filling the channels worn In the hard 
ground. Some of these .soon become dry alter the showers ; others, however, 
hold water during the whole year, and on these and the stagnant water col- 
lected in pools and ponds men and beasts have to rely for drink. Of running 
waters, deserving the name of brooks, there are but six in the country, and of 
these six only four reach tlie sea, while the others lose themselves not very fivr 
from their sources among rocks and sand. There is nothing to be seen in 
Lower California that may be called a wood; only u i'ew straggling oaks, 
pines, and some other kinds of trees unknown in £uropc, are met with, and 
these are confined to certain localities. Shade and material for the carpenter 
are, therefore, very scarce. The only tree of any consequence is the so-called 
mesquite; but besides that it always grows quite isolated, and never in "groups, 
the trunk is very low, and the wood so hard that it almost deiies the applica- 
tion of iron tools. The author mentions, fiirther, a kind of low Braxil wood, a 
trae called paloblanco, the bark of which serves for tanning ; the palohierro or 
iron-wood, which is still harder than the niesquite ; wild iig trees tbat bear no 
firuit; wild willows and barren palms, "all of which would be ashamed to 
appear beside a European oak or niit>tree." One litde tree yields an odoriferous 
gnm that was used in the Califomian churches as firankincensc. But in com- 
pensation for the absence of large treer^, there is a prodigious abundance of 
prickly plants, some of a gigantic height, but of little prae(ical use, their soft, 
spongy stems soon rotting after being cut. Among the indigenous edible pro- 
mictioM of the vegetable kingdom are chiefly mentioned the tunas or Inoian 
figs, the alo^. and the pitahayas, of which the latter deserve a special notice 
as forming an important article of food of the Indians. There are two kinds 
of this IVuit — tlie sweet and the sour pitahaya. The former is round, as large 
as a hen's egg, and has a green, thick, prickly shell that covers a red or white 
flesh, in whidh the black seeds are scattered like grains of powder. It is 
described as being sweet, but not of a very agreeable taste without the addition 
of lemon juice and f<ugar. There ia no scarcity of shrubs bearing this fruit, 
and irom some it cuo be gathered by hundreds. They become mature in the 
middle of June, and continue for more than eight weeks. The sour pitshaya, 
which grows on low, creeping bushes, bristling with long spines, is much 
larger than the other kind, of excellent ta.=5te, but by far less abundant; for, 
although the shrubs are very plentiful, there is hardly one amonj^ a hundred 
that bears fruit. Of the alo^ or mescalc, as the Spaniards and Mexicans call 
it» the fibres are used by the aborigines, in lieu of hemp, for making threads 
and strings, and its fruit is eaten by them. 

A very curious portion of the book is that which treats of the animals found 
in Galiiornia. The author is evidently not much of a naturalist, and, in classi- 
fying animals, he manifests oecasionaUy a sovereign independence that would 

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shock the feeliogB of a iilumcubach or Agaasiz; yet hh rcmarkB, resulting hom 
aetnal obeervatioiii are for the most part correct, and eviuce undeniably bis 
love of tnttb. In the list of wild quadrupeds are entimerated the deer, bare, 
rabbit, fox, coyote, wild cat, skunk, (Sorillo,) leopard, (American panther,) 
oiiza, and wild ram. In rder«'nce to the last-named animal the autljor remarks: 
"Where the chain uf mouutaius that runa lengthwise through the whole peuin- 
sala reaches a considerable height, there are found anhnals resembling our 
rams in oU retspectd, except the horns, which are thicker, longer, and uiUcL 
more curved. When pursued, these luiimairt will drop themselves from th(- 
highest precipices upon their horns without receiving any injury. Their num- 
ber, however, cannot be great, for 1 never saw a living specimen, nor the fur 

one In tbe posseasion oituk Indian; bot many skins of leopards and onsas." 

This animal is donbUess identicar with the Bodcy Mountain riieepi (Omt 

The leathered tribe does not seem to be very plentiful in California, since, 
according to Father Baegert, a i^erson may travel one or two days without see- 
ing other birds but occasionally u filthy vulture, raven, or '*bat." Among the few 
which he ob.-?ervcd are the red-bird, (rardmal) blue-bird, humming-bird, and 
an "ash-colored bird with a tail resembling that of a peacock and a beautiful 
tuii on its headi" also wild ducks and a species of swallow, the latter appear- 
ing only now and then in small numbers, and therefore considered as extraneous. 

There are some small fish found in the waters of California; but they do not 
amount to much, and during lent th': father obtained his supply from the 
Pacihc, distant 12 leagues from his habitation. On the other days of abstinence 
his meal usually consisted of a "little goat-milk and dry beans, and if a few 
eggs were added, he cared for nothing ^se, but considered himself well enter- 

Under the comprehenBive, but not very scientific head of " vermin," the author 
enumerates snakes, scorpions, centipedes, huge spiders, toads, wasps, bats, ants, 
and grasshoppers. These vermin seem to have lieen a great annoyance to the 
good missionary, especially the snakes, of which there are abont twenty diflfer- 
ent kinds in California, the rattlesnake being, of course, the most cou.spicuous 
among them. This dangerous re})tile, which seems to be very numeruuri in that 
region, is minutely and correctly described, and, as might be expected, there 
are alao some ** snake stories" related. One day when the author was about 
to shave and took his razors from the upper board of his book-shelf, he discov* 
ered there, to his horror, a rattlesnake of large size. He received likewise in 
his new, which was a stone building, frequent visits from scor- 
pions, large centipedes, tarantulas, ants and toads, all precautions being imavail- 
ing agamst Uie intrusion of these uninvited guests. The grasshoppers are rep- 
resented as a real public calamity. Migrating from the southern part of the 
peninsula towards the north, they deluge the country, obscuring the sun by 
their numbers, and causing a noise that resembles a strong wind. >iever devi- 
ating from their line of march, they will climb honses and churches encountered 
during theur progress, laying waste all fields and gardens over which their per- 
nicious train passes. 

Of the climate in California the author speaks well, and considers it as both 
healthy and agreeable. Being only one degree and a half distant from the 
T^pic of Cancer, he lived, of course, in a hot region, and he remarks with ref- 
erence to the high temperature that some thought the name " Califomia" was 
a contraction from the Latin words calida fomax, (hot oven,) without vouching, 
however, for the correctness of the derivation, though he is certain that the ap- 
pellation is not of Indian origin. The greatest heat begins in the month of 
July and lasts till the middle of October ; but there is every day in the year 
quite u refreshing wind blowine, which begins at noon, if not sooner, and con- 
tinues till night. The principal winds are north west and south west ; the nortli 



wind blows only now and then during the winter months, but the east wind 

hardly ever, the 1 itter ciicum-<tance being somewhat surpri.^ing to the author, 
who obrft rvcd that the clouds are almost invariably moviDj; from the east. He 
never found the cold severer than during the latter part of September or April 
on the banks of the Bhine. where, after his return, the persevering coldness of 
winter and clouded atnio.-|)Iicrc during that period made him long for the mild 
temperature and always blue and nerone sky of the country he had left. Fogs 
in the morning are frequent in California, and uccur not only during fall and 
winter, but also sometimes in the hot season. Dew is said to be not more fre- 
quent nor heavier than in middle Europe. 

Though the author rcprc^ciitr* California as a dry, sterile country, where but 
little rain falls, he admity^ that in those isolated parts where the proximity of 
water imparts humidity, the soil exhibits an astonishing fertility. There," he 
gay^", one may plant what he chooses, and it will thrive; there the earth yields 
fruit a hundred-fold, as in the best countries of Europe, producing wheat and 
maize, rice, ]»umi)kiiis, water and otht r melons of twenty pounds' weiglit, cot- 
ton, lemons, oranges, plantains, pomegranates, excellent sweet grapes, olives 
and figs, of which the latter can be gathered twice in a summer. The same 
field yields a double or threefold harvest of maize, tlmt grows to prodigious 
height, and bears sometimes twelve cars on one stalk. 1 have seen vines in 
California that produced in the second year a medium sized basket l\ill of 
grapes; iu the thir^l or fourth year some are as thick as an arm, and shoot forth, 
in one season, eight and more branches of six feet length. It is only to be re- 
gretted that such humid places are of very rare occurrence, and that water for 
irrigating a certain piece of laud sometimes cannot be found within a distance 
of sixty leagues." 

In the last chapter of the first part the author gives an account of the pearl 
fisheries and silver mines carried on in Lower California while he was there. 
Both kinds of enterprise are represented as insignificant and by no means very 
profitable. " Every summer," he says, "eight, ten or twelve poor Spaniards 
from Sonora, Cinaloa or other parts opposite the peninsula, cross the Gulf in 
little boats, and encamp on the California shore ror the purpose of obtaining 
pearls. They carry with them a supply of Indian corn and some hundred 
weight of dried beef, and arc accompanied by a number of Mexican Indians, 
who serve as pearl tisliers, fur the Californian.-* tliemselves have hitherto shown 
no inclination to risk their lives for a few yards of cloth. The pearl fishers 
are let down into the sea by ropes, being provided with a bug for receiving the 
pearl oysters which the}* rake from the rocks and the bottom, and when they 
can no longer hold their breath, they are pulled up again Avith their treasure. 
The oysters, Aviihout being ope«ed, are counted, and every fifih one is put aside 
for the king. Most of them are empty ; some contain black, others white pearls, 
the latter being usually small and ill-shaped. If a Spaniard, after six or 
eight weeks of hard labor, and after deducting all expenses, lias gained a hun- 
dred American pesos (that is 500 French livres, or a little more than 200 lihcn- 
ish florins — a very small sum iu America!) he thinks he has made a little for- 
tune which he cannot realize every season. God knows whether the fifth part 
of the pearls fished in the Califomian sea yields, on an average, to the Catho- 
lic king I.'IO or 200 pesos in a year, even if no frauds are committed in the 
transaction. 1 heaid of only two individuals, with whom I was also personally 
acquainted, who had accumulated some wealth, after spending twenty and more 
years in that line of business. The others remuned poor wretches, with all 
their pearl fishing." 

There were but two silver mines of any note in operation at the time of 
Bocgert's sojourn in California, and those had been opened only a few years 
previous to his arrivah They were situated in the districts of St. Anna and 
St. Antonio, near the southern end of the penmsula, and only three leagues 

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distant from each other. Digging tor Btlver in California in not represented ae 
a lucrative boBineBs, the owner of one of the mines being so poor that he had 
lo be^ for his travelling money when he was about to retain to Spain. The 
proprietor of the other mine was in better circnmstmces, but lie owed his wealth 
more to other speculations than to his subterranean pursuits. The mining 
population in the two districts amounted to 400 souls, women and children in- 
dncled. and the workmen were either Spaniards bom in America, or Indians 
from the other side of the Galifornian gulf. The external condition of these 
people id lepresented as wretched in the highest degree. The soil produced 
almost nothing, and not having the necesfary money to procure provisions from 
the Mexican side, they were sometimes compelled to gather their food in the 
fields, liico the native Galifornians. The author epeaks of a locality between 
the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth degree, called Rosario, where some sup- 
posed gold to exist ; but even admitting the fact, he thinks it would be almost 
impossible to work mines in that region, where neither food for men and beasts, 
nor water and wood, can be proenred. Near the mission of St. Ignatins (28di 
degree) sulphur is found, and on the islands of El Carmen and St. Jos^lll in 
the Galifoniian gulf, and in diffiarent places on both coasts, salt of very good 
quality is abundant- 
Having thus given an abstract of the first part of the book, I cauuut con- 
dnde these introductory remarluB without saying a fern words in &vor <tf the 
Jesuits. Whatever we may think, as Protestants, of the tendencies of that 
order, we cannot but admit that those of itt» members who came as missionaries 
to America deserve great credit for their zeal in propagating a knowledge of 
the countries and nations they visited in the New World. To the student of 
American ethnology particularly, the numerous writings of the Jesuit fiithers 
are of inestimable value, forniiog, as it were, the very foundations upon which 
almost all subsequent researches in that interesting field of inquiry are bai»ed, 
** The missionaries and discoverers whom the order of the Jesuits sent forth 
were for the most part not only possessed of the courage of martyrs, and of 
statesmanlike qualities, hut likewise of great knowledge and learning. They 
were enthusiastic travellers, naturalists, and geographers ; they were the best 
mathematicians and astronomers of their time. They have been the first to 
give us faithful and circumstantial accounts of the new countries and nations 
tbev visited. There are few districts in the interior of America concerning 
wlueh the Jesuits have not supplied us with the oldest and best works, and we 
can scarcely attempt tlie study of any American language without meeting with 
a grammar composed by a Jesuit. In addition to their chapels and colleges in 
the wOdeniess, the Jesuits likewise erected observatories } and there are few 
riveis, lakes, and mountains in the interior, whiieh they have not been the first 
to draw upon our maps." 

With this well-deserved eulo^jy, which is quoted from Mr. J. G. Kohl's re- 
cent work ou the discovery of America, I leave to Father Baegert himself the 
task of relating his experiences among the naliveB of Lower Oalifoniia. 




lu physical appearance the Califumians resemble perfectly the Mexicans and 

other aboriginal inhabitants of America. Their skin is of a dark chestnut or 
clove color, passing, however, sometitnes into different shade.-^, some individuals 
being of a more swarthy complexion, while others are tan or copper colored. 

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But in new-born chiUlrf^n tlin color is much paler, so that they hardly can he 
distinguished from white children when presented for baptism ; yet it appears 
soon after birth, and assumes its dark tinge in a short time. The hair is black 
as pitcb and straight, and seldom turas gray, except sometiines in eases ef 
Mttreino old age. They are all beardless, and their eye-brows are but seantHy 
provided with hair. The heads of children at their birth, instead of being cov- 
ered with scales, exhibit hair, sometimes half a fiu^er long. The teeth, though 
never eleaned, are of the wMtoness of ivory. The angles of the eyes towaras 
the nose arc not pointed, bat arched like a bow. They are well-formed «nd 
well-proportioned })eople, very supple, and can lift up from the ground stones, 
bones, and similar thinurs with the h\g and second toes. All walk, with a few 
exceptions, even to the most advanced age, p rt'ccLly straight. Their children 
stand and walk, before they are a year old, briskly on theur feet Some are tall 
and of a commanding ^^pesisneei others small of stature, as elsewhere, but no 
corpulent iiuiividuals are seen among them, which may bo accounted for by their 
manner of living, for, being compelled to run much around, they have no chance 
of growing stont. 

In a country as poor and sterile as California the number of inhabitants can- 
not bo great, and nearly all would certainly die o^' hunger in a few days if it 
were as densely populated as most parts of Europe. There are, consequently, 
venr few Cdlitbruians, aud, in proportion to the extent of the country, almost 
as few as it there were none at all ; yet, neverthetess, they deorsase annually* 
A person may travel in different parts four and more days without seeing a 
single human being, and I do not believe that the number of Californians from 
the promontory of St. Lucas to the llio Colorado ever amounted, before the 
arrival of the Spaniards, to more than forty or fifty thousand souls.* It is 
certain that in 1767, in fifteen, that is, in all the missions, from the 22d to the 
3l8t degree, only twelve thousand have been counted. But an insignificant 
population and its annual diminution are not peculiar to California alone; both 
are common to all America. During my journey overland aloug the east ^ide 
d the Oaliibmian gulf, from Gnadalazam to the river Hiaqui, in the Mexiean 
territoty* a distance of fenr hundred leagues,! I saw only thirteen small Indian 
villages, and on most days I did not meet a living soul. Father Charlevoix, 
before setting out on a journey through Canada or New France, writes in bis 
first letter, addressed to the Duchess of Lesdigui^res, that he would have to 
travel sometimes a hundred and more leagues, without seeing any human beinga 
besides his companions.^ 

With the exception of Mexico and some other countries, North America was. 
even at the time of the discovery, almost a wilderness when compared with 
Gkrmany and Ftance; and this is still more the ease at the present time. 
Whoever has read the history of New France, by the above-named author, or 
has travelled six or soven hundred leagues through Mexico, and, besides, ob- 
tained reliable information concerning the population of other provinces, can 
easily form an estimate of the number of native inhabitants in North America f 
and if the southern half of the New World does not contain a hundred timea 
more inhabitants than the northern part, which, relying on the authority of men 
who have lived there many years and have travelled much in that country, I 
am far from believing, those European geographers who speak iu their books of 
300 millions of Americans are certainly nUstaken. Who knows whether they 

* Washington Irving states they had numbered from 25,000 to :iO,OUO souls when the firat 
misaioDs were established ; on what aothorily I do not know.— ^^Matarat 4gf Cflflata Am* 
mnlU, (ed. of lb51,) p. m 

t Stmndtm. — traaslata this word by '* leefl^e," through the French Imw is a little longir 

than tho Gorman stunde. 
t Histoire de la Nonvelle France, par le P. de Charlevoix. Paris, 1744, vol. v, p. 08» 

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would find in all more than fifteen or twenty rnilliona? Tlio many hundred 
languages which are spoken in South America alone itre .a euro evidence of a 
scanty population, although the oontnury might be inferred aft firsft flight; for iif 
iLere were more people, there would be more commanity among them, the tribes 
would live cl()3(T together, and. as a repult, there would be fewer languages. 
The Ikas iu my district speak a language diil'erent from that of the other people 
in my misaion ; but I am pretty Bore vast the whole nation of these 1km never 
amounted to five hundred persons. 

It ia easy to comprehend why America in so thinly populated, the manner of 
living of the inhabitants and their continual wars amonp: themselves being the 
causes of this delicieucy j but how it comes that, since the discovery of the Iburth 
part of the world. Its popoktion is constantly melting down, even in those prov- 
inces where the inhabitantfl are not subjected to the Europeans, but retain their 
full, unrestrained liberty, as, for instance, according to Father Charlevoix, in 
Louisiana, (that is, in the countries situated on both sides of the Mississippi,) is 
a question, the aolntion of whiob I leave to others, contenting myself with what 
ia written in the Psalms, namely, that the increase or diminntion of tho human, 
race iu different countries is a mystery ^yhicll man cannot penetrate. 

However small the number of Caiiforniaiis i^;, they are, nevertheless, divided 
into a great many nations, tribes, aud tongues.* If a mi^^siou contains only one 
thonsand sonls, it may easily embrace as many little nations among its parish- 
ioners as Switzerland counts cantons and allies. My mission consirted of 
Paunis, AtjilK^mcs, Mitshirikutamdis, Mitshirikuteuruj*, Mitnliirikutaruanajere?", 
Teackwas, Teeuguabebes, Utshis, Ikas, Anjukdwres, Utshipujes ; all being 
difi'erent tribes, but hardly amounting in all to five hundred souls. 

It might be asked, in this place, why there existed fifteen miBsions on the 
peninsula, since it appears that 12,000, and even more, Indians could be con- 
veniently superintended and taken care of by three or fotir priests. The answer 
is, that this might bo feasible in Grermany as well as in a hundred places out of 
£urope, l«nt is utterly impraetioable in Oalifomia ; for, if 3 or 4,000 Oaltfor- 
nians were to live together in a small district, the scanty means of subsisitence 
afforded by that eterilc country would soon prove insufficient to maintain them. 
Besides, all of these petty nations or tribes liave their own countries, of which 
they are as much, aud sometimes even more, enamored than other people of theirs, 
flo that they would not oonsent to be transplanted fif^ or more leagues from 
the place they oon^der as their home. And, farther, the different tribes who 
live at some distance from each other are always in a mutual state of enmity, 
which would prevent them from living peaceably together, and offer a serious 
obbtaelc to their being enclosed in the same fold. In time of general contagious 
diseases, lastly, which ai-e of no unfrequent occurrence, a single priest conld not 
perform his duties to their full extent in visiting all his u idely scattered patients, 
and admini-itering to their spiritual and temporal ^vant3. My parish counted 
far less than a thousand members, yet their encampments were often more than 
thirty leagues distant from each other. Of the languages and dialects in thia 
conntry there are also not a few, and a missionary is glad if he has mastered 
one of them. 

It remains now to state my opinion concerning the place where tho C.ilifor- 
nians came from, and in what manner they effected their migration to the country 
they now oceopy. They may have otime from diifi*Tent localities, and either 
▼olontarily or by some acddent, or compelled by necessity ; but that people 

• The anthor probably fell into (he voiy common error of confoundit:^ dialects with laa- 
gUB^s. Dr. Waltz, relying on Buschmann's Unguistic researches, mentions onW three prie- 
eipal languages spoken by tho natives of Lower California, vis., the Perico, Hoiiqni, and 
Cochimi languAgoe.— ilitflnqM<«|f** IfatmnSlkgrton Or, TMor HWlx. Leipsig, 1864; 
vol. iv, p. 24ti. 

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slioald Lave migrated to California of tlicir own free will, and witlu/ut compul- 
sion, I am anable to believe. America ia very loige, and could easily support 
fifty times its number of inhalntaiits on much better soil than that of Galifoniia, 
How. then, is it credible that men shonld have, pitched, from free choice, thdr 
tents amidst the iuhot»pitablc dreariness of these barren rocks? It is not impos- 
sible that the first inhabitants may have found by accident their way across the 
aea from the other side of the Oalifomian gulf, where the provinces of Ginaloa 
and Sonora are Bituatcd ; Imt, to my knowledge, navigation never has been 
practiced by tlie Indians of that coast, nor is it in nsc amoiii:;: them at the 
present time. There is, furthermore, within many leagues lowanls the interior 
of the country no kind of wood to be had suitablo for the construction of even 
the smallest vessel. From the Piroeria, the northernmost eonniry opposite the 
peninsula, a transition might have been easier cither by land» after crossing the 
Rio Colorado, or by water, the sea being in this place very narrow and full of 
islands. In default of boats they could employ their balsas or little rafts made 
of reeds, which are also nsed by my Galifomians who live near the sea, either 
for Ciitching fish or turtle, or crossing over to a certain island dit^tant two leagues 
from the shore. I am, however, of opinion that, if the?e Pimerians ever had 
gone to California induced by curiosity, or had been driven to that coast by a 
storm, the dreary aspect of the country soon would have caused them to returu 
without delav to their own country. It was doubtless necessity that gave the 
impulse to ue peopling of the peninsula. Nearly all neijs^hhoring tribes of 
America, over whom tlie Europeans liave no sway, are almost without cessation 
at war with each other, as h>ng as one party is capable of it^sistauce ; but when 
the weaker is too much exhausted to carry on the faud, the vanquished usually 
leaves the country and settles in some other part at a sufficient distance from 
its foes. I am, therefore, inclined to believe that th<^ lirst inhabitants, while 
pursued by their enemies, entered the peninsula by land from tlie north side, 
aud having found there a t^afe retreat they remained and spread themselves out. 
If they had any traditions, some light might be thrown on this subject ; but no 
Oalifomian is acquunted with the events that ooourred in the country pdor to 
his birth, nor does he even know who his parents were if lie should happen lo 
have lost them daring his infancy. 

To all appearance the Galifomians, at least those toward the south, believed, 
before the arrival of tlu- S](aiiiards in their country, that Califorin'a constituted 
the whole world, and they themselves its snle inhabitants; for they went to 
nobody, and nobody came to see them, each little j)eople remaining within the 
limits of its small district. Some of those under my care believed to be de- 
lived from a bird ; some traced their origin from a rock that was lying not fur from 
my house ; while others uscribeA their descent to sdll difierent, but always 
equally foolish and absurd sources. 


With the exception of the churches and dwellings of the missionaries, which 
every one, as wdl as he could, and as time and circumstances permitted, built 

of stone and lime, of stone and mud, of huge unburnt hiicks, or other materials, 
and besides some barracks which the Indians attached to the missions, the few 
soldiers, boatmen, cowherds, aud miners have now erected in the fourteen sta- 
tions, nothing is to be seen in OaKfomia that bears a resemblance to a city, a 
village, a human dwelling, a hut, or even a dog-house. The Galifomians them- 
selves spend their whole life, day and night, in the open air, the sky above thera 
forming their roof, and the hard soil the couch ou which they sleep. During 
winter, only, when the wind blows sharp, they construct around them, but only 
opposite the direction of the mnd, a half moon of bnuh-wood, a fbw spans high. 

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as a protection against the inclemency of tlie weather,* ehowinff tbus that, not- 
withstanding their simplicity, they underBtand pretty well "how to turn the 
mantle towards the wiud."t It cannot bo oiherwiiM) with them ; for, if they 
bad houses, thej would be compeUed to carry their dwellhigB always win 
them, like snails or turtles, the necessity of collecting food urging them to wan- 
der constantly about. Thus they cHnnot »\Hn every inornin^ from the same 
place aud return thither in the evening, since, notwitlibLaudiug the small uum* 
ber of each little people, a small tract of land conld not provide them with 
provisions dnringa whole year. To-day the water will fail them; to-moirow 
they have to go to ^lome locality for gathering a certain kiiul oi t^eed tliat S'Tves 
them as food, and fo thoy fulfil to the letter what is writlcu of all of us, namely, 
that we Bhall have uu iixL-d abode in this world. 1 urn certainly not much mis- 
taken in saying that many of them change thmr night-quarters more than a 
hnndred times in a year, and hardly sleep three times succeesively in the same 
place atid the same part of the country, always excepting those who are con- 
nected with the missions. Wherever the uight surprises them they will lie 
down to sleep, not minding in the least the nndeanliness of the ground, or ap- 
fnehendmg any inconvenience from reptiles and other vermin, of which there 
is an abundance in this country. They do not live under the shade of trw^s, 
some authors have said, because there are hardly any trees in California that 
afford shade, nor do they dwell in earth-boles of their own making, as others 
have said, but sometimes, and only when it rains, they resort to the ekfts and 
oavities of rocks, if they can find such sheltering places, whidi do not occur 
as frequently as their wants require. 

Whenever they undertake to construct shelters for protecting their ^ick from 
heat or cold, the entrance is usually so low that a person has to vreep on bands 
and feet in order to get in, and the whole structure is of such small dimensions 
as to render it impossible to stand erect within, or to find room to sit down ou 
the ground for the purj)08e of coufesriingor comfortin*^ the patient. Of no better 
condition are the huts of those Indians who live near the missions, the same 
being often so small and miserable that man and wife hardly can sit or lie down 
in them. Even the old and infirm are utterly indifferent as to their being under 
shelter or not, and it happened often that I found old sick persona lying in the 
open air, for whose accommodation X had caused huts to be built ou the pre- 
ceding day. 60 much for habit. 

As the bine sky forms the only habitation of the Califomian Indians, so tliey 
wear uo other covering than the brown skin with which nature has clothed them. 
This applies to the male sex in tin; full senile of the word, and even women have 
been found in the northern parts of California in a perfect state of nudity, while 
among most nations the females always covered themselves to a small extent. 
Theiy did, and still continue to do, as follows: They understand how to pre- 
pare from the fibres of the aloC plant a white thread, whicli serves them for 
making cords f On these they string hundreds of small sections of water-reed, 
like beads of a rosary 3 and a good number of these strings, attached by iheir 
ends to a girdle, and placed very close and thiek tosether, fbrm two aprons, 
one of which hangs down below tlw abdomen, while the other covers the hind 
part. These aprons are abont a span wide, and of dlffisrent length. Among 

• Captain Bonnefille g'wi^s a clirfrlcss account of a villa;^p of the Hoot Dij^pcrs, wfiich be 
Baw in crowing the plain below l^owdor river. " Tliey live," tmyn lie, " wiiLuut any further 
protection from the inclemeoi^ of the season than a sort of break-weather, about three feet 
Jugh, flomposed of sage, (or wormwood,) aud erected around them in the shape of a half 
moon.**'— lra$hittgtOH Irving: Adventures of Captain Bonniville, p. 259. 

t German proverb. 

I It may not be out of place to mentiou here that iu Mexico the driud fibres of the aloe or 
angney plant (A^ave Amerieama) ars a nnivenal rabstitnte for bomp la the Bianoftctara of 
coidage and paekiog^loth. 

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Bome nations tliey reacli down to tlic knees ; among others to the calves, and 
even to the feet Both sides of the thighs, as well as the rest of the body, re- 
main perfectly naked. la order to save labor, some women wear, instead of the 
back-aprons, a piece of aotanned deer-skin, or any woollen or linen rag which 
tbej ean now-a-days obtun. Of the same untaaned skin they mBke, if they 
can get it, their shoes or sandals, simply flat pieces, which they attach to the 
feet by coari^c strin^B of the above-mentioned alotf, passing between the big wnd 
small toes and n round the ankles. 

Both sexes, the grown as well as the ohildren, wear the head always uncoy- 
eredy however inclement the weather may be, even those in a certain mission 
who understand how to manufacture pretty good hntsfrom palm-lcnvpf>, which, 
on account of their lightness, were frequently worn by the missionaries while 
on their travels. The men allow the hair to grow down to the shoulders. Wo- 
men, on the contrary, wear it moch shorter. Formerly they pierced the earn of 
new-born children of the male sex with a pointed stick, and by putting bones and 
pieces of wood into the aperture they enlarged it to such a degree that, in some 
grown persons, the flaps hung down nearly to the shoulders. At present, how- 
ever, they have abandoned this nnnatnral naige. It has been asserted that 
they also pieree the nose. I can only say that I saw no one disfigured in that 
particular manner, but many middle-aged person? with their ear-* ])erforated as 
described above. Under certain circumstances, and on their gala days, they 
paint different parts of their body with red and yellow color, which they obtain 
by burning certain minerals. 

The baptized Indians, of course, observed more decency in regard to dress. 
The missionaries gave each male individual, once or twice in a year, a piece of 
blue cloth, six spans long and two spans wide, lor covering the lower part of 
the body, and, if their means allowed it, a short woollen coat of bine tsolor. The 
women and girls were provided with thick white veils, made of wool, that cov- 
ered the head a'nd the whole bo ly down to the feet. In pomo raifsion^' tlio 
women received also petticoat.^ and jaekets of blue flannel or woven eottou 
shirti*, and the men trowsers of coarse cloth and long coats. But the women 
throw aside their veils, and the men their coats, as soon as they leave ehnrchi 
because those coverings make them feel uneasy, especially in summer* and im- 
pede the free use of their limb?, which their mode of living conptantly requires. 
I will mention here that all thei>o goods had to be brought from the city of 
Mexico, since nothing of the kind can be mannfkctnred in California for want 
of the necessary materials. The number of sheep that can bo kept there is 
small, and, moreover, tlwy lose half their wool by pa^sittir tlirough the thorny 
»fhrnbj», of whieh there is ;ni astonishing ahnmlance in tliis ill-favored country. 

It is not to bo expected that a people in as low state of development an the 
Oalifomians should make use of many implements and ntensiU. Their whole 
furniture, if that expression ean he applied at all, consists of a bow and arrows, 
a flint instead of a knife, a bone or pointed piece of wood for digtrinq" roots, a 
turtle-Bhell serving as basket and cradle, a large gut or bladder ior fetching 
water and transporting it during their excnrsions, and a hag made like a fishing 
net from the fibres of the alotf, or the skiti of a wild cat, in which they preserve 
and carry tlif ir ])rovisions, sandals, and perhaps other insignificant things whidi 
they may liapjK'n to jiossess. 

The bows of the Calif'orniaus are more than six feet long, slightly curved, 
and made from the roots of wild willows. Tin y are of the thickness of the 
five fingers in the mid' lie, ronnd, and become gradually tlunner and pointed 
towards the ends. The bow-strings are made of tin* intestines of beasts. The 
shaltd of their arrows consist of common reeds, which they straighten by the 
fire. They are above six spans long, and have, at the lower end, a notch to 
catch the string, and three or four feathers, about a finger long, not much pro- 
jecting, and let into slits made for that purpose. At the upper end of the shaft 

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a pointed piece of heavy wood, a span and a half long, id inserted, beaiing 
usually at itd extremity a tlint of a triangular shape, almost resembling a serpent's 
toiigiie» and indttited like the edge of * saw.* The OaUfimiiaiw eany th^ 
bows and arrows always with them, and as they commeuce at an eariy age to 
Qbe these weapons many of them become very skilful archers. 

In lieu of knives and ecissors ther use sharp flints for cutting almost every- 
thing— cane, wood, aIo6, and even their hair— and finr disembowelling and sldn- 
ttiog auimals. With die same flinte they bleed or scarify themselves, and 
make inci.-;ions for extracting thoms and aplinterB wliich thej have aeeidentally 
run iutu tiLL'ir limbs. 

The whole art pf the men consists in the manufacture of bows and arrows, 
while the mechanical skill of the females is merely confined to the making of 
the above-mentioned aprons. Of a division of labor not a trace is to be found 
among them ; even the cooking is done by all without distinction of sex or age, 
«very one providing Ibr himseli', and the children commeuce to practice that 
necessary art as soon as they are able to stir a fire. The time of these people 
is chiefly taken up by the search for food and its preparation ; and if their physical 
wants are guppli^d they abandon themselves entirely to lounging, chattering, and 
sleep. This applies particularly to the roaming portion of the Californian In- 
dians, for tho^e who dwell near the missions now et^tablished in the country are 
sometimes pnt to snch labor as the occasion may require. 


Notwith.'^tanding the harrennctsrf of the country, a Californian hardly ever dies 
of hung! r, except, perhaps, now and then an individual that falls sick in the wil- 
derness and at a great distance from the mission, for those who are in good health 
trouble themselves very little about such patients, even if these should happen 
to be their hnsbands, wives, or otimr relations; and a little child that has losi 
its mother or both parents is also occasionally in danger of starving to death, 
because in some instances no one will take charge of it, the father being some- 
times inhuman enough to abandon his offspring to its firte. 

The food of the Californians, as will be seen, is certainly of a mean quality, 
yet it keeps them in a healthy condition, and tliey become strong and grow old 
in spite of tlieir poor diet. The only period of the yearduiing wkich the Cali- 
fornians can satisfy their appetite without restraint is the season of the pitaha- 
yas, which ripen in the middle of June and abound for more than eight weeks. 
The gathering of this fruit may be considered as the harvest of the native in- 
habitants. They can eat as much of it as they please, and with some this food 
agrees so well that they become corpulent during that period; and for this rea- 
son I was sometimes unable to recognize at first sight individuals, otherwise 
perfectly familiar to me, who visited me after having fed for three or four weeks 
on these pitahayas. They do not, however, preserve them, and when the sea- 
son is over they are put again on short rations. Among the roots eaten by 
the Californians may be mcntioued the yuka, which constitutes an important 
article of food in many parts of America* as, for instance, in the Island of Cuba* 
but is not very abundant in California. In some provinces it is made into a 
kind of bread or cake, while the Californians, who would find this process too 
tedious, simply roast the yukas in a fire like potatoes, Ajiother root eaten by 
the uativcs is that of the aloe plant, of which there arc many kinds in this 
eonntry. Those species of this vegetable, however, which afford nourishment 
— ^ not all of them are edible— do not grow as plentifully as the Califomi- 
ans might wislit and very seldom in the neighborhood of water; the prepara- 

* In the collertion of Dr. E. H. Davis, of New York, there are a number of arrows ob- 
tained from the IndiHii.s of the island of Tiburon, in tlM Colifomiiin gttlf. IIn^J SIMWtr, in 
«very reepect, the description given in tlie text. 

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tions, moreover, which arc necessary to render this plant eatable, require much 
time and labor, as will be mentioned hereai'ter. I saw the natives also frequently 
eat the roots of the common reed, jnst as they were taken ont of the water* 
Certain seeds, some of them not larger than those of the mustard. anddlffiBfent 
sorts in pods that grow on shrubs and little trees, and of which there are, ac- 
cording to Father Piccolo, more than sixteen kinds, are likewise diligently 
sought ; yet they furnish only a small quantity of grain, and all ttuit a person 
can collect with much toil daring a whole year may scaredy amonnt to twelve 

It can be said that the Californians cat, without exception, all animals they 
can obtain. Besides the difi'erent kinds of larger indigenous quadrupeds and 
birds already mentioned,! they live now-a<days on dogs and cats ; horsest asses 
and mules ; item, on owls, mice and rats ; lizards and snakes ; bats, grasshop- 
pers and crickets ; a kind of green caterpillar without hair, about a finger long» 
and an abominable white worm of the length and thickness of the thumb, which 
they find occasionally in old rotten wood, and consider as a particnlar delicacy. 
The chase of game, such as deer and rabbits, fiimishes only a small portion of 
a Calit'oruian's provisions. Supposing that for a hundred families three hun> 
drcd deer are killed in the course of a year, which is a very favorable estimate, 
they would supply each family only with three meals iu three hundred and 
•ix^.five days, and dms relievi bnt in a very small degree the hunger and the 
poverty of these people. The hunting for snakes, lizards, mice and field-rats» 
which they practice with crreat diligence, is by far more profital)le and supplies 
them with a much greater quantity of articles for consumption. Snakes, espe- 
cially, are a favorite sort of small game, and thouhauds of them find annually 
their way into the stomachs of the Californians. 

In catching fish, particularly in the Pacifici which is much richer in that re- 
spect than the gulf of Califoiiiia, the natives nse neither nets| nor hooks, but 
a kind of lance, — that is, a long, slender, poiuted piece of hard wood, which they 
handle very dext^nsly in spearing and killing their prey. 8ea>turile8 are 
caught in the same manner. 

I have now mentioned the different articles forininir the ordinary food of the 
Californians ; but, besides these, tliey reject nothing that their teeth can chew 
or their stomachs are capable of digesting, however tasteless or unclean and 
disgusting it may be. Thus they will eat the leaves of the Indian fig->tree, the ' 
temlw shoots of certain shrubs, tanned or untanned leather ; old straps of raw 
h do with which a fence was tied together for years ; item, the bones of poultry, 
sheep, goats and calves; putrid meat or lish swarming with worms, damaged 
wheat or Indian corn, and many other things of that sort which may serve to 
appease the hunger they are almost constantly suffering. Anything that is 
thrown to the hogs will be also accepted by a Califomian, and he takes it 
without feeling offended, or thinking for a moment that he is treated below his 
dignity. For this reason no one took the trouble to clean the wheat or maize, 
which was cooked for them in a large kett]e,-of the black worms and little buga^ 
even if the numbers of these vermin had been equal to that of the g^ns. By 
a daily distribution of about 150 bushels of bran, (which they are in the habit 
of eating without any preparation,) I could have induced all my parishioneaa 

* One malter, in German, which is about eqidvalent to twelve buaheb. 

tin (he iiitrodm-tion. 

t Veriogas iiieutioiis fishiiig-nets made of the pita plimt, (Noticia do la California, vol. i, p. 
52.) According to IJaegei t, (Appendix i, p. no such plant exists in California, and the 
word "pita" only signifies the tbrea<] tw istod from the aloe. In refuting Venegas, Father 
Baegert inrdly ever refinre to the original Spanish work, nor mentions the name of its author, 
but attacks tbe French translation, which ^va'^ published in Paris ia the year ITCw. Ho 
probably acted so from motives of doUcacy, Vcuegas himself being a priest and brother 
desalt Tbe eflbct of tbis proceadii^, as can be Ima^oed, !s ccmiical la a nigh d^iee. 

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to remaiu permaueutly iu the mission, excepting during the time when the pita- 
hajas are gathered. 

I saw one day a blind man, seventy years of age, who was busily ensaged in 

pounding between two stones an old shoe made of raw deer-skin, and when- 
ever he had detached a j)iece, he transf(;rred it promptly to his mouth and swal- 
lowed it ; and yet this man had a daughter and growu grand-children. As 
■soon as any of the cattle are killed and the hide is spread out on the groond 
to dry, half a dozen boys or men will instantly ru»h upou it and commence to 
work with knives, flints and their teeth, te^iring and .scratching; off pieces, which 
they eat immediately, till the hirle i.-* lull of holes or .-scattered in all directions. 
In the missiou of St. Ignatius and iu others further towards the north, there 
are persons who w&l attach a piece of meat to a string and swallow it and piiU 
it out agaiu a dozen times in succession, for the sake of protracting the enjoy- 
ment of its taste. 

I must here ask permission of the kind reader to meution something of an 
exoeedingly disgusting and almost inhuman nature, the like of which probably 
never has been recorded of any people in the world, but which demonstrates 

better than anything else the whole extent of the poverty, uncleanness and 
voracity of these wretched beings. In describing the pitahayas,* I have al- 
ready stated that they coutaiu a great mauy small seeds resembling grains of 
powder. For some reason nnknown to me these seeds are not consumed in the 
Btomach. but pass off in an undigested .state, and in order to save them the 
natives collect, during the season of the pitahayas, that which is discharged 
from the human body, sepai'ate the seeds Irom it, and roast, grind and eat them, 
making merry over their loathsome meals, which the Spaniards therefore call 
the second harvest of the Califoi nians.t When I first heard that such a filthy 
habit existed among them, I was disinclined to believe the report, but to my 
utter regret I became afterwards repeatedly a witness to the proceeding, which 
they are unwilling to abandon like many other bad practices. Yet I must say 
in their favor that they have always abstained from human flesh, contrary to 
the horrible usage of so many other American nations who can obtain thdir 
daily food much easier than these poor Californians. 

They have no other drink but the water, and Heaven bo praised that they 
are unacquainted with such strong beverages as are distilled iu mauy Ameri- 
can provinces from Indian corn, the alod and other plants, and which the 
Americans in those parts merely drink for the purpose of intoxicating them- 
selves. AVhen a Californian encounters, during his wanderings, a pond or pool, 
and feels a desire to quench his thirst, he lies Hat ou the ground and applies 
his mouth directly to the water. Sometimes the horns of cattle are nsea as 
drinking vessels. 

Having thus fir given an account of the different articles used as aliment by 
the aborigines of the peninsula, I will now proceed to describe iu what manner 
tbey prepaie their victuals. They do uot cook, boil, or roast liko people 
in civilised oonntries, because they are neither acquainted with these methodsr 
nor possessed of vessels and utensils to employ for such purposes; and, besideSt 
their patience would be taxed beyond endurance, if they had to wait till a 
piece of meat is well cooked or thoroughly roasted. Their whole process 
simply consists in burning, singeing, or roasting in an open fire all such victuals 
as are not eaten in a raw state. Without any. formalities the piece of meat, 
the fish, bird, snake, lield-mouse, bat. or whatever it may be, is thrown into 
the Hamcs, or on the glowiug embers, and left there to smoke and to sweat for 
about a quarter of an hour ; after which the article is withdrawn, iu most cases 

* Introduction. 

t Tikis statement is corroborated in all particolars bj Clavigero, in his Storta 4dla C«ilim 
fovmot (Venice, 1789,) vol. i, p. 117. 

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only bturncd or cliarred on the oateide, but still raw and bloody within. As 

4Soon as it has become puffioicntly cool, they ^hake it a little in order to remore 
the adhering dust or band, aud eat it with great reli»h. Yet I must add here» 
that they do not prevfonsly take the troaUe to ektn the mice or disemboiral 
the ratB» nor deem it necessary to clean the ha]f-< tn]>ti(Ml cntraila and maws of 
larger animals, which they have to cut in pieces before they can roast them. 
Seeds, kernels, grasshoppers, grten caterpillars, the white worms already men- 
tioned, and similar things that would be lust, on account of their smailness, in 
the embers and flames of an open lire* are |>arched on hot coals, which they 
'Constantly throw up and shake in a turtle-»be]l, or a kind of frying-pan iroven 
out of a certain plant. What they have parched or roasted in this manner is 
ground to powder between cwo stones, aud eatea iu u dry state. Bones are 
treated in like manner. 

They eat everythmg nnsalted, tbongh tbey might obtain plenty of salt ; bat 
aincc they cannot din(; every day on roost meat and constantly change their 
■quarters, they would iiud it too cumbersome to carry always a supply of salt 
with them. 

The preparation of the alofi, also called metcak or maguey by the Spaniards, 
requires more time and labor. The roots, after being properly separated from 
the plants, arc roasted for some hours in a strong fire, aud then buried, twelve 
or twenty toi^cther, iti the ground, and well covered with hot stones, hot ashes, 
and earth. In this state they have to remain i'or twelve or fourteen hours, and 
when dug out again they are of a fine yellow color, and perfectly tender, 
making a very palatable dish, which has served me frequently as food when I 
had nothing else to eat, or as dessert after dinner in lieu of fruit. But they 
act at first as a purgative on persons who are not accustomed to them, aud 
leave the throat somewhat rough for a few hours afterwards. 

To light a^re the OaJifomians make no use of steel and flint, but obtain it 
by the friction of two pieces of wood. One of ihem is cylindrical, and pointed 
on one end, which fits into n round cavity in. the other, and by turning the 
cyliudrical piece with great rapidity between their hands, like a twirling stick, 
they succeed in igniting the lower piece, if tbey continue the proeess for a 
sufficient length of time. 

Tlie Californians have no fixed time for any sort of laisiness, and eat, con- 
sequently, whenever they have anything, or feel inclincil to do so, which is 
nearly always the case. 1 never asked one of them whether he was liungry, 
who fiiiled to answer in the affirmative, even if his appearance indicated tbe 
contrary. A meal in the middle of the day is the least in use among themt 
because they all set out early in the morning for their foraging expeditions, 
and return only iu the evening to the place from which they started, if they 
do not choose some other locality for their night quarters. The day being 
thus spent in running about and searching for food, they have no time left for 
preparing a dinner at noon. 'I'hey start always empty-handed; for, if per- 
chance something remains from their evening repasts, they certainly e;it it 
during the nighl in waking moments, or on the following mornmg before 
leaving. The Californians can endure hunger easier and much longer than 
other people; whereas they will eat enormously if a chance is given. I oftm 
tried to buy a piece of venison from them when the skin hud but lately been 
stripped oft' the deer, but regularly received the answer that nothing was left; 
and I knew well enough that the hunter who killed the animal needed no 
assistance to finish it. Twenty-four pounds of meat in twen^-fonr boors is 
not deemed an extraordinary ration for a single person, and to sec anything 
eatable before him is a temptation for a Californian which he cannot resist; 
■and not to make away with it before night would be a victory he is Tcry 
seldom caqpable of gaining over bhnsdf. 

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One of tbem requested from hid missionary a number of goati» in Ofder to 
live, as he said, like a decent man ; that is, to keep house, to pasture the goats, 
And to support himself and his family with their milk and the flesh of the kids. 
Bat, alas ! in a few days the twelve goats with which the missionary had pre- 
sented him were all consumed. 

A priest who had lived more than thirty years in California, and whose 
veracity was beyond any doubt, a^^sured me repeatedly that he had known a 
Culitbruiau who one day ate seveuteeu watermelons at one sitting; and another 
native who, after having received from a soldier six pounds of nnclarified BOgar 
u3 pay for a certain debt, sat down and munched one piece after another till 
the hIx pounds had disappeared. He paid, however, di arly for his ghittony, 
for he died in consequence of it; while the melon-eater was only saved by 
taking a certain physic which counteracted the bad effects of his greediness. 
1 was called mysflf one evening in great haste to three or four persons, who 
pretended to be dying, and wanted to confess. These people belonged to a 
band of about sixty souls, (women and children included,) to whom I had given, 
early in the morning, three bullocks iu compensation lor some labor. When 
I arrived at the place where they lay encamped, I learned that their malady 
consisted merely in belly-ache and vomiting; an3, recognizing at once the 
<»tusc of their disorder, I reprimanded them severely for their voracity, and 
went home again. 


As soon as the young Oalifemian finds a partner, the marriage follows im- 
mediately afterwardii ; and the girls go sometimcB so far as to demand impetu- 
ously a husband from the missionary, even before they are twelve years old, 
which is their legitimate age iur marrying. In all the missions, however, only 
one excepted, the nnmber of men was considerably greater than that of the 

Matrimonial engagrnients an* concluded without much forethought or scruple, 
and little attention is paid to tin- morals or qualities of the parties; and, to con- 
fess the truth, there is hardly any difference among them iu these respects; 
and, as far as good sense, virtue, and riches are concerned, they are always 
aitre to mairy thdr equals, following thus the old maxim : Si Mr nubere, nubc 
pari. It happens very ol'tcti that near relati<m8 want to y>m in wedlock, and 
their engag( uients have, therefore, to be frustrated, such cases excepted iu 
which the intpcdimentum affinitaUt can be removed by a dispensation firom the 
projier authorities. 

Thev do not seem to marry exactly for the same reasons that induce civ- 
ilized peuj)le to i*nter into that state ; they simply want to have a partner, and 
the husband, besides, a servant whom he can command, although his authority in 
that respect is rather limited, for the women are somewhat independent, and 
not much inclined to obey their lords. Although they are now duly married 
according to the rite? of the Catholic church, nothing is done on their part to 
solemnize the act; none of the parents or other relations and friends are 
present, and no wedding feast is served up, unless the missionary, instead of 
receiving his marriage fees, or jura ttidaet presents them with a piece of meat, 
or a quantity of Indian corn. Whenever 1 joined a couple h\ matrimony, it 
took considerable time before the bridegroom succeedt d in putting the wedding 
ring on the right linger of his future wife. As soon as the ceremony is over, 
the new married couple start off in different duectionB in search of fooio, just as 
if they were not more to each other to-day than they were yesterday; and in 
the same manner they act in future, providing separately for their support, 
sometimes without living together for weeks, and without knowing anything 
of their partner's abiding place. 

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Before they were baptized eai.h luuu took as many wives m lie liked, aud if 
. there were several sisters in a £imily he married tliem all together. The son* 
In-lawr was not allowed, for some time, to look iuto tlie face of his motlier-in- 
law or his wife's next female relations, but had to step aside, or to hide himself, 
when these Avomen were present. Yet they did not pay much attention to cou- 
sanguinity, and only a few years since one of them counted hifl own daughter 
(as he believed) among thu number of bis wives. They met without way 
xbrmalities, and their vocabulary did not even contain the words "to marry," 
which is expressed at the present day in the Waicuri hinguage by the para- 
phrase tikerc undiri — that is, to bring the arms or hands together." They 
had, and still nse* a substitute for the word ** husband," but the etymological 
meaning of that expression implies an inteicourse with women in general. 

They liv( d, in fact, before the establishment of the missions in tlieir country, 
in utter licentiousness, and adultery w;us daily committed by every one without 
shame aud without any I'ear, the feeling of jealousy being unknown to them. 
Neighboring tribes visited each other very often only for the purpose of spending 
some days in open debauchery, and during such times a general prostitution 
prevailed. Would to God tl)at the admonitions and instructions of those who 
converted these people to Christianity and established lawful marriages among 
thcaoi had also induced them to desist entirely from these evil practices 1 Yet 
they deserve pity rather tlian contempt, for their manner of living together en- 
genders vice, and their sense of morality is not strong enoug;h to prevent them 
from yielding to the temptations to which they are constantly exposed. 

In the first chapter of this book I have already spoken of tho scanty popu- 
lation of this country. It is certain that many of their women are barren, and 
that a great number of them bear not more than one child. Only a few out of 
one or two hundred bring forth eight or ten times, and if such is really the case, 
it happens very seldom that one or two of the children arrive at a mature age. 
I baptized, m succession, seven children of a young woman, yet I had to bury 
them all before one of them had reached its third year, and when I was about 
to leave the country I recommended to the woman to dig a grave for the eighth 
child, with which she was pregnant at the time. The unmarried people of both 
sexes and the children generally make a smaller group than the married and 

The Californian women lie in without difficulty, and without needing any 
assistance. If the child is born at some distance from the mission they carry 
it thither themselves on tho same day, in order to have it baptized, not minding 
a walk of two or more leagues. Tet, that many infiuits die amonj^ them is not 
surprising ; on the contrary, it would be a wonder if a great number remained 
alive. For, when the poor child first sees the light of day, there is no other 
cradle piovided for it but the hard soil, or the still harder shell of a turtle, iu 
which the mother places it, without much covering, and drags it about wherever 
she goes. And in order to be nnoicumbered, and oiabled to use her limbs with 
greater freedom while running in the fields, she will leave it sometimes in charge 
of some old woman, and thus deprive the poor creature for ten or more hours of 
its natural nourishment. As soon as the child is a few mouths old the mother 
places it, perfectly naked, astraddle on her shoulders, its legs hanging down on 
Doth sides in front, and it has consequently to leam how to ride before it can 
stand on i(.s feet. In this guise the mother roves about all day, exposing her 
helpless charge to the hot rays of the sun and the chilly winds that sweep over 
the inhospitable country. The food of the child, till it cuts its teeth, consists 
only in the milk of the mothor, and if that is wantins or insufficient, thoe is 
rarely another woman to be found that would be wilimg, or, perhaps, in the 
proper condition, to take pity on the poor starving being. I cannot say that 
the Californian women are too fond of their children, and some of them may 
even consider the loss of one as a relief fiom a bmd^, especially if they hav« 

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alfeady some hmall children. I did not 8cc many Galifornian mothers who 
cnrogsod tlicir cliildron raucli while tlioy lived, or tore their hair when they 
<licd, although a kind of dry wocpin;; ir* not wanting on such occasions. The 
lather 13 still more insensible, and docB not cvea look at his (or ut leaat hia 
wife's) child as lonii^ras it is small and helpless. 

Nothing causes the Californians less trouble and care than tlie odncation of 
tliei** 'rliildren, which is merely confined to a short periotl, and ceases as soon 
as the latter arc capable of making a living for themselves — that is, to catch 
mice and to kill snakes. If the young Californians have once acquired suffi* 
cient skill and strength to follow these pursuits, it is all the same to Uiem 
whether they have parents or not. Nothing is done by these in the way of 
admonition or instruction, nor do they set an example worthy to be imitated 
by their offspring. The children do what they please, without fearing repri- 
mand or ponislunent. howeyer disorderly and widced their conduct may oe. 
It would be well if the parriits did not ^w an^ry whra their children are 
now and then gliglitly clia.sti<cd for gross mfsdomcanor by order of the mis- 
sionary ; but, instead of Ijoaring with patience such wholesome correction of 
their little sons and daughters, they take great offence and become enraged, 
especially the mothers, who will scream like fbries, tear oat the hair, beat thdr 
nuked breasts with a stone, and lacerate their heads with a piece of wood or 
boue till the blood flows, as I have frequently witnessed on such occasions.* 

The consequence is, that the children follow their own inclinations without 
any restraint, and imitate all the bad habits and practices of their eqnals, or 
still older persons, without the slightest apprehension of bdne blamed by their 
fathers and mothers, even if these should happen to detect them in the act of 
committing the most disgraceful deeds. The young Californians who live in 
the missions commence roaming about as soon as mass is over, and those that 
spend their time in the fidds go whercyer, and with whomsoever, they please, not 
seeing for many days the faces of their parents, who, in their tnm, do not mani- 
fest the slightest concern about their children, nor make any inquiries after 
them. These arc disadvantages which the missionary has no power of amending, 
and such being the case, it is easy to imagine how little he can do by instruction, 
exhortation, and punishment, towards improving the moral condition of these 
young natives. 

Heaven may enlighten the Californians, and preserve Europe, and especially 
Germany, from such a system of education, which coincides, in part, with the 
plan proposed by that ungodly visionary, J. J. Rousseau, in his "Emile," and 
which is also recommended by some other modem philosophers of the same 
tribe. If their designs are carried out, education, so far as faith, religion, and 
the fear of God are concerned, is not to be commenced before the eighteenth or 
twentieth year, which, if viewed iu the proper light, simply means to adopt the 
Oalifbondan meihod, and to bring up youth witiiont any education at all. 


'This statomeiit does not seem to a^roo well with the alleged indiffereDcc of the Califomiaa 
women towiurdt their children, and tne formalities which the Californians were obliged to 
observe, when meeting with the mothers and other female relations of their wives, rendeis a 
total absence of jealoiLsy among them mtber doubtful. Dr. Waltz has also pointed out the 
latter discrepancy while citing u number of facta contained in our author's work, (Anthro- 
pologie der NatorvcBlker, voL iv, p. 250.) My olyect being simply to gin an English ver- 
rioD of Baegeit's aooomit, I abs^ from lU oommsnts onradi xsalor nemiB|f Imocngniitiss, 

24 S 63 

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{Continued from the Smithtonian Report/or ItHi'i.) 


Ih describing the character of the Callfornians, I can only say that they are 
dall, awkward, rude, UDclean, insolent, ungrateful, given to lying, thievish, 
lazy, great talkers, and altnoat like children in their reasoning wad aetioaa. 
They are a careless, improvident, unreflecting people, and possess no control 
over themselves, but follow, in every respect, their natural instincts almost like 

They are, nevertheless, like all other native Americans, human bdnga, real 

eihildreu of Adam, and have not grown out of the earth, or of stones, like moss 
and other plant?, a? a certain impudent, lying freethinker <^Wo9 to understand. 
I, at least, never Haw one growing in eucli a way, nor have I heard of any of 
them who originated in that peculiar manner. Like other people, they are pos- 
sesaed of rmson and understanding, and their stupidity is not inborn widi 
them, but the result of habit; and I am of opinion that, if their young sons 
were sent to European seminaries and colleges, and their girls to convents 
where young females are instructed, they would prove equal in all respects to 
Europeans in the acquirement of morals and of useful sciences and arts, as has 
been the case with many young natives of other American provinces. I have 
known Bome of them who learned several mechanical trades in a short time, 
often merely by ob.'^ervation ; and, on the eontrary, others who appeared to me 
duller, , after twelve or more years, than at the time when 1 first became ac- 
quainted with ibem. (Sod and nature have endowed these people with gifla 
and talents like others; but their rude life hinders the development of these 
faculties, and thus they remain awkward, dull, and so bIow in their understand- 
ings that it requires coutiiderable pains, time, and patience to teach them the 
doctrines and precepts of the Christiau faith, insomuch that a sentence of only 
a few words must be repeated to them twelve times and offcener before they are 
capable of reciting it. 

It may not be out of place to corroborate here what Father Charlevoix pays 
of the Canadians, namely, that no one should think an Indian is convinced of 
what he has heard because he appears to approve of it. He will assent to 
anythitti?, even though he has not understood its meaning or reflected upon his 
answer, and he so does cither on account of his indolence or indififorenoe, or 
from motives of selfishness, in order to please the missionary. 


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The Californians do not readily confess a crime unleaa detected in the act, 
beeanse they hardly compreheud the force of evidence, and are not at ail 
Mihamftfl of lying. A certain missionary sent a natiTe to one of his colleagues 
with some loaves of bread and a letter stadng their noaiber. The messenger 
ate a part of the bread, and hh theft was conseqncntly discovered ; another 
time, when he had to deliver four loaves, he ate two of them, but hid the 
accompanying letter under a Btone while be was thus engaged, believmg that 
his oondnct would not be iCTealed this tinie» as the letter had not seen him in 
the act of eating the loaves. 

In the mir^siou of St. Borgia the priest ordered his peojde one day to strew 
the way with some green herbs, because ho was about to bring the holy sacra- 
ment to a sick person, and his order was promptly executed by them, bnt to 
the great damage of the missionary's kitchen-garden, for they tore up all the 
cabbages, salad, and whatever vegetables they found theiei and threw them on 
the road. 

Yet, notwithstanding their incapacity and slow comprehension, they are* 
neverdieless, cunning, and show, in many cases, a consid^ble degree of crafti- 
ness. They will sell their poultry to the missionary at the beginning of a 

sickness, and afterwards exhibit a disposition to eat nothing but chicken-meat, 
till none of the fowls ore left in the coop. A prisoner will feign a dangerous 
malady and ask for the last sacrament in order to be lelieved worn his fetters* 
and to find, subseouently, a chance to escape. Th^ rob the missionary in a 

hundred ways, ana soinctimor^ in the most artful manner. If, for instance, on© 
has pilfered the pantry and left it open in his ha.ste, another one forthwith 
requests to be admiitcd to coul'ession, in order to give the thief time for closing 
the door» and thus to remove all cause of suspicion on the part ni the mis- 
sionary. They also invent stcnies and relate them to thev priest for the pur- 
pose of frustrating a marriage engagement, that some other party may obtain 
the bride. These and many hundred similar tricks have actually been played 
by them, and show ccmdusively that they are well capable of reasening when 
their self-interest or their needs demand it. 

The Californians arc audacious and at the same time faint-hearted and timid 
in a high degree. They climb to the top of the weak, trembling stems, sometimes 
thirty -six feet high, which are called cardones by the Spaniards, to look out for 
game, or mount an untamed horse* without bridle and saddle, and ride, during 
the night, upon roads which I was afraid to travel in the daytime. When new 
buildings are erected, they walk on the miserable, ill-con h^tructed scaffoldings 
with the agility of cats, or venture several leagues into the open st^a on a bundle 
of brushwood, or the thin stem of a palm-tree, without thinking of any danger. 
But the report of a gun makes them forget their bows and arrows, and half a 
dozen soldiers are capable of checking several hundred Californians. 

Gratitude towards benefactors, respect for superiors, parents, ami other rela- 
tions, and politeness in intercourse with fellow-men, are almost unknown to 
tbem.* They speak plainly, and pay complimNits to no one. If one of them 
has received a present, he immediately tarns his back upon the donor and 
walks off without saying a word, unless the Spanish phrase, Dios te lo pague, 
or, " God reward yout" has been previously, by a laborious process, euibrced 
upon his memory. 

Where there is no honor, shame is ever wanting, and therefore I always 
wondered how the word **{t," that is, " to be ashamed," had been introduced 

• According to B;ie<:^ert'8 own statement, (p. 300,) the forced dopurture of (lie J«\suit mis- 
sionaries from the peomaula caused groat dLitre^a tunong the luUiiiuB, who expressed their 
grief by n geoeml howliaff and weeping, which shows timt the feelings of patitado and 
attachment were not entirely wnntiag in their character, although seHisimess may have bad 
a lATge sbaro in the Ueinoostration. The parting scene is well described iu a lew lines by 
W. fiving.— Jd9. CafUiit BoummlU, p. 333. 

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into their language; for, among themselves, uo one would blush on account of 
anj misdeed he nad perpetrated. If one had kOled his fiulwr and mother, 
robbed churches, or committed other infiunoiu crimeSy and had been a hnndred 

times whipped and pilloried, ho would, nevertheless, stmt about with a serene 
brow and an erect head, and without being in the least degraded in the eyes of 
his people. 

Laainess, lying, and stealmg are thdr hereditary vices and principal moral 

defects. They are not a people upon whose word any reliance can be placed, 
out tJiey will answer in one breath six times "yes" and as many times "no," 
without feeling ashamed, or even perceiving that they contradict themselves. 
They are averse to any labor not absolutely necessaiy to supply them willi tiie 
means of satisfying hunger. If any work occurr^ in the missioD, it was 
ncccEsary to drive and urge them constantly to their tri«k, and a great number 
complained of sickness during the week-days, for which reason I always called 
the buuday a day of miracles, because all thoi»e who had becu sick the whole 
week fblt wondemilly well on that day. If they were only a little more indns- 
trionSf diey might improve their condition, to a certain extent, by planting 
some maize, pumpkins, and cotton, or by keeping small flocks of goats, sheep, 
or even a tew cattle ; and, having now learned to prepare the skins of deer, 
they could easily supply themselves with garments. Bnt nothing of this kind 
is to be expected of them. They do not care to eat pigeons, tinless they fly 
roasted into their moutlis • To work to-day and to earn the fruit of their 
labor only three or t^ix months afterwards seems to be incompatible with their 
character, and for this reason there is little hope that they will ever adopt a 
diflterent mode of life. 

Books could be filled with accounts of their thefts. They will not touch 
gold or silver; but anything that can be chewed, be it raw or cooked, above 
the ground or below, ripe or unripe, is not more safe from them than the mouse 
from the cat, if fhe eye of the owner be only diverted for a moment. The 
herdsman wiU not even spare the dog that has t^eon given to him to watch the 
flock of sheep or goats intrusted to his care. While one (^ay observing, nn- 
seen, my cook, who was engaged in boiling rneiit, 1 noticed that he took one 
piece after another out of the kettle, bit oif a part, and threw it again into the 
vessel. The meal on the missionary's table, when he is suddenly called away, 
is not safe from their thievery, and even the holy wafers in the sacristy arc in 
danger of being taken by them. Yet they sometimes lay their liiinds on things 
of which they can make no use whatever, in a way really surprising, which 
shows to what d^pree stealing has become a habit with them. 

For eight years I kept, ranging at large, from four to five hundred head of 
cattle, and sometimes as many goats and sheep, imtil the coof^tant robberies of 
the Indians of my own and the neighboring mission compelled me to give up 
cattle-breeding, t la the bodies of nineteen cows and oxen, that had been 
killed in one day in the mission, there were fonnd, after the removal of the skin, 
more than eight flint-points of arrows» the shafts of which had been broken off 
by the wounded animals while passing through the rocks and bushes. I 
beheve that more of these animals were killed and eaten by the natives than 
were brought to the mission for consnmption, and horses and asses suffered in 
like manner. 

• German proverb. 

t The cattle, aa well a.s the goat.s and sheep, are described as small and lean, owing to the 
scanty pasturag^. The, though small, were of a good breed sad mdoring, but the]^ 
did not sufficiently multiply, and frosh animals had to be imported every year to mount tho 
soldiers and cowherds. " Tho ass alone," says tho author, "which is nowhere choice, but 
always coutcntcd, faros tolerably well in CaUfornia. lie works but little, and feeds on the 
orickly shmbs witii as much relish as if they were the most saroxy oats." Ths number of 
Qogs oin tin whole peninsala bardtj amomtted to a doMO. 

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In order to be exempt from labor, or to csc;ipe the punighment for gross 
misdeeds, the CalifomianB Bometimcs countei-feit dangerously sick or dying 

gersons. Many of those who were carried to the mission in such a feigned state 
y tbeir comrades feceived a Bound flogg&gf, which suddenly restored them to 
healtb. Without mentioning all the cages that fell under my notice, I will 
speak of two individuals who represented dyin^ persons so well that I did not 
hesitate to give them extreme unction. Another really frightened me by pre- 
tending to he infected with the smallpox, which aetnally raged in the neighboring 
nissloiif eansing its priest for three months, day and night, a vast deal of troaUe 
and care, and keeping him almost constantly on horseback. A fourth, whope 
name was Clement, seemed also resolved to give up the ghost. With him, 
however, the difficulty was that he had never seen a dying person, not even his 
wife, whom I had buried, and often visited daring her sickness, withont ever 
finding the husband at home. But having witnessed the death of many cows 
and oxen, which his arrows had bronglit down, ho imitated the dying beast So 
naturally, by lolling out his tongue aud licking his lips, that he went afterwards 
always by tiie name of C lt m nit vaeca or Cow Ckmait, 

Nothing excitcB the admiration of the Califomians. They look upon the 
most splendid ecclesiastic garments, embroiclered with gold and silver, with as 
much indifference as though tlie material consisted of wool aud the galoons of 
<:ommon tlax. They would rather sec a piece of meat than the rarest manu- 
fiwtarss of Milan and Lyons, and resemble, in that respect, a certain Oanadian 
who had been in France, and remarked, after his return to Ganada, that nothing 
in Paris had pleased him bettor than the butcher-shops.* 

They are not in the least degree susceptible of disgust, but will touch and 
handle the uncleanest objects as though they were roses, killing spiders with 
their fists, and taking hold of toads wiuont aversion. They nse as a covering 
the filthiest rag, and wear it until it rots on their bt)dies. In person they are 
•exceedingly dirty, and waste hardly any time in decorating and embellishing 
themselves. I must mention here, also, that they ore in the habit of washing 
thansetves with nrine, whidi renders their persons very disagreeable, as I have 
•often experienced when I had to confess th^. I was informed by reliable 
people that they cat a certain kind of large spiders, and likewise the vermin 
which they take from each other's heads; but I never saw them doing it: 
whereas I saw them frcq^uently fetch their maize porridge at noon in a holf- 
deaned tnrtle-shell which they had used the whole morning to carry die dung 
horn the folds of the sheep and goats. 

Concerning their improvement by the introduction of the Christian religion, 
I am unable to bestow much praise upon those among whom I lived seventeen 
years, daring which period I had snmeient opporttinity to become thoroughly 
acquainted with their character; but I must confess, to my greatest affliction, 
that the seed of the Divine Word lias borne but little frnit among them; for 
this seed fell into liearfs already obdurated in vice from their very infancy by 
seduction aud bad example, which all pains and exertions on the part of the 
missionary were unavailing to remove. The occasions for evil-doing, among 
yoang and old, are of daOj occurrence, and numberless. The parents them> 
selves ji;ivc the worst example, and the Spanisli soldiers, cowherds, and a few 
others who come to the country for the purpose of peail-iishing and mining-, 
contribute not a little to increase vice among the native population. The mu- 

* Mr. Catlia ixulatcs a similar circuinstauoe of a party of Iowa Indians that were exhibited 
in London. After their first drive ihroufrii the city, "thRV returned to their lodgings in 

CX glee, and omaaed us at least for an hour with their iirst impressioos of LonUon, the 
ing, striking feature of wliieh, and the one that seemed to aibra them the greatest satis- 
faction, was the qoantitv of fresh meat thivt they saw in every stroet hanging up at the doois 
and windows. "*~C<Ht/iii's Notes of Eight Years' Travd$ and Hesidtnct in Europe, New 
T(idi»1848: T0Lii,p.9. 

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tives, on the other hand, which act elsewhere as olieciks upon ibe conduct of 

the people, and keep them within the boundB of decency, are not at all under- 
stood or appreciated by the Californians, for which reason the teachings of 
religion can make but little impressida upon their unprepared miuds; and bein^ 
Am Qnrestrained bj say ooiiBideratioii8» Hkvj eaeilj yield to the unpuUeB of 
their character, in which a strong passion for ill<^al sexual interconne forms a 
prominent feature. In all bad habit;? and vices the Californian women fully 
equal the men, but surpafls them in impudence and want of devotion, contrary 
to the habit of the femue eex in all the rest of the world. There were cectainl/ 
some among the Californians who led edifying live^ and behaved in a praise- 
worthy manner affccr having embraced the Christian faith; bur. their number 
was very Bmall ; the reverse, on the contrary, being the general rule to such a 
degree that the wicked and vicioua formed the great majority of the natives. 



To all other bad qualities of the Californians may be added their vindictive- 
ness and cruelty. They care very little for the iii'e of man, and an insignificant 
canse will etimnlate them to commit a murder. Among other cases whfeb 
happened while I lived in their conntfj* I will mention that of the master of a 
small ship loaded with provisions for two poor misaion.s. This man had scolded 
a number of natives for some cause or other, which they resented by breaking 
hie skull with a heavy stone, while he was eating his supper on the shore. His 
ship they abandoned to wmd and waves. In the year 1760, a boy of about 
nxteen years stabbed another of the same age with a knife in the abdomen, and 
strack him on the head with a heavy club, almost within sight of the whole 
tribe, and only a stone's throw from the church and the house of the missionary. 
The murderer had already selected a horse on which to escape, and intended to- 
saTS himself within a church thirty leagues distant from the place where the 
crime was committed ; but he failed to eflFect his flight, t 

Up to the year 1750 the Californians had revolted at different times and 
places, and compelled several missionaries to abandon their stations, and to seek 
safety in other qnarteiB. The natives were stirred np to these insnrrectioni 
either by their conjaren at sorcerers, whose influence had been considerably 
reduced, or because it was requested of them to keep those promises which the/ 
had made when receiving the holy baptism. 

The most extensive and dangerous revolt of all began in the year 1733, in the 
sonthem part of the peninsula, among two tribes called the Peric4te§ and Coras, 
who are to this day of a very fierce, unruly, and untractable character, and who- 
gave much trouble to Father Ignatius Tirs, from Konunotao, in Bohemia, the 
last Jesuit missionary who resided in their district. | 

In the year 1733 there existed in that part of the eonntrj, whidi was inhab- 
ited by several thousand natives^ four missions, with three priests, who had iik 
all only six soldiers for their protection. The missions were the following: 
La Paz, without a resident priest, and guarded by one soldier; St. Ilosat under 
Father Sigismund Taraval, a Spaniard, born in Italy, protected by three sol- 
diers s 8e, Yago, over which Father Lorenio Oananeo* a Mexican, of Spaaislfr 

* This episode in the missionarj histoiy of GaUfomia forms a sepsiato chapter in the third 

Eart of our author's work ; but as it throws much light on the temperament of the natives, I 
ave inserted it in this place. 

t This church was prohably considered as an Hsylum or place of safot j. 

t He was one of those who ebarcd with the author, in 1767, the fato of bauishment. At 
tiutt time there were in all 8bct«>en Jesuits in Lower California — ^fifteen priests and one la^ 
brother. Six of them were Spaniards, two Mexicans, and eight Grermans. The names of 
the lattei are given ou page 'iiZ hy the author, who omits, however, his own name in ordos 
to pwsanre his aoonymons chamctar. 

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parentage, resided, with two soldiers ; and St. Joseph del Caio, under Father 
Nicolas Tamaral, from Sevilla, in Spain, without auj guard. 

The motiTeB leading to tlus inturreedon, which were afterwards firedy divulged 
by the natives, consisted in their unwillingness to eontent themselves with one 
wife, although they had promised to renounce polygamy, and their displeasure 
at being reprimanded for certain transgreBsious deserving the censure of their 
apiiitau advieon. The ringleaders and principal moTers of the rebellion were 
two individuals, Botdm and CSUedri by name, who exerted a great influence 
among the natives, and prepared everything in secret for tlie outbreak. Their 
object was to kill tlic three priests, to exterminate all traces of Christianity, 
v/liicli most of them had adopted ten years betbre, and to resume their former 
loose and indqiendent manner of liyiog. Their design became, however, known, 
and the fire was extinguished before it could blaze up in full flames. The In- 
dians feigned a friendly dispcsition, and a kind of peace was eslablishcd towards 
the beginning of the year 1734. But as this peace was not concluded with 
sincerity, it conld not be of a long doration. The treacherous rebels soon again 
made attempts to carry out at all hazards the objects they had in view, and 
really succeeded in the following October, though not so completely as they 
wished, since Father Taraval found tlie means to escape their murderous hands. 

The six soldiers were their principal obstacle. Meeting in the field with one 
of them of the mission of St. Boea, they assassmated him, and sent word to the 
mission that he was very ill, requesting the isriest dther to come to the place in 
order to confess bim, or to order the two remaintng soldiers to transport the 
patient to the station, their intention being to decoy the one or the others, and 
to take their lives. But fortunately the messenger delivered his commission in 
such an awkward manner that the crime they had already perpetrated, as well 
as their further designs, could be easily divined, for which reason neither the 
priest nor the soldiers complied with their request. A few days afterward they 
killed also the only soldier belonging to the mission de la Paz. 

The mam of these two nnuders, and other indubitable signs of an impending 
mutiny and general uprising in the south, were spread abroad, and soon reached 
the ears of the Superior of the missions, who was then at that of the Seven 
Dolors, nearly ninety leagues from the place where these events had occurred. 
He sent orders immediately to the three priests whose lives were endangered to 
save themselves by flight, but the letters fell into the hands of the mutineers, 
and would, besides, at any rate have arrived too late to avert the peril. 

It was the intention of the conspirators to strike the first blow against the 
mission of St. Joseph and Father Tamaral ; but learning that Father Oarranco 
had already received intelligence of their plans, they rushed with all speed 
upon his mission before he could make any preparations for defence, or effect 
his escape from the place. It was on a Saturday, and the 2d of October, when 
they arrived at the mission of St. Yago. The father had just said mass, and 
had locked himself in his room to perform his private devotions. Most unfor- 
tunately the two soldiers, who formed his whole body-guard, had left the place 
on horseback in order to bring in some head of cattle for the catechumens and 
other people of the mission. After a while the returned messengers, whom 
Father Carranco had despatched to the mission of St. Joseph to warn Father 
Tamaral of the dangor to which he was exposed, Altered the room.^ Father 
Carranco was reading his BSMwer, when the murderers entered the house and 
fell upon him. Some threw him on the ground and dragged him by his feet to 
the front of the church, while others pierced his body with many arrows, and 
beat him with stones and clubs till he expired. 

A little native boy, who used to wait upon the &ther when he took his meals, 
was a witness to the act, and shed tears when he beheld his benefactor's 
mournful fate; upon which one of the barbarians seized the boy by the legs 
and smashed his head against the wall, saying, that since he showed so much 

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regret at the death of his master, he should also serve him aud bear him com* 
panj in the other wodd. Jkmon^ the mnxdeien vere Bomo whom the fitUier 
had considered tm die most zeliable of his flock, and whose fidelity he never had 


Having torn the garments from the lifeless body, they treated it in a most 
abomiuable manner in order to wreak their veugeauce, and they finally threw 
it on a homing pile. After this they set the chnreh and the hoose on fire, and 
burned to ashes the utensils of the church, the altar, the representations of oar 
Saviour and of the Saints, and everything else that they could not apply to 
their own use. In the mean time the two unarmed soldiers, who had been sent 
afl»r cattle* retnnied. They were compelled to dismount and to kill the cows 
for the malefacton', after which the savages despatched them with a shower of 

On the following day, the same fate befell Father TamarAl, the priest of the 
mission of St. Joseph, twelve leagues distant from that of St. Yago, for as soon as 
the villains had committed their crime at the one nlace, they directed their 
march to the other. Father Tamaral, not helieving tne r^ort of his colleague, 
was quietly sitting in his house, when the savage crowd, considerably increased 
by members of his own parish, made their appearance in the mission. In their 
usual manner, they demanded something from the misaionaiy, for the purpose 
of finding a pretext for quarrelling and commencing their hostilities, in case the 
priest should disappoint them in their wishe?. But their behavior, and the 
arms which they all curried with them, soon convinced the missionary that they 
had other designs, and he consequently not only complied with their requests, 
hnt gave them evtia more than they demanded. ' Being thus baffled in their 
attempt, and full of eagerness to carry out their bloody plan, they put aside all 
dissimulation and attacked the missionary without further delay. They threw 
him on the ground, dragged him into the open air, and discharged their arrows 
upon him. One of thdr number, whom the father had a short time before pre- 
sented with a large kuHe, added ingratitude to cruelty by burying the weapon 
in his body. 

Thus the Fathers Tamaral and Carranco were led to the shambles by their 
own flock, and closed their days in Oaliforuiu, after they had spent many years 
in that country, and, by a blameless lifb and great zeal, proved themsdveB 
worthy to die the death of martyrs. The abuses to which the savages sub- 
jected the body of the deceased priest Avere greater, in this instance, and they 
exhibited more wantonness in the destruction of the church and other property 
than on the preceding day, because the crowd was larger and had become more 
infuriated by previous success. 

Father Taraval, of St. Rosa, the third priest of whom they intended to make 
a victim, succeeded in making good his night. He sojourned for the moment 
on the western coast of California, at the station of All Saints, which formed an 
adjunct to his own mission, and was a two days' journey distant from St. Joeeph. 
Being warned in due time by some faithful Indians of the danger that threat- 
ened him, he packed up in great haste his most needful tilings rmd rode at full 
speed, in company with his two soldiers, during the night of the fourth of Octo- 
ber towards the opposite shore of the peninsula, where he embarked near the 
mission of La Pas m a small vessel, which had been despatched to that place 
when the first news of the impending rebellion became known. He landed in 
safety at the mission of the Seven Dolors, then situated near the sea; leaving- 
behind him the smoking ruins of four missions that had been totally destroyed 
in less than four days, but which could only be rebuilt and raised to their former 
importance with great sacrifices of time, labor, and human life. . 

The rebels, however, fired badly, and had no cause to glory in their triumph. 
The southern tribes, who?e number was four thousand souls at the outbreak of 
the revolt, are now reduced to fom- hundred, for not only was war waged against 

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them by the CaUtbruian and foreign militiot but thej had also (^narrela among 
themselves.* Tet tliese erases were less eflfeetive In iheir deetnie^ 
loathsome diseases and uleen by which they were visited, and among the four 
hundred that now remain, only a few are £cee from the gBDtmil maladj rad 

enjoy the blessing of sound health. 

On the other hand, be that grace of Heaven a thousand times praised, which, 
in our day a]so» inspires among the memben of the Catholie priesthood, and 
especially in the Society of Jesus, mm oi snpodor oonrage who, without the 
t^lightest self-interest and for the sole purpose of propagating the Christian faith, 
not only brave all dangers to which they are exposed in wild countries and 
amidst bar barons tribes, bat who also willingly giv(; up thdr fives when occa- 
sion demands such sacrifices ! For besides these two Californian missionaries, 
many others i^elonging to the same society have sutVered death in the course 
of this century, while engaged in the conversion of heathen nations. Among 
the great number of these victims, I will only mention Father Thomas Tello, 
a Bpoaiard, and Fatiier Henry Bohen, a German from Westphalia, both Jesoits, 
who were killed as late as 1751, by the mutinous Pimas, on the other side of 
the Californian <^ulf. With Father Uuhen, I had crossed the Atlantic ocean a 
year before, and we made also in company the journey overland as far as the 
Pimeria, where he closed his days six months after his arrival. 


With all their poor diet and hardships, the Californians are seldom sick. 
They are in general strong, hardy, and much healthier than the many thousands 
who live daily in abundance and on the choicest fare that the skill of Parisian 
eooks can prepare. It is vary probable that most Californians would attain a 
considerable age» after having safely passed through the dangers of their child- 
hood; but they are immoderate in eatinpr, runninir- bathing, and other matters, 
and thus doubtless shorten their existence. Excepting consumption and that 
disease which was brought from America to Spain and Naples, and from thence 
spread over varioos coontiies, they are but little snbject to the disorders com- 
mon in Europe; podagra, apoplexy, dropsy, cold and petechial fevers being 
almost unknown among them. There is no word in their langmge to express 
tjicknesB in general or any particular disease. "To be sick," they signify by 
the phrase aiemha-tUt whieli means <*to lie down on the gronnd," ihongn aU 
those in good health may be seen in that position the whole day, if they are 
not searching for food or otherwise engaged. When I asked a Californian what 
ailed him, he usually said, "I have a pain in my chest," without giving farther 

For flie small-pox the Oalifbmians aire, like othor Americans, indebted to 
£niopean8, and this disease assumes a most pestilential character among them. 
A piwie of cloth which a Spaniard, just recovered from the small-pox, had given 
to a Calitbrniau communicated, in the year 1763, the disease to a small mission, 
and in three months more than a hundred individuals died, not to speak of many 
others who had been infected, hut were saved by the nnwt-iricd pains and care 
of the missiionary. Not one of them would have escaped the malady, had not 
the majority run away Irom the neighborhood of the hospital as soon as they 
discovered the contagious nature of the disease. 

Jjk the month of April of the same year, 1763, a young and strong woman 
of my nusnon was seised with a very pecoliar disorder, consisting in emcta- 

* This is tiw odIj iosUmoe in which tho author alludes to ward atnon^ the natives in the 
body of his book, though the fint appendix oontiuns, on page 328, the tollowiDg remark in 
i«fatation of a passaffo in the FreiKUl tmn-lation of Venegas's work: "All that is said in 
VB&reoce to the warl'are of the Califomiaus is wrong. In their former wars they merely 
•ttadrad the enemy uaexpe^edly during the night, or firom an ambush, and killed as many 
as ih^y oimld, without order, previous ^daration of war, or aqj oeremonies witatever." 
25 8 64 

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tioDB of Buch violent character that the noise almost resembled thunder, and 
could be heajd at a distance of fortj and more paces. The eructations lasted 
about lialf a ndnnte, and foUoved eadi other ailer an interval of a few mtnuteB. 
The appetite of the patient was good, and she complained of nothing elae. In 1Mb 
condition she remained for a week, when phe suddenly dropped down in such a 
manner that I thought she would never rise again ; but I was mistaken, for the 
eructations and the peculiar fits continued for three years, until the became at 
last emaciated and cMed in the month of July, 1766. A few days after the 
outbreak of her malady, her husband was attacked by the same disorder, and 
on my rlcparture, in 1768, I left him without hope of recovery. Subsequently 
the woman's brother and his wife suffered in like manner, and after these 
several other Califomians, piribcipally of Ibe female sex. Ndther the oldest of 
the nativeSf nor missionaries living for thirty yesrs in the country, had hitherto 
been acquainted with this extraordinary and apparently contagious disease. 

The patience of Californians in sickness is really admirable. Hardly a sigh 
is heaved by those wha lie on the bare ground in the most pitiable condition 
and racked with pain. They look without dread upon their ulcers and wounds, 
and submit to burning and cutting, or make incisions in their own flesh for ex- 
tracting thorns and splinters, with as much indifference as thoiip^h the operation 
were peribrmed on somebody else. It is, however, an indication of approach- 
ing death when they lose thehr appetite. 

Their medical art is veiy limited, consastilig almost exclusively, whatever 
the character of the disease may be, in the practice of binding, when feasible, 
a cord or coarse rope tightly around the affected part of the body. Sometimes 
they make use of a kind of bleeding by cutting with a sharp stone a few small 
Openings in the inflamed part, in order to draw blood and thus relieve the 
patient. Though every year a number of CalifomianB die by the bite of the 
rattlesnake, their only remedy against such accidents consists in tightly bind- 
ing the injured member a little above the wound towards the heart; but if the 
part wounded by the reptile Is a finger or a hand, they simply cut it off, and I 
knew several who had performed this cure on themselves or on individuals of their 
families. Now-a-days they beg in nearly all cases of disease for tallow to rub 
the affected part, and al^o for Spanish snuff which they use against headache 
and sore eyes. Excepting the remedies just mentioned, they have no appli- 
anees whatever acatust ulcers, wounds, vt other external injuries, and fer less 
against internal disorders; and though they may repeatedly have seen the 
missionary using some simple for removing a complaint, they will, cither from 
forgetfulness or indolence, never employ it for themselves or others, but always 
apply to the missionary again. 

* They do not, however, content themselves with these natural remedies, but 

have also recourse to supernatural means, which certainly never brought about 
a recovery. There are many impostors amoiig thcra, pretending to possess the 
power of curing diseases, and the ignorant Indians have so much faith in their 
art tiiat th^ send for one or more of these seoundrds whenever they are indis- 
posed. In treating a sick person, these jugglers employ a small tube, which 
they use for sucking or blowing the patient for a while, making, also, various 
grimaces and muttering something which they do not understand themselves, 
until, finally, after much hard breathing and panting, they show the patient a 
flint, or some other object previously hidden about their persons, pretending to 
have at last removr-d tlio real cause of the disorder. Twelve of these liars 
received one day, bv my orders, the punishment thev descr\'ed, and the whole 
people had to promise to desist in future from these practices, or else I would 
no more preach for them. But when, a few weeks afterwards, that individual, 
who first of all had engaged to renounce the devil, fell ttUsk, he sent imme- 
diately a&an for th(^ K1owm> to nerform the usual in^lety. 

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It is to be feared that some of those who are seized with illness far from the 
mission, and not carried thither, are buried alive, especially old people, and 
sach as have few relations, for they are in the habit of digging the grave two , 
or tluee days before the patient bieathee Job last. It seems tecUons to them to 
spend much time near an old, dyin^ person that was long ago a burden to them 
And looked upon with indifference. A person of my acquaintance restored a 
girl to life that was already bound up in a deer-skin, according to their custom, 
and ready for burial, by adminiBtering to her a good dose of chocolate. She lived 
«nany years afterwards. On their way to the mbsion, some natives broke the 
neck of a blind, sick old woman, in order to be spared the trouble of carrying 
her a few miles further. Another patient, being much annoyed by gnats, which 
no one felt inclined to keep off from him, was covered op in such a manner 
that he died of suffocation. In transporting a patient nrom one place to 
another, they bind him on a rade litter, made of crooked pieces of wood, which 
would constitute a perfect rack for any but Indian bonesi the camera hwag in 
the habit of running with their charge. 

Cbncemmg thdr cons^ences and eternity* the OslifemianB are perfectly 
quiet during tiieir sickness, and die off as calmly as though they were sure of 
heaven. As soon as a person has given up the ghost, a terrible howling 13 
raised by the women that are present, and by those to whom the news is com- 
municated, yet no one sheds tears, excepting, perhaps, the nearest relations, 
and the whole proceeding is a mere cevemony. Bat who would belim that 
snne of them snow a dislike to be buried according to the rites of the Catholic 
religion 1 Having noticed that certain individuals, who were dangerously sick, 
yet still in possession of their faculties, objected to being led or carried to the 
mission, in order to obtain there both spiritnal and material assistanee, I in- 
^qoired the cause of this strange behavior, and was informed they considered it 
as a derision of the dead to bury them with ringing of the bells* Ghanting« and 
other ceremonies of the Catholic church. 

One of them told me they had formerly broken the spinje of the deceased 
tiefove burying them, and had thrown them into the ditch, rolled vp like a ImU, 
lidieTing that they would rise up again if not treated in this manner. I saw 
them, however, frequently putting shooa on the feet of the dead, which rather 
seems to indicate that they entertain the idea of a journey after death ; bat 
whenever I asked them why they observed this probably very andent enstom, 
they could not g^ve me any satisfactory answer. In time of mooming, both 
men and women cut off their hair almost entirely, which formerly was given 
to their physicians or conjurers, who made them into a kind of mantle or large 
-wi g, t o be worn on solemn occasions. 

When a death has taken place, ^se who want to sliow the relations of the 
deceased their respect for the latter lie in wait for these people, and if they 
paPS they come out from their hiding-place, almost creeping, and intonate a 
mournful, plaintive, hu, Am, ?iu / wounding their heads with pointed, sharp 
stones, until the blood flows down to their shonlders. Althoagh this barboioas 
custom has frequently been interdicted, they are unwilling to discoutinoe it. 
When I learned, a few years ago, that some had been guilty of this trans- * 
gression after the death of a certain woman, I left tliern the choice either to 
submit to the hxed punishment or to repeat thid mourning ceremony in my 
presence. They chose the latter, and, in a short time, I saw the blood trick- 
aag down firom thdr lacerated hmds. 


From what I have already said of the Caliibrniaus, it might be inferred that 
they are the most anhappy and pitiable of all the children <^ Adam. Yet 
so^ a sapposition would be utterly wrong, and I can assoie the reader that, 
^ iSir as me^ temporal condition is concerned, they live onqoestionablj nmcb 

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bappicr than the civilized iuhabitauts of Europe, not excepting tliose wbo seem 
to enjoy all the felicity that life can afford. Uabit renders all things endurable 
and easy, and the Califomlan Bleeps oil the hard ground and in the open air 
just as well aad soft as the rich Eiiropeaii on the cnrtamed bed of down in hie 
gplendidljr decorated apartment. UroogliOQt the whole year nothmg happens 
that causes a Californian trouble or vexation, nothing that renders his life cum- 
bersome and death desirable; for no one harasaes and persecutes him, or car- 
ries on a lawsuit against him ; neither a hailoBtorm nor an army can lay waste 
his fields, and he is not in danger of having his house and baru destroyed by 
fire. Envy, jealousy, and slander embitter not his life, and he is not exposed 
to the fear of losing M'hat he possesses, nor to the care; of increasing it. Na 
creditor lays claim to debts ; no ofiicer extorts duty, toil, poll-tax, and a ban- 
died other tributes. There is no woman that spends more fw dress than the 
income of the husband allows ; no husband who gambles or drinks away the 
money that should serve to support and clothe the family ; there are no children 
to be established in life; no daughters to be provided with husbands; and na 

J>rodigal sous that heap disgrace upon whole families. In one word, the Oali- 
brnians do not know the meaning of meum and timm, those two ideas which» 
according to St. Qregory, fill the few dajs of onr existence with bitterness md 
nncountable evils. 

Though the Califbruiaus seem to possess nothing, they have, nevertheless, 
all that they want, for they covet nothing beyond the prodnctions of their 
poor, ill-favored country, and these are always within their reach. It is na 
wonder, then, tint tliey always exhibit a joyful temper, and constantly indulge 
in merriment and laughter, showing thus their contentment» which, after all* is 
the real source of happiness. 

The OalifiHmians know venr little <^ arithmetic some of them bemg nnaUe 
to connt ftirther than tix, while others cannot number beyond three, insomndk 
that none of them can say how many fingers he has. They do not possess 
anything that is jvorth counting, and hence their indifference. It is all the 
same to them whether the year has six or twelve months, and the month three 
or thirty days, for every day is a holiday with them. They care not whether 
they have one or two or twelve (■hildron, or none at all, fAnce twelve cause 
them no more expense or trouble than one, and the inheritance is not lessened 
by a plurality of heirs. Any number beyond six they express in their lan- 
guage by mwehf leaving it to thdr confessor to make out whether that nnmber 
amounts to seven, seventT» or seven hundred. 

They do not know wliat a year is, aiirl, consequently, cannot say when it 
begins and ends. Instead of saying, therefore, "a year ago," or " during this 
year," the Califomiaus .who speak the Wai'curi language use the expressions, 
it it already a» ambia pa»tf or, dariag this ambiot the latter word signifying 
the pitahaya fruit, of which a description has been given on a previous page. 
A space of three years, therefore, is expressed by the term "three pitabayas;" 
yet they seldom make use of such phrases, because they hardly ever speak 
among themsdves of years, bnt merely say, "long ago," or, *'not long ago," 
being utterly indiflRerent whether two or twenty years have elapsed since the 
occurrence of a certain event. For the same reason they do not speak of 
months, and have not even a name for that space of time. A week, however, 
they call at present ambuja, that is, " a house," or " a place where one resides,'* 
which name they have now, per amiemomatiamt bestowed upon the choieh- 
They are divided into bands, which altonalely spend a week at the mission, 
where they have to attend chureh-Bervice, and dlttS the week has becomft- 
among them synonymous with the church. 

When the Califomians visit the missionary for any purpose, they are per- 
fectly silent at finti and when asked the cause of their visit, their ml answer 
is vara, whkh means '* nothmg." Having afterwards delivered their speech*. 

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they sh down, una.«kf'd; in doing ^vfeicb the wf)Tnen stretch ont tlioir legs, while 
the meu cross them iu the orieutal ikdhiou. The some habits they observe 
afao in the chnreh asd elsewhere. Thej salnte nobody, such a dvility being 
vnlpiown to them, and they have no word to express greeting. If something 
is communicated to them wliich they do not like, they spit out sideways and 
scratch the ground with their left foot to express their displeasure. 

The men carry ererything on their heads ; the women bear loads on their 
baekB suspended by ropes that pass arotind their foreheads, and in order to 
protect the skin t'umi injury, they place between the forehead and the rope a 
piece of untanned deer-hide, which reaches considerably above the head, and 
resembles, from afar, a helmet, or the high head-dress worn by ladies at the 
present time. 

The Oalifoinians have a great predilection for singing and dancing, which 
are always performed together; ^he first is called ambera diti. the latter a^/;rari. 
Their singing is nothing but an inarticulate, unmeaning whi::periug, murmur- 
ing, or shouting, which every one intonates according to his own inclination, iu 
order to express his joy. Their dances consist in a foolish, irregular gesticu* 
lating and jumping, or advancing, retreating, and walking in a circle. Yet, they 
take such delight in these amu.«ement3 that they spend whole nights in their 
performance, iu which respect they much resemble Europeans, of whom cer- 
tainly more have kflled wemselves dnrii^ Shrovetide and at other times by 
dandng, tlmn by praying and fosting. These pastimes* though innocent in 
themselves, had to be rigidly interdicted, because the gro-^est disorders and 
▼ices were openly perpetrated by the natives during the performances ; but it 
is hardly possible to prevent them from indulging iu their sports. While 
spedtuig of these exereises of the natives, I will aJ^ mention that they are 
exceedingly good runners. I would gladly have yielded up to them my three 
horses for consumption if I had been as swift-footed as they ; for, whenever I 
travelled, I became sooner tired with riding than they with walking. They 
will ran twenty leagues to-day, and return to-morrow to the place from whenee 
they started without showing much &tigne. Being one day on the point of 
setting out on a journey, a little boy expressed a wish to accompany me, and 
when I gave him to understand that the distance was long, the business press- 
ing, and my horse, moreover, very brisk, he replied with great promptness : 
"Thy horse will become tired, but I will not." Another time I sent a boy of 
fourteen years with a letter to the neighboring mission, situated six leagues 
from my residence. He started at seven o'clock in the morning, and wheu 
about a league and a half distant from his place of destination, he met the mis- 
sionary, to whom the letter was addressed, mounted on a good mule, and on his 
way to pay me a visit. The boy turned round and accompanied the missionary, 
with whom he arrived about noon at my mission, having walked within five 
hours a distance of more than nine leagues. 

With boys and girls who have arrived at the age of puberty, with pregnant 
women, new-bom ehildren, and women in child-betl, the OaUfoinians observed, 
and still secretly observe, certain absurd ceremonies of an unbecoming nature, 
which, for tliis reason, cannot be described in this book. 

There existed always among the Califoruiaub individuals of both sexes who 
played the part of soreerers or conjurors, pretending to possess the power of 
exorcising the devil, whom they never saw; of curing diseases, which they 
never healed; and of producing pitihayas, though they could only eat them. 
Sometimes they went into caverns, and, changing their voices, made the people 
believe that they conversed with some spiritual power. They threatened also 
with famine and diseases, or promised to drive the small-pox and similar plagues 
away and to other^laces. When these braggarts appeared formerly in their 
gala apparel, they wore long mantles made of human hair, of which the mis- 
siooahes burned a great number in all newly established missions. The object 

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of these impostors was to obtain their food without the trouble of gaiheritig it 
in the fields, tor the silly people provided them with the best they could hnd, 
in order to keep them in good humor and to enjoy their fiivor. Their inflaenee 
is very email now-a-days ; yet the sick do not cease to pkce their confidence in 
them, as I mentioned in the preceding chapter. 

It might be the proper time now to speak of the form of government and 
the religion of the Oalifomians previous to then- conversion to Christianity; 
bat ndiuer the one nor the other existed among them. They had no mag^ 
trate;^, no police, and no laws ; idols, temples, religious worship or ceremonies 
were unknown to them, and they nrither believed in the true and only God, 
nor adored false deities.* They were all equals, and every one did as he 
pleased, without askine his neighbor or caring for his opinion, and thna all vieea 
and misdeeds remained nnpnnisbed, excepting such cases in which the offianded 
individual or his relations took the law into their own hands and revenged 
themselves on the guilty party. The diflerent tribes represented by no means 
t:ommunities of rational beings, who submit to laws and regulations and obey 
their superiors, bat resembled far more herds of wild Bwine» which ran about 
according to their own liking, being together to-day and scattered to-morrow, 
till they meet again by accident at some future time. In one word, the Oali- 
fomians lived, talva venia, as though they had been freethinkers and materi* 

I made diligent inqniries, among those with whom I lived, to ascertain 
"whether they had any conception of God, a future life, and their own bohIs, but 
I never could discover the slightest trace of puch ajcnowledge. Their language 
has no words for "God" and "soul," for which reason the missionaries were 
compelled to nse in their sermons and religionB instraetions the Spanish words 
Dios and alma. It could hardly be otherwise with people who thought of 
nothing but eating and merry-making and never reflected on serious matters, 
but dismissed everything that lay beyond the narrow compass of their concep- 
tions with the phrase aipekeriri, which means "who knows that?" I often 
asked them whether they had never pot to thmselves the question who might 
be the creator and preserver of the sun, moon, stars, and other objects of nature, 
bnt WAS always sent home with a wtrot whidi means *'no" in their language. 


I will now proceed to dei^cribe in a few words in what manner the nnliap* 
tizcd Calitbrnians spent their days. 

In the evening, when they had eaten their fiU, they either lay down, or sat 
together and chatted till they were tued of talking, or had communicated to 
■each other all that they knew for the moment. In the morning they slept until 
hunger forced them to rise. As soon as they awakened, the eating recom- 
menced, if anything remained; and the laughing, talking, and joking were 
likewise resumed. After thw morning-prayer, when the snn was already some- 
what high, the men seized their bows and arrows, and, the women hitched on 
their yokes and turtle-shelk. Some went to the right, others to the left; here 
six, there four, eight, or three, and sometimes one alone, the diil'ereut bands 
always continning the laughing and chattering on their way. They looked 
aionnd to espy a mouse* lizard, 8aake» or perhaps a hare or deer; or tore up 
here and there a ynka or other root, or eat off some aloOto. A part of the day 

• According to Father Piccolo, the CslUbrnians worshipped the moon ; and Venegaa 
mentions the belief in a good and bad principle as provuiliug umong the Pertcues and 
CotcUmies.— ( Waiiz^ Anthropotogie der NaturvOlker, vol. ir, p. 280.) TlieBe Statemeoti 
are emphatically refuted hj Baegert in Ms first appendix, p. 315, whore ho says: is not 
iaub that they wonhippod the moon, or practiced any kind of idolatry." 

tXhis is Utenllj his expieeaion. 

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dins spent, a pattse was made. They aat or lay down in the shade, if they 

happened to find :iny, without, however, allowing their tongues to come to a 
gtand-still. or they played or wrestled with each other, to find out who was the 
stroogcBt among them and could throw his adversaries to the ground, in which 
sport the womea likewise participated^ Now thej dthar retnmed to the camp- 
ing-plaoe o£ the preceding night, or went a few leagnea farther, until they came 
to some Bpot supplied with water, where they commenced singeing, burning, 
roasting, and pounding the captures they had made during the day. They ate 
as long as they had anything before them and as there was room in their sto- 
naehSf and after a long, childish or indecent talk, they betook themselves to 
rest again. In tlii- manner they lived throughout the whole year, and their 
conversation, if it did not tuin on eating, had always some childish trick or 
knavery for its subject. Those of the natives who cannot be put to some ase- 
M labor, while limg at the mission, spend their time pret^ macli in the same 

who would expect, under these circumstance?, to find a spark of reli- 
gion amone the Oalii'omiaus ? It is true, they spoke of the course taken by a 
deer that had escaped them at nightfall with an arrow in his side, and which 
they intended to pursue the next morning, but they never specalated on &e 
<:ourse of the sun and the other heavenly bodies; they talked about their pita- 
hay a.s, even long before they were ripe, yet it never occurred to them to think 
of the Creator of the pitahayas and other productions around them. 

I am not nnacqnainted with the statemmit of a certain anthor, according to 
which one Californian tribe at least was found to possess some knowledge of 
the incarnation of the Son of God and the Holy Trinity; but this is certainly 
an error, considering that such a knowledge could only have been imparted by the 
preachers of the Gospel. The whole matter doubtless originated in a deception 
on the part of the natives, who are rery mendacious and inclined to invoit 
stnies calculated to please the missionary ; while, on the other hand, every one 
may be easily deceived by thcrn who has not yet found out their tricks. It is, 
moreover, a very didicuit task to learn anything from them by inquiry; for, 
besides ih^ shamelesB lies and mmecessarily evasive answers, they entangle, 
from inborn awkwardness, the subject in question in such a pitiable manner, and 
contradict themselves so frequently, that the inquirer is very apt to lose his 
patience. A missionary once requested mo to tind out %vhether a certain N. 
bad been married before his baptism, which he received when a grown mau, 
with the sister of M. A simple "yes" or **no" wonld have answered the 
question and decided the matter at once. But the examination lasted aboat 
three-quarters of an hour, at the end of which I knew just as little as before. 
I wrote down the questions and answers, and sent the protocol to the missionary, 
who was no more snccessM than myself in aniving at the final xesolt, iR^ether 
N. had been the husband of the sister of M. or not. So confused are die minds 
of these Californian Hottentots. 

Of baptized Indians, there resided in each mission as many as the missionary 
could support and occupy with field-labor, knitting, weaving, and other work. 
Where it was possible to keen a good number of sheep, spinning-wheels and 
looms were in operation, and the people received more frequently new clothing 
than at other stations. In each mission there were also a number of natives 
appointed for special service, namely, a sacristan, a goat-herd, a tender of the 
mk, a catechist. a snperintendent, a fiscal, and two dirty cooks, one for the 
flBBsionary and the other for the Galifomians. Of the fifteen missions, how- 
«?er, there were only four, and these but thinly populated, which could support 
and clothe all their parishioners, and aflford them a home during the whole 
year. In the other missionary stations, the whole people were divided into 
three or ^nr bands which appeared alternately once m a month at the mission 
and encamped there fbr a week. 

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Every day at sunrise they all attended mass, during which they said their 
beads. Before and after mass thej redted tbe Ghxutiaii doctrinet dmwn up 
for them in qaeatioiui and answers in their own language. An address or ex- 
hort at ion (lofivornd by the missionary in the same lanp^naj^o, and lasting from 
half an hour to tlirec-([uarters of an hour, concluded the religious service of 
the morning. This over, breakfast was given to those who were engaged in 
some ifork* while the others went where they pleased in order to gather their 
daily bread in the fields* if the missionary was unable to provide them with 
food. Towartli? sunset, a signal with tbe bell assembled them all again in the 
church to say their beads and the htauy of Loretto, or to sing it on Sundays 
and holidays. The beU -was not only rung three times a day, as nsnal, bnt 
also at three o'doek in tlM afternoon, in honor of the ugony of Christ, and also, 
according to Spanish custom, at eight o'clock in the evening, to pray ibr the 
faithful departed. When the week was over, the parishioners returned to their 
respective homes, some three or six, others fifteen or twenty leagues distant 
from the mission. 

On the principal holidays of the year, and also doring passion>week, all 

members of the community were assembled at the mission, and they received 
at such times, besides their ordinary food, some head of cattle and a good sup- 
ply of Indian com for consnmption ; dried figs and raisins were also given them 
without stint in all missions wnere such fruit was raised. On these occasicmst 
articles of food and apparel were likewise put up tis prizes for those who were 
winners in the games they played, or excelled in shooting at the target. 

Fiacals and superintendeuts, appoiuted from among the difi'ereut bauds, pre- 
served order witbin and without the mission. It was their dnty to lead all 
those who were present to the church when the bell rung, and to collect and 
drive in to the misf^ion that portion of tbe community which had been roaming 
for three weeks at large. They were to prevent disorders, public scandals and 
knaveries, and to enforce decent behavior and silence during church-service. 
It was ftvther their dnty to make the converts redte the catechism momii^ 
and evening, and to say their beads in the fields; to punish slight transgres- 
sions, and to report more serious ofiences at the ])rop('r jilace; to take care of 
those who fell sick in the wilderness, and to convey them to the mission, &c., 
&e. As a badge of their office they cairied a cane which was oflfcen silver^ 
headed. Most of them were veiy prond of their dignity, but only a few per- 
formed their duty, for which reason they received their flogging oftener than 
the rest, and had to bear the blows and cufia, which it was their duty to admin- 
ister to others.* There were also catechists appointed upon whom it w^as iu- 
cnmbent to lead the prayers, and to give instruction to the most ignorant of 
the catechumens. 

Every day, in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, either the mis- 
sionary himself, or some one appoiuted by him, distributed boiled wheat or 
maise to the pregnant women, toe blind, old and infirm, if he was nnable to 
feed them all ; and for those who were sick, meat was cooked at least once 
every day. "When any work was done, all engaged in it were fed three times 
a day. Yet their labor was by no means severe. Would to God it had been 

^ On a preceding page tbe author gives, not exactly in tbe proper place, tbe following 
particulars eoDcemin^ the penal law estauisbed amonp^ the C&lnornians; **Iii cases of 

extraonliTiary criiDrs. the pnuishment of the nsitivps was fixed by the royal officer who com- 
mauded the Caiilbroian equoUron ; cummon misdeeds fell within tho jurisdiction of the 
eorpofsl of the soldisn stationed in each mission. Capital pnnishment^ by shooting, was 
only resorted to in caaes of murder; all other transgressions were citber punished by a 
number of lashes adminifitered with a leather whip on tbo bare skin of the culprit, or his 
feet put in irons for some days, weck.s, or inontlis. As to ecclesiastical puuisbinents, the 
JBoman pontiffs did not think proper to introduce them among the Americans, and fines were 
likewise out of the qoestion, in acoordaiiee widi the old German proverb : ' Whrrs theie is 
aoUiiag, the eniperar hss no rii^its.* ** 

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|)0S8ibIe to make them work like the country people and mechanics in Germaav! 
How many knaveries and vices would have been avoided every day ! The 
work always commenced late, and ceased before the sun was down. At noon 
lliej vested two hours. It is ewtain that six laborers in Gennany do more 
work in six days than twelTe Oaltfomians in twelve days. And, moreover, all 
their labor was lor their own or their countrymen's benefit; for the mij^^^ionary 
derived nothing but care and trouble from it, and might easily have obtained 
elsewhere the few bushels of wheat or Indian corn which he needed for his 
own consumption. 

For the rest, the missionary was the only refuge of the small and grown* 
the sick and the healthy, and he had to bear the burden of all concerns of the 
mission. Of him the natives req^uested food and medicine, clothing and shoes, 
tobacco for smokine and snuffing, and tools, if tbey intended to mann&ctnre 
anything. He had to settle their quarrels, to take eha^ of the infimts who 
had lost their parents, to provide for the sick, and to appoint watchers by the 
dying. I have known missionaries who seldom said their office while the sun 
shone, so much were they harassed the whole day. Fathers Ugarte and Druet, 
for instance, worked in the fields, exposed to the hot sun, like the poorest 
peasants or journeymen, standing in the water and mire up to their knees. 
Others carried on the trades of tailors and carpenters, masons, brick-burners 
and saddlers ; they acted as j^hysicians, surgeons, organists, and schoolmasters, 
and had to perform the duties of parmts, guardians, wardens of hospitak, 
beadles, and many others. The intelligittit reader, who has so fiur become 
acquainted with the condition of the country and its inhabitants, can easily 
perceive fliat these exertions on the part of the missionaries were dictated by 
necessity, and he will, also, be enabled to imagine in what their rents and reve- 
nues, in California not only, but in a hundred other places of America, may 
have consisted. 


The account thus far given of the character and the habits of the Oalifor- 

nians will, to a certain extent, enable the reader to form, in advance, an esti- 
mate of their language. A people without laws and religion, who think and 
speak of nothing but their food and other things which they have in common 
with animals, who cany on no trade, and entertain no friendly intercourse wiih 
neighboring tribes, that consist, like themselves, only of a few hundred souls 
and always remain within their own small district, where nothing is to be seen 
but thorns, rocks, game, and vermin, such a people, I say, cannot be expected 
to speak an elegant and rich language. A man of sixty years ran away from 
my mission with his 8<m, a boy of wout six years, and they spent five yeais 
alone in the Oalifomian wilderness, when they were found and brought back to 
the mission. Every one can imagine how and on what subjects these two her- 
mits may have conversed in their daily intercourse. The returned lad, who 
had then nearly reached his twelfth year, was hardly able to speak three words 
in succession, and excepting toater, toood, Jire, sjiake, ynonse, and the like, he 
could name nothing, insomuch tli it he was called the dull and dumb Pablo, or 
Paul, by his own countrymeu. The story of this boy may almost be applied 
to the whole people. < 

Leaving atide a great many dialects and ofiiahoots, six entirely different 
languages have thus fiur been discovered in California, namely, the Laymdna, 
about the mission of Loreto ; the Cotshimi, in the mission of St. Xavier, and 
others towards the north; the Utshiti and thQ J^ericua in the south | the still 
unknown language spoken by the nationB whom Father Liitdk visited in 1766, 
during his exploration of the northern part <^ the peninsula ; and, lastly, the 
Walcuri language, of which I am now about to treat* having leamod aS much 
of it as was necessary for conversing with the natives. 

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The Wuicuri language* is of an exceedingly barbarous and rude description, 
by whidi rudeness, however. I do not mean a hard prouiiuciatiou or a suc- 
cession of many consonants, for these qualities do not form ihe ejsseucc of a. 
language, but merely its outward character or conformation, and are more or 
les^ imaginary, as it were, among those who are unacquainted with it. It is- 
well known that Italians and Frenchmen consider the German language as 
barbarous, while the Germans have the like opinion of the Bohemian or Polish 
languages ; but these impressions cease as soon as the Frenchmen or ItaUans 
can converse in German, and the Germans in the Bohemian or Polish tongues^ 

InthcWaicurialphabetthelctterso,y!^,/,x,xr are wanting, al^o the .v. except- 
ing in the tsh ; but the great deficiency of the language consists in the total 
absence of a great many w^ords, the want of which would seem to render it 
almost impossible fbr reasonable bdngs to converse with each other and to 
xeceiTe instruction in the Christian religion. For whatever is not substantial^ 
and cannot be seen or touched or otherwise perceived by the senses, lias no 
name in the "Waicmi language. There are no nouns whatever for expressing 
virtues, vices, or the different dispositions of the mind, and there exist only a 
few adjectives of this class, aamely, merry, sad, lazy* and angry, all of wMch 
merely denote such Iiumors as can be perceived in a person's face. All terms- 
relating to rational human and civil life, and a multitude of words lor signi- 
fying other objects, are entirely wanting, so that it would be a vain trouble to- 
look in the Waleml voeabnlaxj for ue following expressions: life, deatkf 
weatker, time, eoid, heai, world, ram, tPWy memory, kjiowledge 

honor, decency, cnmsolation, yeace, quarrel, mrmher, joy, imputation, mind, 
friend, friendship 1 truth, bashftilness, enmity, faith, love, hope, wish, desire, hatCr 
anger, gratitude, patience, meekness, envy, industry, virtue, vice, beauty, shape, 
eiekiuit, danger, fear, occasion, thing, pmU^metU, doubt, servant, master, vir- 
gin, judgment, suspicion, happiness, happy, reasonable, bashful, decent, clever^ 
moderate, pious, obedient, rich, poor, young, old, agreeable, lovely, friendly, 
half, quick, deep, round, contended, more, less, to greet, to tfiank, to punish, to 
he tiknt, to promenade, to complain, to teorehip, to doi^ to buy, to JbMer, t0 
earets, toperseeiOe, to dwell, to breathe, to imagine, to idle, to menlt, to coniole, 
to live, and a thousand words of a similar character, f 

The word living they have neither as a noun nor as a verb, neither in a 
natural nor a moral sense; but only the adjective alive. Bad, narrow, short, 
distant, UtUe, &e., they cannot express unless by adding the negation ja or 
ra I to the words good, unde, long, near, and much. They have particular 
words for signifying an old jjian, an old woman, a young man, a young tooman, 
and 80 forth ; but the terms old or young do not exist in their language. The 
WaXeuri contains only four words for denoting the di£Ebrent colors, insomuch 
diat the natives cannot distinguish in their speech yellow firom red, blue ftom 
green, black from brown, white from ash-colored, &;c. 

Now let the reader imagine how difficult it is to impart to the Califoruians 
any knowledge of European affairs ; to interpret for them some article itom a 

* Walcuri. Fatber Bogert's very curious account of the Isagoage is contained on pages 
197-194 of the '^NachhchieD." It comprises, besides the mnend remarks ou the char- 
aefeeristie ftatans of the language, the Lord's Prayer aod the Ci«ed, both with Bteral and 

free translations, and the conjugation of a verb. — W. W. T. — The Literature of American 
Aboriginal Languages^ by Hermann E. Ludeung, toith Additions and Corrections, by Professor 
WiUiam W, TSmsr, London, 1858, p. i^. 

It may be remarked in this place, that the author's name is printed in three difTerent ways, 
viz: Deger, Begert, and Baegert. In writing Baegert," I follow Waltz, who probably 
gives the correct spoiling of the name. 

tThe author adds; "And all noons in general that end in German in Ami, ktit, «tM, 
itn^, and sdka/i.*' 

i It will hardly be necessarv to mention that the Waicuri words must be pronounced as 
German. Excepting the tsch, which is replaced by the equivalent English sound tah, tho 
orthognphy of we Mtthor has stile^y been praserveo. 

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Kadrid newspaper, if one happens to be seen in California a year or more after 
its appearance ; or to enlarge upon the merits of the Saints, and to explain, for 
instance, how they renounced all vanity, forsnkiug princely possessions and 
even kingdoms, and distributed their property among the poor ; how their lives 
were spent in voluntary poverty, chastiQr, and hoBiility; and, fortber, that 
they subjected thetnsflves for years to the severest penances, conquered their 
passions and subdu*;d tlitir inclinations; that they devoted daily e;;:;ht aud 
more hours to prayer and contemplation ; that they disregarded worldly cou- 
eems and even their own lives ; slept on the bare groond, and al)8tained iVom 
meat aud wine. For want of words, the poor preacher baa to place bis finger 
to hid mouth in order to illustrate eating ; and concerning the comforts of life, 
every Californian will tell him that he never, us long as he lived, slept iu a 
bed ; that he is entirely unacquainted with such articles as bread, wine, and 
beer ; and that, excepting rats and mice, he liardly ever tasted any Itlnd of 

The above-mentioned and a great many other wordrf are wanting in the 
Waicui'i language, simply because those who speak it never use these terms; 
thdr almost animal-Uke existence and narrow compass of ideas rendering the ' 
application of such expressions Huperfluous. But concerning heat or cold, ram 
or siekneu, they content themselves by raying, it is warm, it rains, this or 
that person is sic/c, and nothing else. Seuteuces like the following': "The 
sickness has much weakened a certain person;" or, "cold is less endurable 
than heat;" or, ** after rain follows snnshine," &e., are certainly very simple 
in themselves and current among all peasants in Eorope, yet infinitely above 
the range of thought and Bpeech of the Californians. 

They cannot express the degrees of relationship, for in8temtce,JatAer, mothert. 
ion, brother, nor the parts of the human body, nor many other words, such as 
toord or tpeedk, hreatk, ^otai, comrade, ifc., singly and without prefixing the 
possessive pronouns my, tJnj, our, SfC. They say, therefore, beddre, eddrc, tidre, 
kepeddre, ifc., that is, )ny, tJiy,his, our father i and hecuc, ecuc, ticue, kepecue, 
that is. my, thy, his, our mother. So also mapd, etapd, tapd, that is, my, thy, 
Mi ftrehead, liBneami, emami^ <MumA, that is. my, thy, hie noHs beUadop 
etanta, tUhania, my, thy, his word; mmembeH, enembeH, tenembeA, my, thy, hie 
pain, 8fv. But no Californian who speaks the Waicuri is able to pay what the 
words are, cue, apd, namv,, tania, and nembeH, express, for father, forehead, 
word, or pain are significations which they never thought of using in a general 
seose, and far less has it ever entered their minds to speak, for instaneCt of the 
duties of a father, of a gloomy, a serene, a narrow or large forehead, wr to make 
a long, a flat or an aquiline nose the subject of their conversation. 

The Waicuri language is exceedingly deficient iu prepositions and conjunc- 
tions. Of the first dass of words, there exist only two that have a definite ap- 
plication, namely, tiSaa, om or upon, wad dive or tiptteheU, which is equivalent 
to the phrase on account of oi' for (propter.) The prepositions out, in, before, 
through, with, for (pro,) against, by, SfC., arc either represented by the words 
me,pe, aud te, which have all the same meaning, or ihuy are not expressed at 
all. The article is entirely wanting, and the nouns are not declined. The 
conjonction tehie, tmd, is always placed after the words which it has to connect \ 
the other conjunctions, such as that, but, than, because, neither, nor, yet, as, 
though, SfC., are all wanting, and likewise the relative prououns which ixnd toho, 
so frequently occurring in other languages. They nave no adverbs derived 
fiom adjectives, and hardly any of the primitive class. The comparative and 
superlative cannot be expressed, and even the words more and less do not exist, 
and instead of saying, therefore, Peter is taller and has more than Paul, they 
have to use the paraphrase, Peter is tall and has much, Paul is not tall and 
heu not much. 

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Passing to the verbs, I will mention that these have neither a conjunctive 
nor a mandative mood, and only an imperfect optative mood, and that the pas* 
4iT0 form is wantinjf as well as llie reciprocal Terb, wbieli is used in the Spanish 
and French langaages. The verbs have only one mood and three tenses, vvt^ 

a present, proterit, and future, which are formed by affixinj; certain endings 
to the root of the vri b, namely, in the present re or rcke ; in the preterit ri^i/i, 
rujere, raupc, or rau^cre ; in the future me, meje or eneme* 

Sometimes the natives prefix the syllable ih» or a alone to the plnral of the 
▼erVf or change its first syllable into ku; for example, piabaki, to fight, umuti^ 
to i«emember, jakc, to chat ; but kupiabake, kumutH, and kudke, when they 
will indicate that there arc several persons fighting, remembering, or chatting. A 
few of their verbs have also a preterit passive participle ; for example, tsAtpake, 
to beat, tsJiipitshurttt a person that has been beaten, plural kutipaH, Some 
nouns and adjectives are likewise subject to changes in tlio plural number, as, 
for instance, anal, woman, kdnat, Avomen ; entudUu, ugly or bad, and entudi' 
tdmmaA bad or ugly women. Be expresses I, mc (mihi,) 7/2€ (im:) and ?ni/ ; 
ei means thouy thee (tibi,) tJiee (te) and thyt and so on through aU the personal 
and possessive pronouns. Yot bwitn or hOieAn signifies also my, and ee&H or 
mticun, tliy. 

They know nothing of metaphors, for which reason the phrase blessed ts t/ie 
^uit of thy womb in the " Hail Mary" has simply been replaced by thy ekiid. 
On the other hand they are very ingenious in giving names to objeeta with 
which they were before unacquainted, calling, for instance, the door, mouth; 
bread, the light; iron, the heacy ; wine, bad water ; a trun, bow; the function- 
aries of tlic miasiiou, bearers of canes i the Spanish ca^itaiu, wild or cruel j oxen 
and cows, deer; horses and mules tUskiim-^A, that is> tUMd of a wise molther; 
and the missionary, in speaking of or to him, ts^t^portAt which means one «mb 
has his house in the nortJi, ifc. 

In order to converse in such a barbarous <aud poor language, a European has 
to change, as it were, his whole nature and to become almost a Galfomiaa htm- 
aelf ; bat in teaching the natives the doctrines of the Ohristian rdigion in their 
own language, he is very often compelled to make use of paraphrases which, 
when translated into a civilized language, must have an odd and sometimes 
even ridiculous sound to Europeans; and as the reader may, perhaps, be curi- 
ous to know a little more of Uiis pecnliar language, I will give as specimens 
two articles from the Walcuri catechism, namely, <A« Lord's Prayer and the 
Crcrd, each with a double interpretation, and also the whole conjugation of the 
verb amukiri-X 

Conceruiug this Oalifomian Lord's Prayer and Creed and their interpreta- 
tions, the reader will take notice of the following explanatory remains : 

I. The first translation, which stands immediately under the Oalifomian text, 
is perfectly literal and shows the structure of the Waicuri language. Tlii- 
version must necessarily produce a bad effect upon European ears ; whereas the 
second translation, which is less literal and tiherefore more intelligible, may serve 
to eonvey an idea how the Waicuri text sounds to the natives themselves as 
well as to those who understand their idiom, and have become accustomed, by 
long practice, to the awkward position of the words, the absence of relative 
pronouns and prepositions, and the other deficiencies of the language. 

* From the conjugation of the verb amukiri, given at the end of this chapter, it is evident 
that these endiogs have no reforenee to the pfflcson or number of the tenaea, but bo indif- 
lerently employed. 

t Tliis compound woid illnstralos well the polysynthetic cliaractor of the Waicuri language. 

% We canaot be too thankful to Father Baegert, who, with all his oddity and eccentricity, 
llM had the philolo^^ical taato to praserre and explain a specimen of Ae Wsienii — a Jkvor 
the greater, n.s neither Venegas nor the polished Clftvigero has piesorved any Spedmen of 

a Calit'omian language, maco less a verb in full. 

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2. The words holy, church, God, ghost, commmian, grace, will, cross, virgin, 
name, iuU, kijtgdom, bread, trespass, temptation, creator, forgiveness, life, resur- 
neHoHf Lord, daily. Almighty, third, Sfc., are wanting in the Walcori language, 
4Uicl have either been paraphrased, when it was feasible, or replaced by corre- 
sponding Spanish w ordsi, in order to avoid too lengthy and not very intelligible 
sentences. Some words that could be omitted without materially changing the 
sense, such as daily in the Lord's Prayer, and Lord iu the Creed, have been 
^tarely dropped. 

3. The sentence " he shall come to judge the living and the dead" could not 
be literally translated, because the Californians are unable to comprehend the 
moral and theological sense of that passage and others ot similar character. 
Nor eould tihey be tao^t in Hie Oreeid that the flesh will live again, for by 
"flesh" they understand nothing but the meat of deer and cows. They would 
laugh at the idea that men were also flesh, aad consequently be led to believe in 
the re.surrei.tion of deer and cows, when they were told that the flesh will rise 
again on the day of judgment. 

4. In the Wa!teari language Skaven is nsoallj called oIm, that is, the above; 
aad also, but lesa fluently, tekerekddatemba, which means curned or arched 
earth or land, because the firmament resembles a vault or arch. Hell they have 
been taught to call the fire tJiat never expires; but this expression is not em- 
ployed in the Waiciiri Ureed. . 

lie Lar^s in Ae WaUuri langua>rc, with a literal Inmcbrftoii, dimring t&« «e«et 

succession of tltc toords. 

Kep6-d&re tokerokAtUtembi dai, 6l«ri akituik^-pu-me, tshikarrake- 

Oar Father arched earth thou art, thee O! that acknowlod^'o hU will, pnuae 
pu-me ti tshie: eciiu gracia — ri atiinu; oUe tekCTekadutcmbii tshie; ei- 
liUwill people and: thy ^nice O! that have will we arched eariU and; thee 

ri jebarrak^me ti pu jaQpe datembi, p<e eA jebarrakdre, aAna kda; kepecAn buo 
O! that obey will men all here c:irth, as thee obey, nbove are; our food 
kepe k6n jatupo uutairi; cate kuitslianaktb tei tshie kepecvlu atacamura, jiao kuitsharrakdr* 

U8 give this day; us forgive thou and our evil, as forgive 
catd tshio divape ataKi^akepeti;gakd; catd tikakambii tAi tshie cuvumeri catd 
we abo thej evil nsdo; us help thoaand dMarewiDnotweai^tUng 
atuki^ra; kepe kakunji pe utacdra tshie. Atnen. 
evil; U8 protect from evil and. Amen. 

Tk$ Mine in « Use Utend tnmtUuieu, 

Our Fsther, Then art in the Heaven ; O that all people may acknowledge and pr^se "niee I 

O that we may have Thy grace and Heaven ! O that all men may obey Theo here in the 
world as obey Thee who are above ! Our food give lu ou thia day, and torgive us our sins, 
•a we also forgive those who do us harm ; aiM help ns that we may not desire anything 
ttaftd, and protect us fiom eviL Amen. 

The tiB*lve aHicUs of tha Cr—d Uttrmlly trmnsUted, 

Inm^njiue p6 Dios Tiare uret)-pu-pudu6ne, t&Qpe me buara uretirikiri 
I believe in God his Father make all can, this of nothing h'ismade 
tekerekAdatembi atembi tshie. Irimaiyttre tshie pe t/ent Christo tUsfa^a ibe te 
aiclwd earth earth and. I believe idso in Jeans Christ his son alone— • 
tidre, 6te punj^re uo Espiriiu Santo, peddi'a tahie me Santa Maria virgen. 
his father's, man made by iluly Ghost, born and of Saint Mary virgin. 
Irimdnjure tshie tdu-v6repe Jssu Christo hibitsherikiri tenembeft aplbme lebitahfoe 
I believe also this same Jesus Christ suffered has his pain great commanding 
t^mme pe Judea Pontio Piiato; kntikOrre rikiri tfna cruz, pibikiri, kejenjiita rikiri 
being in Judea Pontius Pilate ; extended beeu on cross, ha.s died, under earth bunodis 
tshie; keritsbdu atemb4 b^nju, meak6nju untdiri tip^tshetdhutipd riJdri} tshukiti 
also; gone down earth below; three days auVe again has been; gonenp 
tekerekddatembk, peneld tshie me titshukot4 te Dios tiire ureti-pn-pudu6nQ» 
arched e^^rth, aits also his right hand of God his father make all can. 



aipurcve tonkle uteuri-ku-mGjo atacAmma atacilmmata ti tshie. Irim&njare pe 
from thenco reward eive come will good bad men also. I believe id 

£$mnlu Santo; irimiuy'are e|^ Santa (gUsia catholica, communion te kmyukaritt 

uxAj GhMt; Ibelieye tliere'is HoljCsthoHo Chtureh, eommtmion — washed 
li lallie. Irimdnjure kuitgharak6rae Dios kumb£te-didi-re, kut6ve-didi-re ti tshi* 
people also. I believe Ibrgive will God bate well, confess well men and 
kicun atacdmmam pinne pa. Irim^juro t^bie tipd tslietshiltipA me tibikla H "pt; 
their bad groat all. I believe and alive agi^ will be dead people all ; 
enj^me tfjpe d6i m^je- tucAva tshie. AnuH. 

mm ahre em will oe the i 

The same less lUe rally translated. 

I believe in God the Father, who can make everjUungj he has made of nothing Ibavas 
and earth. I believe alio in Jeatu Christ, the only Son of his Father; was made man hj 

tho Holy Ghost ; %vns bom of the Virgin Mary. I believe also this same Jftsus Christ 
suffered great paia while Pontius Pilate was commandiug in Judca: he was extended on 
the cross : he died and was boried ; he went below the eartL ; be became alive a^ndn fat three- 
days; he went up to Heaven ; he sitteth at the right hand of Gud his Father, who can make 
everything; he will come from thenco to give reward.s to the good and bad. I believe in the 
Holy Ghost; I bclicvo there is a Holy Catholic Church and communion of the baptized. I 
believe God will forgive those men who thoroughly hate and thoroaghly confess all their 
great dns. I beUavo also all dead men will bscome alive agwn, and ihen thej will h* 







play, Stc 
^amnkiri — re 

Sing. bd 

Plur. c&th 

akig, b» 
Plvp. calft 




have ])layed, Slc 

amukiri — rikiii 

iUKin — r 
or< — r 

I") will play, &e. 

he I amukiri — me 
— m6je 





Sing, amukiri tei, play thoo. 
Plur, amukiri tu, play yon. 



b6— ri^ 
ei — ri 
tutAu— ri 
, eatd— ri 

pet6 — ri 
tuc4va — ^ri. 

( Would to 
God, I, 

amukiri— rikirikira 1 thou, he, 

1 we, you, thqr 

liad not 
, played ! 

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yote on the Cora and fFalcurt lamgMMgt$f k§ Franci$co PimetUd,* 

Faiher Ortega refers iu vuriuus places to the grammar of the Cora bug^uage which he in 
tended to write; but the work, if it was ever wntteu, h&s been lost, Htnce there is no mention 
of it, and it Ls unknown to bibliographers. 

The Cora direct is known also by the names of Chora, Chota, and Nayarita. This last 
uune ooDes from the fiKi that It was molnii, and Is still so, in the mountains of Nayarit hi 
the State of J;lll^^co. There is another idiom culle'l Cora in California, which is a dialect of 
the Guaicora or V'aicora, differing from that spoken iu Jalisco. I have compared various 
words of the Goidcam and Uia Cora of JaHsoo^ and have found them entirely diffnwnt. 





Kui th urweild. 


flrnnoihiiiflr - 


You . 



Pelehbe. .. 


Acta . 

Mehtevi , 


Xeucat . 
Teatxahuatcacame . 


Nei^ne, nea . . . 

Apuc, ap 

Aehpu, aehp. 


Ammo, an 

AeluDo, aehm.. 



Ana, fana...... 





Tiperie, tiyaoh 

















lie, me, ml, nu 

Ei, e, et. 








Note relative to the Author. — The only facts concernitif^ the author, which I was 
able to obtain while engaged in translating his work, are contained in De Backer's Biblio- 
thimte de$ Eerivaing d» Is CompagnU de Jestu, LUge 18SI9, Vol. ▼, p. 28. 

The author, whose name is rrivcn here aa Jacob Begert, was bom (17J7) at Schlettstadt 
(Upper Rhine.) He went to California Ln 1751 and preached the Gospel there till tho decree 
of Charles III tore tho Jesuits from their missions. Ou returning to Europe, he retired to 
Kenburg in Bararia, where he died in the month of December, l77iL CJavigaio stands as 
•nthority for aseribter tiie **Naehriehten** to lum, and ft ia also mentioned ihat tho ''BerUn* 
'ache litterarische T^chenblatt," (1777, vol. ii, p. 625,) contains an extract of the work. 
Meosel's largo work on German authors, entitled "Das golehrte Deutschland," is given as 
the source from which these statements an* derived. 

The "Nachrichten" appeared first in print in 1772, the same year in which the author died, 
yvho consequently could nave survived the publication of his work only a short time. The 
copy iu my hands, which was printed iu 17?:^, is not properly a second oditiOO, boftmcnll^ft 
reprint, in which the most glaring typogrsphical errors are corrected. 

^ BokUndala Sodedad Hezieaaa doGeografiay Eitadistiea. llestoo^ 1868^ toiao viii, 
U, ]». AOS, Ae. 

uiyui^cu Ly Google 


or THE 


BY cuai:ij:s n\v\ or ni:v.' yokk. 

My collection of Indi ui stono implements contains a number of specimens 
remarkable alike for large Jiize and superior workmanship, which, to all appear- 
ance, have been used for agricultural purposes by the aborigines of this country ; 
and* BB no description of Bumilar relics has appeared as yet in any modem work 
on Nortb American etlmology or antiquities, a notice thereof might be acceptable 
to all who take an interest in the fonner <M>ndition of the aboriginal inhabitants 
of North America. 

The implements in question are of two distinct forms, represented in the wood- 
cuts, figures 1 and 2, and may be classified, from their shape and probable 
apjilication, as shovels and hoes. The material from which they are chipped, 
and which I never succeeded in discovering in situ, is invariably a very hard 
flint of a bluish, gray, or bronruish color, and a slightly conchoidal fracture, and 
quite nnlike that variety of flint of whidi the arrow and spear heads ocenrring 
in Ae west are nsnall j made. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 3. 

fig. 1 represents one of the shovels in my possession. Like all other speci- 
mens of this kind, it is an oval plate, flat on one side and slightly convex on the 
other, the outline forming a sharp edge. It measures above a foot in length, a 
little more than five inches in its greatest breadth, and is about three-quarters 
of uu inch thick along the longitadinal diameter. The workmanship exhibits 
an admirable degree of skill. Besides the specimen just described, which was 
discovered in a field near Belleville, St. Clair county, Illinois, I possess two 
Others of similar shape and workmans^bip. The one of these last named I found 
myself within sight of the celebrated (Jahokia temple-mound in Illinois, in the 
constmelion of which it may have assisted centuries ago ; the other was dug up 
in 1861 in St. Lonis, while earthworks were boilt by wder of General Frte>nt 
for the protection of the city against an apprehended attack of the sonthem 
secessionists. When attached to solid handles, these stone plates certainly con- 
stituted very efficient digging implements. 

Fig. S illastrates the shape of a hoe. This specimen, which was obtained - 
from a burial-mound near Illinoistown, opposite St. Loui<, is seven and a half 
inches long, nearly six inches wide, and about half an inch thick in the middle; 
the round part is worked into a sharp edge. Another specimen of my collec- 

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tion, of equal workmanship but inferior in size, was found, after a heavy rain, in 
a garden in the city of Belleville. The fastening to a handle was facilitated by 
the two notches in the upper part, and, in order to constitute a hoc, the handle 
-WBB douhtlesB attached in sitch a manner as to form a right or ena an acute 
angle with the stone plate. 

If the shape of the described implements did not indicate their original use, 
the peculiar traces of wear which they exhibit would furnish almost conclusive 
evidence of the manner in which they have been employed ; for that part with 
"which the digging was done, appears, notwithstanding the hardness of the mate- 
lialf perfectly smooth, as if glazed, and slightly striated in the direction in which 
the implement penetrated the ground. This peculiar feature is common to all 
specimens of my collection, and also to the lew which I have seen in the pos- 
aeaaion of others. They seem to be rather scarce, and merely confined to the 
States bordering on the Mississippi river. Dr. E. H. Davis, of New York, has 
none of them in his cxcellont and comprehensive collection of Indian rclici?, and, 
consequently, does not describe or represent them in his work on the ''Ancient 
Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," forming the ilrst volume of the Smith- 
sonian publicatioos ; nor am I aware that Mr. Schoolcraft has mentioned them 
in his lai^ work on the North Americau races. 

A passage in the " Ili.-^tory of Louisiana," by Du Pratz, possildy refers to 
the implements described by nic as hoes. In speaking of the ii;^ricultuial pur- 
suits of the Indians of Louisiana, that author observes, they had invented a hoe, 
(ploche,) with the aid of which they prepared the soil for the culture of maise. 
" These koet" he says, " are shaped like a capital L ; they cut with the edge 
of the lower part, which is entirely flat.^^* It is true, he does not mention of 
what material this "lower part" consisted, but we may safely infer that it was 
Btone, the substance from which the aborigines of North America manufactured 
nearly all their implements of peace and war. They hbd no iron, and the 
scanty supplies of native copper, derived from the region of Lake Snpnior, were 
almost exclusively used for ornamental purposes. 

The fact itself that simple agricultural utensils of Indian origin aio occasion- 
ally met with is by no means surprising, for we know from the accounts of the 
early writers that many ot the North American tribes nused maiae and a few 
odier nutritious plants before the arrival of the Europeans on this continent. 
Maize was, however, their principal produce, and that on which they mainly 
depended. In d'>scribing the ill-fated Mississippi expedition oi' Do Soto, Gar- 
cilaso de la Vega speaks repeatedly of the extensive maize fields of lliose Ladlaa 
tribes dirough whose territories that band of hardv adventurers passed. During 
an invasion of the country of the Senecas, made as early as 1687 under the 
Marquis de Nonville, all their Indian corn was burned or otherwise spoiled, and 
the quantity thus destroyed is said to have amounted to 400,000 minots, or 
1,200,000 bushel8.t It is even asserted by Adair, that the colonists obtained 
from the Indians " different sorts of beans and peas with which they were before 
entirely unacquainted." J 

From these and other facts, which need not be cited in this place, \vc learn 
that the North Americau Indians generally, though warriors by disposition and 
hunters by necessity, had, nevertheless, already made some steps towards an 
agricultural state. But the events that happened after the arrival of the whites, 
instead of adding to their improvement, served only to lower their condition, and 
reduced them, finally, to the position of strangers in their own land. 

*CMpioehe8SontfiiitaseainiiieimDLcq>itaIe; ellffs tvBneheiit par ks eM6s du boot bss 
qui eat tout plat.— fiweetn tf« la £mn«i«M, par M. Le FSage da Frata, (Puis, 1788^) voL il, 
p. 176. 

tDoeamentary Histmy of New York, toI. I, p. 238. This eBtimate may be aooBewhal 


X^UiQ Uistorj of the American ludiaus, Junies Adair, (London, p. 40d. 

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It has frequently biH'ii observed tli:it there exists a certaia resemblance be- 
tween archjEology and geoloj^y. iiotwithataiiding the different character of the 
results obtained by these sciences, and the parallelism wbicli they exhibit is 
really of Boffieient distioetness to justify a oomparison. By examining the 
petrified remains of animals and plants that are found in the layers composing 
the crust of the earth the geologifit determines the different phases in the history 
of our planet; while the student of archaeology, in endeavoring to throw light 
on the former condition of mankind, has to rely in a great measure on the ruins 
of bwlding^, on earthworks, implements of various kinds, organic remainSi and 
other traces left by those who passed away long ago from the scene of life. 
But even in the results of the two science8 the analo<2^y id not entirely wanting, 
in so far as the geologist, though succeeding in establishing the relative age of 
the strata, is unable to determine with any degree of certainty the time that 
was require/1 to form the stony shells surrounding our globe ; and in treating 
of ante-historic period.s, the urehreologist, likewise, is at a loss to fix the period 
when a people existed, of wlioso conditions of life, manners, and domestic 
habits lie can give the most satistactory account. I will mention in this place 
only two recent discoveries in archaeology, namely, the iloetMlrtM villages of Swits- 
erUudd, Italy, and Germany, and the j^joekkeiimoeddiugs or refuse-heoft OCCnr- 
ring on the Danish islands. In both ca.'?es we obtain, by the minute researches 
and ingenious conclusions of scientiiic investigators, a knowledge of certaiu 
populations concerning whom history is entirely silent; and while wo have be- 
come acquainted widi their character and manner of living, we neither know 
their names, nor are we able to determine the period when they inhabited those 
places which abound with tokens of their former existence. The lake-dwell- 
ings as well as the Kjoekkenmoeddtiigs have been described in the Smithsonian 
puDlications* and elsewhere, and it would be useless to enlarge here on these 
subjects; but as I intend in this sketch to treat of American remains similar 
to the KJoekkenmoeddings , I will merely d(;votc a few words to the latter memo- 
rials of antiquity. On the coasts of the Danisii islands and along the fjords of 
Jutland there occur extensive heaps of shells, mostly of the oyster, which were 
orasidered for a long time as formations of the sea, until of late thehr artificial 
character was established by Danish savans, who proved them to be the accu- 
mulated refuse of the repasts of a people that dwelt in former ages, beyond the 
record of history, on the shores of these islands. 

The indications of the artificial origin of these shdl-heaps chiefly conrist in 
a total absence of stratification which always characterises marine dbposits, and 
in the fact that the rubbish contains rude Hint implements, fraj^ments of coarse 
pottery, fireplaces, charcoal, cinders, and the bon"S of various animals, some 
of which are now extinct in those parts, as for instance the urus, f Bos urus 
or primigemM$,J beaver, and auk or penguin, C Aiea impenmt, Lin.J But 
neither bronze nor iron has been discor^d in these places, from which it may 
be inferred that the inhabitants were unacquainted with the use of metals, and 

*A]UiiiAl Smithsonian B«ports for 1860 and 1861. 

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belonged to that remote period whieh is eaUed -ihe age of stone" by the ardus 

ologists of Europe. 

From the ialaiids of the Baltic sea I will now turn to the shores of New 


While spendiug, diirine the summers of 1863 and 1864, some weeks at Kej- 
port» Monmouth conn^, jNew Jersej* a small town situated on Baritan bay, I 

examined within the precincts and in the neighborhood of that place several 
shell-deposits which are unmistakablv artificial and the memorials of the In- 
dians who formerly inhabited this region.* These deposits evideutly owe their 
origin to the same canses which prodneed tiie Daoisn I^oeUcamoedding*^ to 
which they correspond in all essential poiats* oonskitnting aeenmnlations of cast- 
AWay shells, which sometimes merely form a more or less deiif^e covering of the 
sandy surface, but also in a few instances beds or layers intermingled with sand 
and pebbles, in which case they assume the shape of irregular hillockti or 

The shell-deposits of Keyport indicate the places where the aborigines were 
4WCUstomed to feast upon the spoils of the neighboring beach, remiirkable for 
its abundance of oysters, clams, and other eatable m dlusks. They selected for 
this purpose favorably situated localities at some diijtauce from the shore, and 
^ufBeiendy elevated to be out of reach of high tide ; and in a few cases that 
fell under my notice, the shell-beds are contigoons to creeks which run into the 
beach and probably aflforded the means of transporting the supply of shell-fish 
in canoes from the sea directly to the place ot encampment. The principal 
food of the aboriginal coast-population was evidently furnished by the common 
oyster ((htna borealit, De Kay) and the hard-shell clam (Vtmu mereenanot 
Jjm») for their ▼ahres, partly very old and frequently broken, constitute almost 
entirely these accumulations of shells ; but the common periwiukU' (Pyrula 
<anaiiculata and P. carica, De Kay J is also often met, and was probably euteu 
by the aborigines, as it is at present by some ci their Caucasian successors. 
I found only two or three specimens of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenanot 
jLMk») among the shell-heaps, and none of the common black mussel f Mytilui 
edulis, Lin.) The last-named species, however, does not occur in great num- 
bers in the neighborhood of Keyport, and the soft-shell clam has, as its name 
indicates, very thin and perishable tsItcs, the fragments of which may lie buried 
among the thicker and more durable shells ut' the other moUusks. It would 
be rash, therefore, to suppose the soft-shell chjm had been excluded from the 
bill of fare of the Indian.-^. Among these remains of mollusks the broken bones 
of animals are occasionally met with, though generally in such an advanced 
Btate of decsy that theur character can no longer be determined; for, owing to 
tile non-conservative quality of the sand which surrounds them, they have be- 
come entirely destitute of animal matter, and will almost crumble to pieces 
■when handh'd for examination. The direct evidences of the occupancy of these 
places by the Indians are not wanting, and consist of numerous fragments of 
pottery and stone implements of the usual kind* otherwise very scarce in this 
part of New Jersey. 

13y far the most extensive shell-bed I hiul an opportunity to examine occurs 
on the farm of Mr. George Poole, situated a mile and a half northeast of Key- 
port, and about three quarters of a mile south of a small projection of the coast 
known as Oonaskonck Point. The road leading from Keyport to die village 
of Union passes through the farm lands, which occupy an area of ninety acres. 
This locality was doubtless for many generations the abiding place, or at least 
ihe periodical resort, of the Indians, and traces of their former presence in the 

*31y attention was iirst directed to these aboriginal xemaios bj the Bev. Samuel Lock- 
wood, a scientUic gentleman of Keypor^ who had recegahMd their trae eharaeter befiue I 
msde aaj inrsitigatioDfl. 

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Bhape of cast-away slielLs, anow-poiats, and broken pottery, may be discovere'l 
almost in every field belonging to the faxm. Their principal camping groundr 
however, was situated close to the load already mentioned, and is indicated by 
the dark dotte d spaco on the accompanying plan. Here we have a Kjoekkenmoed' 
ding in the real t^ense of the word. Seen from a distance* this place has almost 
the appearance of a siiow-covered 
field, owing to the great number 
of bleached shells constitating this 
deposit, which spreads over an 
area of six or seven acres and 
forms several extensive heaps or 
monndfl of an average height of 
about five feet. But these lieaps 
donotexchisivcly coiisistof shells : 
the latter are mostly imbedded 
iu sand, probably carried thither 
by the action of winds — ^by »olic 
action, as science calls it — and in- 
termingled with innumerable peb- 
bles representing vaiious mineral 
substances, among which those of 
the qnartz £imily seem to pre- 
dominate. As in other localities 
of the neighborhood, the shells on 
this spot are the remains of oys- 
ters, fiaid-shell clams, and peri- 
winkles, the last-named kind of 
shell-fish being represented, as 
elsewhere, by a comparatively 
small number of specimens. 

That eonsUerable time was re- 
quired to heap np these sheUs is 
evident, and, moreover, indicated 
by the chalky, porous appear- 

^^i*y oi" mi"iy of the valves, while those that were cast away at later 
periods exhibit these signs of decay in a far less degree, and are even sometimes 
u^nnd as though they had but lately been left on the shore by high water. 
A great nuraberof the shells arc broken, especially those of dams, which seem 
to be more brittle than oyster shells. This breakin- into fragments is caused by 
the sudden changes of temperature, in consequence of which the valves crack and 
lUtmiately fall to pieces. Concerning the depth of this deposit, I learned that 
about twelTe years ago several handled loads of shells were taken away firom 
a certain spot for making a road. The excavation thna produced reached 
about eight feet downward, and the mass was found to consist throughout that 
depth of shells, sand, and pebbles. My own diggings, which were, hewever,. 
of a more snperficial character, led to the same result. This shell-bed is about 
half a mile distant from the shore at low tide, and the intervening area con- 
sifltB chiefly of so-called salt-meadow. In transporting the shelCfisk to ih» 
campmg place it is probable that the aborigines availed themselves of a small 
i^eless creek (marked a on the plan) running towards the sea, west of the 
shdl-bed, an^ not very distant fifom it This creek, though rather natrow, ia 
snmciently deep for canoe navigation during high water, and joic* the more 
considerable Conaskonck creek, which flows into the beach. There was, con- 
sequently, a water connexion between the sea and the camp. The space en- 
dosed by a dotted line on the accompanying plan indicates the continuaiion, 
or rather the running out, of the shdl-bed just described ; for here the sheila 

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are by far less nuraeroiis, and form no longer heaps, but lie thinly scattered 
over the ground, which is partly under cultivation, and swampy in some 
places, as marked iu the drawing, by which it is ouly intended to show ap- 
prozimately the location and extent of the deposit. 

By searching among these sheU-heape and in the adjaicent fields I obtained 
more than tliree liundi ed specimens of Indian manufacture, consisting of stone 
axes, arrow and spear-pointa of different shapes, flint knives, and many pieces 
of broken crockery. The tomahawks, which consist of greenstone or sand- 
etone, are of the nanal shape, and eneneled with a groove for attaching them 
to a handle. The material of the arrow and spear-heads is either flint, com- 
mon quartz, greenstone, or a kind of dark slate. The specimens made of the 
two last-named mineral Huhstances have a rather clumsy appearance, owing to 
the roughness of the material ; but those wrought of flint are mostly well 
•haped and present pretty good samples ni aboriginal art. That the manu- 
facture of arrow-beads was carried on in this place is evident from the great 
number of flint chips which lie scattered among the shells ; and, moreovor, I 
picked up several unfinished arrows, which were thrown aside as useless in 
oonseouence of a flaw or wrong crack, or some other irregularity in the mate- 
fiaL These specimens aze in so far interesting as they iUostrate the prooess 
of anow-making. The fiagments of pottery which I collected here consist 
of a dark clay, either mixed with coarse sand, or pure, and for the most part 
rather slightly burnt ; some of the sherds still bear the ornamental lines and 
notches cut m the Bnr&uoe of the vessels. The mixing of the day with 
pounded shells does not seem to have been practised by the Indiana of this- 
region. I found also a fragment of an apparently large vessel cut out of a 
talcose stone. A few day beads were plated np on &e spot, bnt I did not 
obtain any uf them. 

The last Indians who visited perlodkalljtiie neighborhood of Key port, even 
within the recollection of old people, belonged, according to the statement of 
my informant, to the tribe of NarvaganBetts. They made their appearance 
every year and caught t^hcil-fish, which they dried for winter use. Their en- 
campment, however, was not on the spot of which I have given a description, 
but ra Pleasant Valley, a little less than foor miles sonth of Eeyport. 

I am informed that similar shell-beds occur on Long Islano, whwe the 
neighboring ftmnera use tlie phells for burning lime. Two centuries and a 
quarter ago the Dutch colonists of Manhattan inland made the same use of the 
snells heaped up by the Indians of that locality. The account of I^ew Neth- 
erland given by the Jesnit missionary Isaac Jogues, contains the following 
passage relative, to the subject : 

"Tbero are some houaes built of etoue; lim* thej make of oyster shells, great heaps of 
wUeh are found here, made fotmerly by the saniges, who sobeist in part by mat fiahaiy.'* * 

Sir Charles Lyell saw on St. Simon's island, near the mouth of the Alta^ 
maha river, in Georgia, large Indian shell-monnds, of which he gives the 

lowing description : 

** We landed on the northeait end of Si. Simon's island, at Camion's Pcrint, where we were 
mtified by the si^bt of a eoriont momnnent of the Ihdbtiis, the largest mound of shells left 

VJ the iiborif^ines m sdj one of the sea islands. Hero are no less than ten iicres of glOOnd, 
Mevated iu uome places teu teet, and ou an average over the whole area live ieet, above the 
gaosrai level, composed throngbout that depth of myriads of cast oyster shells, with somo 
imusels, and here and then a modiola sxkd helix. Tiiej who have seen the Monte Testaoeo, 

* Memoir of a Captivity amone the Mohawk Indians, a Description of New Netherland 
hi 164d-*4:<, uhl otnor Papers, ov Father Isaac Jogues, of the Society of Jesus, with a 
Memoir of the Author, by John Gumsry Shea, (New York, 1857,) p. 57. ' In the orifrinal the 
passage runs thus: **I1 ya queiqaes logis bastjs de piene; ils font la chaux avec des 
eoqiuilles cVhuistres dont il y a do giaas mon c esnx firits antreCbis p les sanvages, <pA vivsot 
«a paitie de cetto pesehe.'* 

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uenr Rouip, know what great rcsnU.« may proceed from insif^nificant causes where the cuina- 
lative power of time has been at work, »o that a hill way bu fornieU out of (he brokea i>ot- 
tecy rqeeted by the population of a large city. To tliem it will appear unoeccasary to infer, 
as some antiquaries aave done, from the magnitude of these ludiun mounds, that they must 
bave been thrown up bj the sea. In refutation uf such an hypothesis, we have the net that 
flint arrow-heads, atone ajEBi, «n4 fiwgmeott of ladhw pottMj have been delected thievgli* 
ent the mass." * 

The same author noticed shell-deposits on the coa»^t8 of Massachusetts. 
During h'£ voyage round the world Mr. Darwiu saw shell-heaps in the 
island of Tierra del Fuego. He says : 

"The inhabitants, living cliietiy upon shell-ticih, are obliged constantly to cbaom thair 
place of residence ; but they return at intervals to the same Biwts, as is evident Som the 
piles of old shells, which must often amount tu many tons in weight. These heaps can he 
distinguished at a long distaooo by the bright green color of certain plants which mvariablj 
glow on them." t 

We may expect to meet with artificial sbdl-aceumnlations, or at least traces 

of them, almost in all parts of the American coasts where an aboriginal popu- 
lation existed, and they have already been found in various places besides 
those mentioned, as for instance in Newfoundland and in Galitoruia, and we 
aliaU donbdefis hear of fitrther discoreriea as 86011 aa proper attention is paid 
to tfaeae memorials of the native inhabitants of the American continent. 

The occurrence of the Danish refuse-heaps, whose age is lost In the dawn 
of history, and of similar comparatively recent deposits in America, shows 
that the conditions of existence of those Baltic islanders and the American 
coast inhabitants were essentially the same, and famishes a striking illnstrsr 
rion of the similarity in the development of man in both hemispheres. A 
thorough investigation of the American shfll-niounds will not only enable us 
to compare them more minutely with the corresponding remains of Europe, 
but maji jpoBsibly, disclose important facts relative to the former condition of 
the Amenean racer and thna enlarge onr stock of ethnologieal knowledge. 

* A Second Visit to the United Slatee of America, by Sir Charles LyeU, (New York, 18«9,) 

vol. i, p. 

t Journal of Researches, ^^c, by Charles Darwin, (New York, 1846,) voL i, p. ^i7it. 

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Tn' former time?, when the aborif^iual inliabitantHi of tbii? country were still in 
poBBessioa of their own lands, and their mode of living had not been changed 
by the intrasion of the pale-faced Caucasian, the art of pottery was practued 
by them to a eoosiderable extent. This braoeh of industry lost, however, miteh 
of its importance among the Tiulians so soon as they discovered the superiority 
of the vessels of metal, which they obtaiued in trafficking with the whites, and 
the durable kcttlu of iron or copper soon replaced the fragile and iiir lees ser- 
Ticeable eooking ntentil of day. The beginning of the dedine of this aborig- 
inal art is, therefore, of an early date, and at the present time it may be consid- 
ered as almost, if not entirely, extinct among the tribes still inhabiting the ter- 
ritory of the United States, excepting some in New Mexico and Axizona, who 
have not yet abandoned the manufacture of earthenware. As late as 1832, 
when Mr. Gatlin visited the nations of the Upper Missouri, he fonnd the Man- 
dans still diligently practising the ceramic nrt ; but the ravages of the small-pox 
have reduced their number to a few, and it is probable that vessels of day arc- 
no longer made in those r^ions. 

The ^qnois, of New l^rk, those survivors of the once powerfol Oonfedem- 
tion who have escaped the fate of being driven toward the setting sun, and are 
still permitted to dwrll nj)oii tlieir native soil, have ceased long ago to fabricate 
earthen vessels. So I am inlbrnied by Dr. Peter Wil.son, De-jih-non-da-weh- 
hoh, grand chief of the Six Nations of New York. " The manufacture of pot- 
teiy," says my correspondent, ** has long since been discontinued among our 
people; uke most other utensils, clay vessels have been superseded by utensils 
of the manufacture of the race who introduced among us the implements which 
are more durable and convenient. Such implements and other articles used 
among us only remftin, or are being manufiwtured. as are not superseded by ar- 
tides which the itigenuity of the pale fiice replaces." The same remark can 
probably be applied to the other tribf's enst of tlu; Uocky Mountains. 

That the fabrication of earthenware was once carried to a great extent among 
the Indians, is shown by the great number of sherds which lie scattered over 
the sites of their former villages and on their camping places ; but th^ are, 
perhaps, nowhere in this country more numerous than in the " American Bot- 
tom," a strip of land which extends about one hundred miles along the Missis- 
sippi, in Illinois, and is bounded by the present bank of that river and its 
former eastern confine, indicated by a range of picturesque wooded bills and 
ridges, commonly called the " Bluffs." This bottom, which is on an average 
six miles wide and very fertile, wa:' formerly the seat of a iinin<'rouH indigenous 
population, and abounds in tumular works, cemeteries, atul other memorials of 
the subdued race. Among the lesser relics left by the former occupants may 
be counted the remnants of broken vessels, which occur very abundantly in 
various places of this re^n. These firagments are, however, mostly small ; 
and, according to my experience, entire vessels arc not found on the surface, 
but frequently in the ancient mounds and cemeteries, where they have been de- 
posited with the dead as receptacles for food, to serve on their journey to the 
nappy land of spirits. 

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About Bix yearB ago, while living tn the west, I was nnnh gratified by the 
discovery of a place in tlie American Bottom where the mannfactore of earthen- 
ware was cviilently carried on by the Indians. The locality to which I allude 
IB the left bank of the Cahokiii creek,* at the northern extremity of Illinois- 
town, opposite St. Louis. At tlie point just mentioned the bank of the creek is 
somewhat high and steep, leaving only a small space for a path along the water. 
When I passed there for the mt time, I noticed, scattered over the slope or 
protruding from the gronnd, a great man}' pieces of pottery of much larger size 
than I had ever seen before, mxm; being of the .«ize of a man's hand, and others 
considerably larger; and, upon examination, 1 found that they consisted of a 
grayish clay mixed with pounded shells. A gieat nnmber of old shells of die 
KJMo, a bivalve which inhabits the creek, ^\ ^■l•c lying about, at«r their position 
induced me to believ*' that they had been brought there by human agency 
rather than by the ovf^fiowing of the creek. My curiosity being excited, I 
continued my investigation, and discovered At the upper part of the bank ao 
old fosse, or digging, of some length and depth, and overgrown with stranKK 
ninm or jimson weed ; and opon entering thi^ excavation, 1 saw near its bottom 
a layer of clay, identical in appearance with that which composed the frnp;ments 
of pottery. The excavation had unmistakably been dug for the purpose of ob- 
taining the clay, and I became now convinced beyond doubt that the fabrica- 
tion of earthen veeeels had been carried on by the aborigines at this very spot. 
All the requisites for manufacturing vessels were on hand ; the layer of clay 
furnished the chief ingredient, and the creek not only supplied the water for 
moistening the clay, but hai bored also the moUusks whose valves were used iu 
tempering it. Wood abdimded in the neighborhood. All these facts being as- 
certained, it was easy to account for the occurrence of the large fragments. 
Whenever pottery is made, some of the articles will crack during the process of 
burning, and this will happen more frequently Avlien tlu' rneiliod employed in 
that operation is of a rude and primitive character, as it doubtless was in the 
present case. The sherds found at this place may, therefore, with safety be 
considered as the remnants of vessels that were spoiled while in the fire, and 
thrown aside as objects unlit for nee. 

I did not succeed in finding the traces of a kiln or fireplace, and it if* proba- 
ble that the vessels were merely baked iu an open fire, of which all vestiges 
lunre been swept away long ago. The occurrence of the broken pottery was 
confined to a comparatively small area along the bank, a apace not exceeding 
fifty paces in length, as far as I can recollect. They were most numeron-? in 
the prozimily of the old digging, and at that ^lace quite a uumber of them were 
taken out of the creek into which they had fallen from the hank. Farther up 
the creek I saw another excavation in the bank, of much smaller dimensions, 
and likewise dug for obtaining clay. Among the shells and sherds I noticed 
many dints which had obviously been fashioned to serve as cutting implements; 
they were, perhaps, used iu tracing the oruamenlal lines ou the vessels or in 
smoothing tnelr snrbees. 

I did not find a single complete vessel at this place, but a great variety of 
fragment;^, the shape of which enabled me to dftermine the outline of the uten- 
sils of which they originally formed parts. This was not a very difficult matter, 

^Tlifs ereek runs In a soathvrardly direction tiirough Madiaon eoanty and a part of St. 
Clalr county, an l ompiies into thft Mississippi foor miles below St Loais, near the old 
French village of Cahokio. 

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espeeiaJly in cases when portions of the rim remained. Figures 1 and 8 rep- 
leMnt (in sections through the middle) the prevailing forms of the ▼easeb 

1 « 

The rim, it will be seen, is formed into a lip and tnrned over, in order to facili- 
tate BuspcDsion ; Bometimee, however, it is cut off abruptly, as in Fig. 3. Some 
of tbe Tessels-Hmore especially the smaller ones — were provided with ears, like 
Fig. 4;* others had the enter rim set with oonical projecUons or studs, both for 
convenience and ornament ; and a few of the fragments exhibit very neatly in- 
dented or notched rims. In size these vessels varied considerably ; some 
measured only a few inches through tbe middle, while the largest ones, to 
judge from the cnrvatore of the rims, must have exceeded tteo Jea in diameter. 
Tbe bottom of the vensels mostly seems to have been ronnded or eonvex. I 
found not a single flat bottom-piece. This, however, may be merely accidental, 
considering that ilat-bottomed ve^sel;^ were made by the Indiana. The appear- 
ance of the fragments indicates that the earthenware was originally tolerably 
wen bnmed, and the fracture exhibits in many instances a reddish color. But, 
a."^ the art of glazing was unknown to the roannfacturerSt it is no wonder that 
the sherds, after liaving been imbedded for many years in the humid ground, or 
exposed to raiu and the alternate action of a burning sun and a severe cold, are 
now somewhat brittle and fragile ; yet, even when new, this aboriginal earthen- 
ware must have been much inferior in compactness and hardness to the ordinary 
kind of European or American crockery. 

Tbe thickness of the fragments varies from one-eighth to three-eigbths of an 
inch, according to the size of the vessels, the largest being also the strongest in 
materiaL But in each piece the thickness is uniform in a remarkable degree ; 
the rims ore perfectly circular, and tbe general regularity displayed in the work- 
manship of vessels renders it almost difficult to believe that the manufac- 
turers were unacquainted with the use of tbe potter's wheel. Such, however, 
W88 tbe case. I have already mentioned that tbe clay used in tbe fabrication 
of this earthenware i» mixed with coarsely pnlvoriaed unio-shells from the 
creek; only a f^^w of the smaller bowls or vases seem to consist of pure clay. 
The vessels were covered on the outside, and some even on both side?, with a 
thick coating of paint, either of a black, dark brown, or beautiful red color, and 

* I possess a small food vase of this shape, wliieh wai takeu out of an old Indian grave 
on the " Bluffs," near French village, six or seven miles eaat of lUiomstown. It was, per- 
hiqM, made at the very place which I have described. 

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in some fragments tbc latter Ptill retains its original brightncsp. Only one 
color, however, was u^ed in the painting of each article. It in evident tliut tlie 
coloring preceded the process of baking, and the surfaces thus coated are smooth 
and shining, tbe paint replaeing to a certain extent the enamel produced by 

That tbe aboriginal pottere on tbe Cabokia creek did not neglect tbc decorative 
art in their manafactures, is shown by the ornamental lines traced on the surface of 
their crockery. Tbe eimplest form of ornamentation oonsista in straight lines run- 
ning around tbe vessel parallel to the rim ; bnt they employed also other combi* 
nations of lines, of which figures 6, 6, 7, and 8 are examples. In some instances 

theinside only was ornamented. The lines are mostly drawn w ii b great regularity» 
and sometimes one-eighth of an inch wide, with acorrespondiue depth. I obtained, 
however, tnm the deposit at the Oahokia creek one small fragment, which ex- 
hibits a mneh higher degree of skill in the art of decoration than any of the others 

foutid at tbe same place. Figure 9 represents it in full 
size. This specimen is about three-sixteenths of an 
inch thick, and condsti of elay with an admixtm« of 
pulverixed granite, the components of which — quartz, 
feldspar, and mica — can be plainly diHtingnished in 
tbe fracture. It is well baked and of a light-gray 
color. The ornamental lines and notches are im- 
pressed, or, perhaps, scooped ont, with the -greatest 
accuracy, and the veesel, when complete, must have 
presented a very good ppecimen of aboriginal ceramic 
art. Whoever compares the annexed drawing with 
Fig. 5 on Plate 46 of the " Ancient Monnments of tbe 
Mississippi Valley," by Squier and Davis, will find 
that tbe originals of the representations are nearly alike in point of ornamenta- 
tion. Tbc latter drawing delineates a part of a vase found in one of the an- 
cient mounds of Ohio. Having seen tbe best specimens of " mound " pottery 
obtained during the survev of Messrs. Squier and Davis, I do not hesitate to 
assert that the clay vessels fabricated at the Cahokia creek were in every re* 
sprct equal to thope exhumed from tbe mounds of tbe Mississippi valley, ^md 
Dr. Davis himself, who examined my specimens from the first-named locality, 
expressed llie same opinkm. 

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Ono of tlie metliods employed by the Indians in the mnnufactare of earthen- 
ware was, to weave baskets of rushoa or willowt«. similar in shape to tho vespelg 
they intended to make, and to coat the inside of these baskets with clay to the 
required tbieknesB; the baskets, after being destroyed by the fire, left on the 
outer eorihce of the vessels peculiar impressions, resembling bask^work, which 
produce a voi y j)l('asiiip^ effect, and rrplico ornnmfntatinn to a certain extent.* 

With this Tiiethod the potters on the Cahoki.i creek were likewise acquainted, 
for I found a few pieces of their ware bearing the marks just mentioned. This 
sort of pottery, however, is not mixed with pounded shells, bnt with sand, and 
is much better baked than the othw kind; it has a pale^eddish appearance, 
and is not pninted. 

Lastly, 1 have to enumerate among the objects of baked clay obtained from 
the deposit in the American Bottom, two articles resembling the beaks of largo 
birds, perhaps detaclird pot or pan handles; a flat piece, forming the base of toe 
figure of some animal, of which, unfortunately, the tail only remains, and the 
remnant of a toy canoe. The layt named f>pecimen, probably made by some 
affectionate Indian mother for her little sou, was picked up from the bottom of 
the oeek. 

The question now arises, who were the makers of these manofiwtnree of clay? 
I sinjply ascribe them to the Cahokia Indian?, who dwelt, tmtil a comparatively 
recent period, on the banks of the creek that still bears the name of their tribe. 
OoDceming the antiquity of the manufactures described on the preceding pages, 
I am not prqwred to give an estimate. Only a hundred years may have elapsed 
since they were made, yet it is also possible thnt they are mxnoi older. The 
appearance of the fragments rather indicates u modern onj:^in. 

The writings of early, and even comparatively modern, authors on North 
America are not deficient in particalars relating to the art of pottery among the 
utttves. According to their statements, those tribes were most advanced in the 
manufacture of earthenware, who inhabited the large tracts of land formerly 
called Florida and Louisiana, which comprise at present the southern and south- 
western States of the Union; and their testimony is fully corroborated by the 
eharaeter of eneh specimens of pottery from those parts as have escaped destruc- 
tion, and are preserved in the collections of the country .f The Natchez, on the 
Lower Mississippi, perhaps the most civilized among the North American Indians, 
and supposed to be related to the Aztecs, were skilful potters. So we are told 
by the anonvmons Portuguese gentleman called the ** Knight of Elvas." who 
accompanied, towaids the middle of the sixteenth century, De Soto on his ad- 
venturous expedition through a great portion of the North American continent, 
and became afterwards the chronicler of that bold Spaniard's exploits. In the 
province of Naguatex, he states, clay vessels were made " which differed very 
Uttle from those of Estremoz or If ontemor." These two towns in Portugal are 
noted for their earthenwarct Du Pratz mentions Uie **Ecore Blanc.*' on the 

*Bartnun describes a vessel of this kind which be extracted from a shell-mound on one of 
Uw islands Dear the coast of Oeorgra.— 0af(ram*f TVcw/i, Dublin, 1793, p. 6. 

t" In some of the southeni Stfites, it is said, the kilns in -which tfio ancient pottery was 
baked are now occaHiuually to ho met with. Some are repiesonted still to contain the ware, 
partially burued, and reuiinmg the rinds of the ffourds, iVc, over which thoy were modelled, 
and which had not been entirely removed by the fire. In Panola county, Mississippi, are 
found (»reat uumbf rn of what are termed pottery kilns, in which are mavises of vitrified matter, 
frequf'iitly in the form of rude bricks, nieasuriug twelve iuches in knijrlh by ten in breadth. 
It seems most likely that these ktlnn are the remains of the mauufuc.'ones of the later tribes — 
the Choctaws and Natchez — *who,' says Adair, * made a prodigioos nnmberof veaselsof 
pottery, of such vaiicfv of forms as would be tedious to describe and impossiWo tO name,***— 
Ancient Monuments of t lie Mi»si:isippt I'alUy, Washington, 1648, p. 1U5. 

tYireinia Richly Valued, by thf Description of the Maine Land of Florida, her nextNeifrh* 
boor, £c. Written by a Portuffall Gentleman of Eluos, emploied in all the Action, and 
tnndated out of the Portugese by Bicbard Haklvyt, London, 1609, (reprhik of 181S, Sup- 
pleinnik,) 790. 

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Miesbsippi, uh ouc of the loc-nlities where the Natchez obtaiued clay lor their 
pottery, and likewise ^^Are to pnint it. "Wben coated with ochre," he rays, 

*'it becomes red after the burning " Else where, in epenkiDff of the mtmofacture 

of clay v«'i*B( l}4 by (he native.^ of L(mi-i;ina. tbc pame nntnor rcmarlcH ; "The 
women make potn of an extraordinary nize, jurtu with a email openiug, bowU, 
two'pint bottles with Ions iiccke, potts or juca for preserving bear oil, holding 
AS much as forty pints, and, finally, plates and dishes in the French fashion."* 

Dumont, who likewise dei<cribc8 the manners of the people inhabiting the ex- 
tenpive country forairrlv rallod Louisiana, has loft a moro minute account of the 
method th<'y employed in making earthenware. He says : "After having amassed 
the proj)er kind of clajT and careftilly cleaned it, the Indian women take shells 
which they pound and reduce to a fine powder; thoy mix this powder with the 
clay, and having poun d home water on the mann. tlx y knead it with their hands 
and feet, and make it into a ])aHt<', nf wliicli tin y Jorm rolls six or seven feet 
long and of a thickness i<uitable to their purpocte. If they intend to fashion a 
plate or a vase, they take hold of one of these rolk by the end, and fixing here 
with the tliutnb of the left hand the centre of tiie vessel they are about to nakt, 
they turn the roll wiili astonishing (iiiirknfsa around this centre, describing a 
spiral line; now and then they dip tluir tiugers into water and smooth with the 
Tight hand the inner and outer surface of the vase they intend to ihshion, which 
would become ruffled or undulated without that manipulation. In this manner 
they make nil sorts of earthen vessels, plates, di-nlM H. bowls, pots, and jars, 
some of wliic'l) hold fiom forty to fifty pints, The burning of this pottery does 
not ciiutm them much trouble. Having dried it in the shade, they kindle a large 
fire, and when they have a sniBcient quantitv of emheis, they elean a epaee in 
the middle, where they deposit their vessels and cover them with charcoal. 
Thus they bake their earthen ware, which can now be exposed to the fire, and 
possesses as much durability as ours. Its solidity is doubtless to be attributed 
to the pulverized shells which the women mix with the clay."f 

Adair, more than a century ago a trader with the trilles who occupied the 
southeni portion of the present Union, confines himself to the following remarks : 

"They make earthen pots of very different sizes, so as to contain firom two to 
ten galhios ; large pitchers to carry water; bowls, dishes, platters, basins, and 
a prodigious number of other vessels of such antiquated forms as would be te> 
dioos to describe and impossible to name. Their method of glazing them 
is, they place tliem over a lar;!'e fire of smoky |)ifch-pine, which makes them 
smooth, black, and firm. Tiicii lands abound with projx r clay for that U8e."| 

Loikicl, who describes the manners of the Uelawarcs and Iroquois, stated 
that they made formerly kettles and cooking-pots of day, which they mixed 
with finely pounded shells, and burned QUtil tliey became black throughout. 
Quite large pieces of their pots, he snye, in which the pounded shells could still 
be seen, were oiteu Ibuud in such places where the Indians had dwelt in ancient 
times; but after the arrival of toe Europeans very light kettles of brass bad 
generally been introduced among them.§ Thns we see that these tribes bcgw 
at an early period to neglect the manufacture of clay vessels. 

A very good aecouiit, relating to the art of pottery, as formerly practised by 
the western tribes, is given by Hunter. " In manufacturing their pottery for 
cooking and domestic purposes," he says, "they collect tongh clay, beat it into 

Eowder, temper it with water, and then spread it over blocks of wood, which 
ave been formed into shapes to suit their convenience or fancy. Wlieii sufE- 
ciently dried, they ore removed from the moulds, placed in proper situations, 

* Shi Fralx, Hittoire data LmMane, Paris, 1758. vol. i, p. m, and vol. ii, p. 179. 
t DumoM Mimoires Historiquts sur la Louiniane, Paris, 17.'*:}, vol. it, p. 271, 4(C. 
i Adair'* History of the American Indians, London, 1775, p. 4Ji4. 
( Loflkiel, Geschichto der Minkm dsr eraaMUscbsn BrOder unter den Indianeni in Noidi* 
Ameiika. Barby, 17«9, p. 70. 

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INDIAN p<yrr£RY. oo 

And burned to n Lurduegs suitable to tbeir intended uses. Another method 
practifled hy them is, to coat the inner ■nrfnce of baskets made of rashes or wil- 
lows with clay, to nny required thickness, nnd when dry, to bum them as 
Above described. In this wny they conptnict large, handsorne, and tolnably 
durable ware; thougii latterly, with such tribes as have much intercourse with 
the whites, it is not much used, because of the substitution of cast-iron ware in 
its stead." 

" When these vessels are large, as is the case for the manufiicture of sugar, 
they are suspended by pp-npo-vinos. which, wherever exposed to the fire, are 
constantly kept covered with moist clay. Sometimes, however, the rims are 
made strong, and project a little inwardly quite round the vessel so as to admit 
of their being sustained hj flattened pieces of wood slid underneath these pro- 
jections and extending across their centrep."* 

Lastly, I will quote here the remarks made by CatUn relating to the fabrica- 
tion of earthenware among the Mandans. " Earthen dislies or bowls are a familiar 
part of tbe culinary furniture of everj Mandan lodge, and are manuikctursd hy 
the women of this tribe in great quantities, and modelled into a thousand 
forms and tastes. They are made from a tough black clay and baked in kilns 
which are made for the purpose, and are nearly equal in hardness to our own 
manufacture of pottery, tnongh they have not yet got the art of glazing, which 
would he to them a most valuable secret They make them so strong and ser- 
viceable, however, that they hang them over the fire, as we do otir iron pots, 
and boil their meat in them with perfect success. I have seen pome few speci- 
mens of such manufacture, which have been dug up in ludiau mounds and tombs 
in tbe southern and middle States, placed in our eastern museums and looked 
upon as a great wonder, when here tnis novelty is at once done away with, and 
the whole mystery; where women can be seen handling and using them by 
hundreds, and they can be seen every day in the summer also, moulding them 
into many fanciful forms, and passing them through the kilns where they are 

The largest vessels made by the Indians, it seems, were those used in pro- 
curing salt by evaporation near salt spring'^. Du Pratz mention;^ a locality in 
liouisiana where the aborigines collected salt in earthen vessels made on the spot, 
before iSb/esy bad been supplied with kettles of metal by tbe Freneb.| The 
"Knigbt of Elvas*' likewise describes the method of salt-making employed by 
the natives, "The saline below St. Genevieve, Missouri," says Brackenridge, 
*' cleared out some time ago and deepened, was found to contain wagon loads of 
earthenware, some fragments bespeaking vessels as large as a barrel, and prov- 
ing that the salines bad been worked before they were known to the wbitefl."§ 

I had occasion to examine a fragment of a vessel of this kind sent to Dr. 
Davis in 1859 by Mr. George E. Sellers, who obtained it at the palt springs 
near Saline river, in southern Illinois, a locality where salt was formerly made 
hj the Indians. Several acres, Mr. Sellers states, are covered with broken ves* 
sel8» and heaps of clay and shells indicate that tiiey were made on tbe spot. 
They presented the shape of semi-globular bowls with projecting rims, and 
measured from thirty inches to four feet across the rim, the thickness varying 
from one-half to three-quarters of an inch. This earthenware had evidently 
been modelled in baskets. Tbe fragment sent to Dr. Davis is a rim-piece three- 
quarters of an inch thick, consisting of three distinct layen of yellowish clay, 
mixed with very coarsely pounded shells. It is solid and heavy, and must have 
been tolerably well baked. The impressions on the outside are very regular 

* i/«Hter*« Haonera and Onstoms of several Indian tribes loeatsd west of lilislsrippi 

Philadelphia, 182:5, p. m\ &c. 

t <^ot/ifi'« North Aiuerican Indians, Loudon, 1848, vol. i, p. 116. 
t Du Pratz, vol. i, p. :{07. 

^ Braduntidgt, Views ofLoaiaiaDa, Pittsburg, 1814, p. 186. 

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and really oruamcutAl, proving that those aboriginal potters were also skilful 

It would be erroneous to suppose tbe ait of nuumfactnring clay Tessels had 
been in upo aTTinn<:j all thr tribes pproarl over tbin widely extended country; for, 
though exhibiting mucli f^encral eimiiarity in character and liabitfi, they differed 
considerably in their nttaiumeuts iu the mechanical arta. This was the conse- 
qnence of local eireomstanees, sneh as eonfigoratlon and quality <tf die 8<»il« 
Climate, and other natural conditions which influenced, or rather determined their 
mode of life. Some of the North American tribcf, who did not understand the 
fabrication of earthen vessels, were in the habit of cooking their meat in water 
set to boOfng by means of heated stones which they put into it, the receptacles 
used in this operation being large wooden bowls, water-tight baskets, or even 
the raw hiden of animals they had killed. The Assinaboins, for example, cooked 
in nkiiip. •' There is a very curious custom among the Ae'.sinaboins," says Catling 
" from which they have taken their name — a name given them by their neigh- 
bors from a eingiuar mode they have of boiling their meat, which is done m the 
fbllowing manner : When they kill meat, a hole is dug in the ground about tbe 
size of a common pot, and a piece of the raw hide of the animal, as taken fronx 
the back, is put over the hole, and then pressed down with the hands close 
around the sides, and filled with water. The meat to be boiled is then put in 
this hole or pot of water ; and in a fire, which is built near by, several laiige 
stones are heated to a red heat, whicli are suceessively dipped and held in the 
water until the meat is boiled ; from which singular and peculiar custom, the 
Ojibways have given them the appellation of Assinaboius or Stone-boilefS." 

" This custom," he continues, ** is a Tcry awkward and tedious one^ and nsed J 
only as an ingenioos means of boiling their meat, by a tribe who was too rude 
and ignorant to construct a kettle or pot. The traders have recently supplied 
these people with pots ; and even long before that, the ^landans had instructed 
them in the secret of manufacturing very good iuid serviceable earthen pot8» 
which together have entirely done away the enstora, excepting at public ttosti- 
rals, where they seem, like all others of the human family, to take pleasure in 
cherishing and perpetuating their ancient customs."* Yet, the Assinaboins 
may, nevertheless, have been acquainted with the art of pottery ; for they are a 
detached branch of the Baootabs, probably of tbe Yankton band of that nation, 
and we have the testimony of Corvav Ibf mskance, that the Naudowcssies — that 
is, the Dacotahs or SionX'— made "pots <Mf day, in which they boiled their 

Some of the tribes of New Mexico and Arizona, as, for example, the Mojaves 
and Pimas, still mannfiictore pottery; bat the Pnehio Indians of those distriete 

are especially noted for their fictile filhries. They manufacture, according to 

their aboriginal art, both for their own consumption and for the purposes of 
traffic, a species of earthenware not much inferior to the coarse crockery of our 
common potters. The pots made of this material stand fire remarkably well^ 
and are the universal substitutes for all the purposes of cookery, even among the 
Mexicans, for the iron castings of this country, which are utterly unknown 
there. Kude as this kind of crockery is, it nevertheless evinces a great deal of 
skill, considering that it is made entirely without lathe or any kind of machinery. 
It is oflten foncifully painted with colored earths and the jaioe of a plant called 
guacot which brightens by burning."! 

Speaking of that region, I must not omit to allude, at least, to the numerous 
fragments of ancient pottery which occur on the Little Colorado (Colorado Chi- 
quito), and Gila, especially among ruins, and are often highly decorated and 
painted with Tarioos colors, exhibiting a style of workmanship differing from, 

*Csti{«, vol. i, p. 34. 

f Ikreer'fl Travels, London, 1781, Harper's Reprint, p. l.')4. 
% ^tngg'a Coounerce of tiie Fralries, JPhiladolpbio, Itiui, vol. i, p. s278. 
83 8 66 

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and surpassing that which prevailed on the cafitcrii fido of the Rocky Mountains. 
UeficriptiouB of these relics, however, would exceed the intended limits of this 
essay, and, monavtt, tbej have beoD given elsewhere* together with specula' 
tions oonceming the character of the manufacturers.* 

Some years ago, while visitinj]: northern Europe, I had occasion to see many 
specimens of ancient pottery deposited in the archaeological collections of that 
district, and having previonsly become acquainted with the character of North 
American aboriginal pottery, it afforded me great pleasure to trace the similarity 
in the fictile manufactures of both oontinetitt^. Where the external conditiona 
of lite were t^iniihir amoni; men, their inventive jjoweis were iiece.-Jsarily exerted 
iu a similar uuiuncr. We have the testimony uf Tacitm, that the inhabitants 
of Germany lived* abont two thoneand yean ago* much in the manner of the 
NorUi American Indians* before the original habits of the latter had andergone 
the changes resulting from their intercourse with Europeans or their de:?cend- 
ants ; aud it is, therefore, quite natural that both races should have resorted to 
the same* or, at least, similar means to satisfy their wants. The ancient flint 
implements of northern Europe bear a close resemblance to those formerly made 
by the natives of this country, and alike conformity is exhibited in the character 
of their manufactures of clay. 

The al)uri;;ines of North America, to recapitulate the general characteristics 
of their pottery, formed their vessels by hand, moddlmg them sometimes in 
baskets, and were, as far as we know* nnacqnainted with the ai t of glazing. 
Tliey mixed tlie clay used in their pottery either with pounded shells or sand, 
or with pulverized silicious rocks; mica also formed sometiine» a part of the 
composition. Their vessels were often painted with ochre, producing various 
shades* from a light yellow to a dark brown* or with a black color. They deeo* 
rated their pottery with lines or combinations of Hues aud dots, and embellished 
it also by notching the rims, or surrounding them on the outside with studs, or 
in various other ways. Their vessels exhibited n great variety of forma and 
•isee, and many of them had rounded or convex bottoms. They hardened thdr 
earthenware in open fires or in kilns, and notwithstanding the favorable state- 
ments of some authors, it was much inferior in comj)actnes8 to the common 
crockery manufactured at present in Europe or America, and has even, in some 
iu stances, an appearance as though it had merely been dried in the sun. 

The same details, somewhat modified, are applicable to the specimens of an* 
cient pottery preserved in the museums of northern Germany, and frequently 
obtained from ancient burial places, where they had been placed by the side of 
the dead, or as receptacles of their ashes. Many of these vessels were evidently 
fashioned by hand; but others, especially the larger ones, bear the unmistakable 
traces of the lathe, the use of whicli was. perhaps, known to the German tribes 
before they had intercourj^e with the Romans. The clay composing these ves- 
sels is strongly mixed with quartz sand, to which very frequently mica is added, 
probably with a view to impart more solidity to the mass. Ancient Germau clay 
vessds, after being exhumed* are soft and so fingtle that a somewhat rough 
handling destroys them at once. The roots of trees and shrubs have often 
grown through those that are dug up in woods, which obviously shows that they 
were not sufficiently burned ; for well-burned clay, like that composing the pipes 
of Roman aqueducts and the bricks of the middle age, resists humidity even 
better thau many kinds of stone. When exposed to the air* these vessels be- 
come tolerably hard within a few hours ; but in rare instances only they have 
that peculiar ring winch characterizes well-burned earthenware. It seems, there- 
fore, that they wen; not burned in kilns, but merely in strong open tires. t Many 

* The reader is referred to au exccUeot chapter by Mr. Thomas Etcbankt entitled "Illus- 
tnfttknts of Indiiin AntiqiiUiea and Arti,** in the third volmne of Paeifie Kaiiroad Reports, 

TVasbiugton, 1856. 

i KUmm, GeriuauiscLc AltertbuutskuQde, Drcsdcu, Ii^30, {». 107. 

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of the urns are painted with jellow or red earths, or a hlack color, the latter pig^ 
meat being eulphuret of molybdenum. May not the same gub.stance, which 
occurs in many localities of the United States, have been used hv the Indiana 
for blackening their pottery ? An analysis would easily decide the questioD. 
The same parallel ana zigzag lines, or rows of dots, which decorate Indian yee- 
ads, are also seen on the ancient pottery of the north of £nrope» and of oth«r 
parts of that continent. They constitute the simplest elements of ornamentation, 
and have, theretero, everywhere been employed by man when he made his firet 
attempts in the art of decoration. On the t^urtace of a tew ancient vases or urns 
fonnd in Grermany I noticed those markinga which present the appearance of 
basket-work ; I was, however, in doubt whether they were impreasiona pro- 
duced by the inside of bar^ket?, or .dimply ornamental line? traced on the wet 
clay. Yet, even in the latter cape, it wonld peem ilial thif? kind of ornamenta- 
tion was suggested by the former practice of modelling vessels in baskets. I 
farther saw some apparently very old specimens of pottery with rounded bot- 
toms. The oldest vessels of all nations, who practised the potter's art, probably 
exhibited that shape, the model of which was furnished by nature in the gourd 
and other fruits presenting rounded outlines. A flat bottom, therefore, would 
denote a prog^ss in the ceramic art. Other particular features common to the 
potteiy of both, the ancient inhabitants of Germany and the aborigines of North 
America, might be pointed out ; but the fictile fabrics of the former exhibit, on 
the whole, more elegance of outline, and therefore indicate a higher state of art. 
The similarity in the manufactures ol men in various climates is greatest when 
art is in its vexy infimcy among them. In the coarse of gradnal development, 
the primitive foanB common to mankind become more and more indistinct, and 
finally emerge into those varied and characteristic shapes which reflect Uie ia> 
dividoality of nations. 

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Some arcliapolofj^istP, araong tlieni Sir John Lubbock, incline to the opinion 
that the perforatetl stone axes and lianimers which have been found in Europe 
are to be referred to the beginning of the bronze period. Many of those imple- 
roents donbileBB belong to the age of bronze ; they have fireqaently been discov- 
ered in connection with bronzo articles in ancient graves, and it is, moreover, 
well known that the manufacture and use of ^;tone weapons and im[>lement8 were 
everywhere continued for a long time after the introduction of bronze. These 
fiustSy however, famish no evidenoe for ascribing pierced stone implements gene- 
laDy to the period in which the use of bronze was already kn()\\Ti ; iu many cases, 
on the contmry, it may be infeiTcd from the nature of their finding-placcp, as well 
as from the character of their iMMfonition.-j, that they l»elong to the stone age 
proper. In the illustrated cutuli>gue of the collection in the Copenhagen museum, 
edited by Mr. J. J. A. Worsaae,* there are eleven representations of pierced 
stone implements attiibuted to the age of stone, and tho foremost ohjeots, 
figured to illustrate the bronze pen'od, consist of seven ]»erforated stone axes, 
distinguished l>y elegant shape and superior workinansliij). 'J'hou^h I am not 
acquainted with the parlicular circuuibtauces of the discovery of these implements, 
I havo not the least donbt that the learned editor of the catalogue, in referring 
them respectively to the ages of stone and bronze, based his classification on 
tenalde irroimds. 

A number of those lacustrian pile- works, which pertain exclusively to the stone 
Age, have yielded stone axes and hammers, as, for instance, tho station of Nu8s« 
dorf, on the Lake of Ueberlingen, (an armof theLake of Constance) where no less 
than fifty have been found. Mr. Desiir, on whom I rely for these facts, also mentions 
that in another lacustrian station of tlio stone aij^e the articles in question are con- 
fined to tho upper part of the archaeological stratum," that is, the stratum which 
ooataiiia relics of art Pierced implements, therefore, wonld seem to belong, in 
those localities at least, to a later epoch of the stone age, and thus to mark n 
phase of progress iu the gradual development of human skill during that period. t 

After a carefid examiuati(»u and cvniparisou of tlic shaft-holes of European 
stone implements, 1 have anived at the conclusion that two ditlereut methods, 
or, at least, two difierently shaped drills were employed in making them. The 
more perfect perforations are of e(]ual width, smooth and shining, and exhibit at 
certain distances cuxidar strife or furi'ows, whieli liave the ap])earance of a suc- 
cession of parallel rings. These perforations, I think, have Iteen drilled'with a 
hollow cylinder, perhaps a bronze tube, and I believe that the iuiplemeuts pierced 
in the manner described were mostly manufiictnied during the age of bronse. 
They are, moreover, very often remarkable for elegance of outline and high 
finish, indicating a state of art superior to that which is generally supposed to 
have existed in Europe during the pcrioil of stone. In other specimens tho 

* Worssae, Nordidke Oldsager i del Kongeliji^ Moseom i Kjobenhavn, 1859. 
t Detor, Palafittes, or Lftcustrian CoostructioDS of the Lake of Neacbitel ; Sinitbsoniam 
Ssport fyt 186S, pb 359, (note.) 


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eihaft^holes aie likewise more or lees Bmootb, but desUtate of the annular striae, 
and sometimes narrower in the middle, in which cases, of com so, a circular pro- 

tuherance of corresponding size is funned. (Fig. 1.) 
These holes evidently were drilled firom two sides, 
and the drilling implement wns not a hollow cylin- 
der, but a tJulid hody, })ro'liably a wooden stick. 
Idlest of" the axes and liajiimers provided with shaft- 
holes of this cliuracter are perhaps rehcs of the age 
of stone. It is hardly necessaiy to state that witn- 
out tlie application of water and hard sand, drillin|^ 
with either implement, liollow or solid, would have 
been impossiblSi and that the sand is to be considered as the chief agent in the 

I had occasion to examine a number of European stone hatehets and hainmersy 

wliicli were in an unfinished state, the shaft-holes being only commenced or 
drilkd lialf tlirougli, and the appearance of tlie latter perfectly corroborated my 
view concerning the difl'cnMit shapes of the drills used in making tliem ; for some 
of these unfinished holes, and just such as belong to the stiiatcd class, have at 
the bottom 'a eonical projection or a core, (Fig. 2,) which obviously rssulted firom 
11 . n 77 ■ application of a hollow 

MlJ.^. Ml^. O, drilling implement; while 

others (Fig. 3) tenninate 
in a rounded concave bot- 
tom, resembling exactly the 
cavity made by a wooden 
stick used as a drill.* I 

w/-///,/ //Mwy^^^^^^ would not express this lat- 
tw Opinion so positively, if I could not rely on tiie lesults of experiments, having, 
in fact, succeeded in pOTf<nrating a hard stone without any use of metal by means 
of a stick, in connection with sand and water. An account of the method 
employed by me, and of the results, I hope w ill be of interest to those archse- 
olo^ists who pay some attention to the minor details of their study. 

In the first place, I will give a description of my drilling implement, (Fig. 4,) 
which is, in fact, a pnmp-driU, the same apparatus that was used in former times by 
the Iroquois for the purpose of producing lire by friction. f It consists of a round 
wooden shaft, about four feet long and an inch in diarnetcr at the upper end, 
but tapering a little towards the lower extremity, where it is provided with a 
heavy wooden disk, which acts as a fly-wheel. A bow or bent stick, three feet 
in lengtii, with a long string attached to it, forms the second part of the apparatus. 
When used the string of the bow is passed through a notch out in the top end of 

•It afforded me 8ome satisfaction to fhid iny views conrnnied, to a certain extent, in a 
workof Dr. Gustav Klemtn. This author firstalludestoGuttiniutbs, who published an Article 
in the ** Morgenblatt,*' (1832, No. S53,) in which he tried to prove that a hollow cylii^er of 

metal, used with emery in the manner of toothless stone saws, was tbe drilling implement of 
the aucieutd, basing; bis opinion upon the same facts which 1 uiieudy buve stated, namely, 
the regularity of the holes, tho core at their bottom, and the circular furrows. Klemm hiiii« 
* self po^essed in his collection a hollow bronze tube, five inches long, three-quarters of an inch 
in diameter, and covered all over with green rnst, the atruqo nobilis of antiquaries. With 
such implements, he thought, tlio shaft-boles had generally been drilled, "but continued obser- 
vation," he saj^s, "convinced me that other methods also must have been employed. A 
stone axe of my collection, bored from two sides, exhibits conical cavities, tho shape of which 
at onee cxcliulf's the idea that u liollnw ( yl'iuicr w as used in drilling them ; tbe implement 
with which tbey weio made, probably in a slow and painful >vay, evidently was a solid 
body." (Klemm, AUgtmtint Cutturtcissenschaft, Werkztuge unit ll'affen, Leipzig, 1854,^. 79.) 

t Morgan, League of tbe Iroquois, Rochester, l'r'51, description and figure on page 381. 
Mr. Tylor eives likewise, on page 245 ot bis valuable " Researches into the Early History 
of Maukind,'* (London, ISG.'i,) a drawing of the apparatus, but represents it as being moved 
with one baud only, in order to maintain the equilibrium of the shaft, it is necessary lo 
appl J both hands to the bow. 

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the stick and coiled aioiind tlio stiek, as indioated in die drawioiff. The bow is 
then seized with both hands and pressed downwaids with a viount jerk. T^iia 

motion uncoils the strinsran*! r('v<»lvps 
tho fihaft towards the left, l>i»t by the 
action of the fly-wheel the string is 
•coiled again aronnd the shaft in a le- 
vexse manner, and tho bow drawn np 
again. A second jerk at the bow causes 
the shaft to revolve towui'ds tlie right, 
«nd by oontinaing this manipulation it 
is alternately swung anrand in opposite 
■diroctions. The operator has it alto- 
<^ether in his power to ^vork the apjia- 
l atus slowly or rapidly, and, of course, 
^th OGTrespondin^ eflect; but it le- 
<qiurs8 scniM praotice to nse it in the 
proper manner. 

The stone selected by rao for tlie ex- 
periment is a flat, oval piece of diorite, 
of great hardness, not quite seven inches 
long, about five inches wide, and in the 
middle part one inch and three-eighths 
(a little over 3.5 coutimeteis) thick. I 
ehoee pnq>oseIy that kind stone^ be- 
cause it is the same of which tho andent 
inhabitants of Europe very often made 
their pierced implements. It is both 
These qualities were 

bard and tough. 

likewise appreciated by tlie North American aborigioeSy who need dioilte ezten- 

fiivol y as the material for their totnaliawks, large chisels, and pestles. Thestone on 
which 1 operated is so hard that the of a well-tempered penknife produces no 
ecratch on its surface, but merely a metal lie streak. The material used in drilling 
was a sharp quartz sand of middle ^raiu, such as is employed in marble-yards ; for a 
short time I also tried emery, but finding that it was not more effectual tlian sand, I 
continued to apply the latter. In order to render n beginning of the perforation pos- 
sible, I tied a small scpiare }>iece of board in which I had cut a round hole, coiTespond- 
ing to the lower diameter of the drilliug-stick, with a string to the stone, just above 
the place where the bore was to be commenced. Without this contrivance, which 
I had to retain during the whole drilling process, the stick would constantly have 
slipped out of the hole. After these preparations I could begin the work, which 
was not very fatiguing, but tedious beyond description, taxing, in fact, my patience 
to the utmost degree. I never could endure the work for more than two hours 
in succesMon, and sometimes I laid the stone aside for weeks and months, until 
I had mustered sufficient energy to resume the labor. Thus it took two years 
before I succeeded in piercing the stone. I cannot exactly state how many 
hours I devoted to the work, but by measurement I obtained tho result that two 
honrs of constant drilling added, on an average, not more than the thickness of 
an ordinary lead-poncil line to the depth of the hole. Tho work would have 
advanced with incomparably greater speed, if I had selected a softer stone, ser- 
pentine, for instance, instead of the hard diorite j it was, however, my object to 
try the experiment on a hard mineral substance. Every five or six minutes the 
bore had to be cleaned by immersing the stone in water, the sand being by that 
time perfectly ground, and forming, in connection with the water and the parti- 
oles of wood rubbed from tho stick, a sort of ]ias(e, which was no longer ser- 
viceable fur drilling. Tho (quantity of sand introduced Jifter every cleaning was 
about equal to the oontonts of a teaspoon. The shortening of the drilling-stiok, 

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in oonseqneDce of wear, was considerable, and I bad to replace it several tiioee* 
The first was of tongb asb wood ; the othen* whiob oonnsted of pine wood, 

proved to be just as efficient. 

In tbe beginning of tbe work there appeared at the place of perforation a 
smooth, round spot. Becoming gradually larger, it formed a fe^fdlow bann, « hich 
finally, when the st«)]ie was drilled half through, assumed the appearance of * 
conical or funnel-shapecl cavity, 'i'lie deeper tli«^ drill penetrated into the stone 
the more difficult the work became, which induced me, after having drilled 
through half the thickness of the stone, to begin another bore at the opposite 
ride. In dne time it met tbe first exactly in the middle. It was originally my 
intention to drill a hole of about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, but I had 
not made sufficient allowance for the lateral friction of the sand, anil hence it 
happened that the two conical cavities forming the perforatiun a('(|uircd, nincli 
against my wish, greater proportions than 1 expected, measuring, in fact, an inch 
and a quarter in their widest diametets. They woold have become narrmoer 
as well as more cylindricdly if I had used a drillhalf as thick as that which served 
in the operation; but when I made this discovery the work Mas already too far 
jft'^ tz advanced to be commenced again. Fig. 5 

"* * shows the present shape of the perforation. 

WM/f/V^M^ It is round and smoo(h, without exhibiting- 
^V^^^^^P those circular fun'ows, which I have already 

wW^^W^!^/^/' ^''^'^^^ ^'^ action of a hollow drill. In 
order to complete the task in its fullest 
extent by producing u perfectly cylindil- 
— — cal holO) it would be necessary to remove^ 
by continued drillinj^, the projecting rim bet worn the dotted lines : a labor probably 
requiring as much time as that hitlierto consumed. I cannot say whotlier 1 shall 
have suiiicient leisure and patience to perform it; for the present 1 am satisfied 
widi tbe fiiot of having, perhaps, practically illustrated one of the methods of 
drilHng employed during the age of stone. Of course, it would be rashness on my . 
part to assert that the apparatus used by mc had also served as a drilling imple- 
ment in ancient Europe ; yet the possibility cannot be denied, for just as tho 
Iroquois invented it for producing bre, the ancient nations of Jiurope may have 
ooQStruoted it for another purpose. Mr. Desor thinhs it probable that tho drill- 
ing was effected by means of very thin flakes of flint fixed around a stick, which 
was made to turn In such a way as to separate a portion of the stone, whicli^ 
when the perforation was accomplished, would fall to the ground.* A drilling- 
stick of this description really may have served for per- 
forating soft stones, but could not be successfully applied 
to hard materials. I operated myself with such a diill 
on diorite, and found the Hint flukes invariably break ofT 
after the lirst revolutions. Yet, whatever may have been 
the means employed in drilling stone in the pre-h^storia 
ages of Europe, it is certain that the carefully fasliioned 
and pierced implements must have possessed a very high, 
value in ilie eyes of their ujanufacturers. Some indication 
of this fact is ofl'ercd by tho occurrence of the edged halve* 
of axes broken across the shaft-hole, which haa been ren* 
dered serviceable again by a second perforation. A speci- 
men of this kind, of which the annexed reduced sketcli 
{Fig. G) presents the upjicr view, is preserved in the Pea- 
body Museum at Cambridge, JVlasi>achusetts. It was found, 
in northern Germany. The shaftphole, which has been left uoi an anfinished 
state, evidently was formed by a soUd drill. Tho material ci this roUo i» 
a variety of greenstone. 

»Falaatt6s, fto., p. 860. 

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In North America tlie giooved tomahawk was, anterior to the occupation by 
Europeans, tlio prevailing implement of the axe-shape;* but pierced articles of 
this class also bavo l»een found, though not very frequently. Several are 
figured on page S18 of the " Ancient Monaments of the Mississippi Volley,'' by 
oqnierand Davis. The material of most of those which I have seen is a rather 
soft stone of a greenish color, with darker veins or spots, capable of a line polish. 
These perforated axes are mostly small, but vciy symmetrically shaped and highly 
finished. They wore most probably w om on handles as badges of distinction by the 
8apcriorB,t a supposition which gains strength from the fact Ihattheur material ren- 
ders them unfit forrealoBe. I know by experience that they occur from the Missis- 
sippi to tlie Atlantic coast. The peculiar stone of whichthey consist was also used 
for other objects, (the So-called gorgets, amulets, &c.,) and may have been an article 
of trade. The shaft-holes of these liatchet-like implements are exceedingly regular, 
and the annaliv strie can often plainly be distuiguished. They wow donbtleefl 
pffodoced by means of hollow drills, as will be seen hereafter. In addition to 
the perforated Indian axes ju.-t mentioned, there occur others, which are remarkable 
for being only pierced to a certain depth. It is true, I have not seen these latter 
very firequently, but in sufficient number to become convinced thai the shaft- 
holes wore purposely left in an unfinished condition. Theur matonal is not the 
soft stone already relened to, but a harder substance, osoally some kind of green- 
stone. They always present pretty nineli (he same shape. The annexed half- 
size sketch (Fig. 7, upper and side view) shows the outline of one of these imple- 

Fiif. 7. 

ments, which was found in wcsteni Massachusetts, and is now in the jiossession 
<if Dr. Davis, of New York. The core at the bottom of the shaft-hole, which 
is indicated by dots, affords an indul»itable proof that a hollow tirill was cniployed. 
To render this iuipiemeut serviceab*ie for use, or even for show, a handle was 
driven as far as possible into the shaft-hole, and probably more firmly bound to 

*Some ethnological writers, McCulloh and Sclioolcralt, for iustance, consider those 
stone axes as tools, and not as weapous ; whereas it is most jtiobable that they ^en'ed boih 
pQipoees, as occa8i<m required. Men who were confined to the use of atone implements 
cannot be expected to hare been very cboioe in their applications. A stone tomahawk, 
, firnily attached to a with* . inesciiti'd a very ( ffiiient hattlo axe. Mr. Cutlin pivcs, on pIatoll4 
(vol.2 ) of his well-known work, the portiait ot Meiisdnseah (the Lett Hutul, ) a Piaukesbaw 
wurfor, whom be represents with a belved stone tomahawk in his hand. Would this hmve 
have allowed the arti>t to paint him thus accotitred, if he had not reg^ardcd his stono axe as 
a weapon / An Indian warrior, in his contempt lor labor, certaiiiiy spurns the idoa of being 
portrayed with a tool iu bi.s hand. 

t Many of the perforated implements of Europe sie supposed to have been destined for the 
same ptupose. 

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the blade by ligatures. The depresnons of the axe above and below the flliAft- 
liolo (observable ui the aide view) seem to have been destined for the recepiioa 

of the fastening. 

Yet, the manufactures of stone which evince the greatest skill of the former 
inhabitants of Ncrth Ameriea are by no means theur pierced axes, bat those 

remarkable pipes, often made of the hardest stones, that have been found in the 
BO-called sacrificial mounds of the western States, but more especially in Ohio. 
These " mound pipes " usually represent bowl and tube in one piece, thus differing 
from the modem Indian pipe, which consists of a bowl and a lon^ wooden stem, 
and bears a distant lessmbliuiee to the cAtboue of the Turks. A great number 
of pipes of the above-mentioned antique shape were disentomVxMl l)y Messrs. 
Squierand Davis during their eur\-ey of the ancient earth-works in the J^Iissis- 
sippi valley, and are described and ligiured in their work already quoted by me, 
wmcb fonns the first volume of " Smithsonian Ckmtribntions to Knowled|fe.'^ 
The accompanying oat (Fig. 8) presents the outline of the moond-pipe in its 

simple or primitive form. 
JPHf, 8. drawing is about half 

the size of the original, 
whioh was exhomed with 
many nmilar articles from 
a mound near Chillicothe, 
Ohio, and belonged form- 
erly to the collection of Dr. 
Davis. It will be seen that 
the bowl rises from the mid* 
die of a flat and somewhat 
curved biise, one side of 
which oommwnicwteB by 
means of a narrow perforation, onoHrixteenth of an inoh (about four millim.) 
in diameter, with the hollow of the bowl, and represents the tube or rather the 
mouth-])ic('e of the pipe, uliiletheotherunpeifomtedendfonnstlic handle by which 
the smoker held the implement andapproaehed it to his mouth. Bowl and base are 
ornamented with small cap>Bhaped holes. This pipe consietsof honl porphyrv, and 
is wrought from a single piece, like all others of similar character, f have 
already stated that it may he considered as the simple or typical form of this 
class of ini|)lements. In the more elaborate sj^eciniens the bowl is formed in 
some instances iu imitation of the human head, but gcuorally of the body of au 
animal ; and in the latter cases the peculiar ohaiaoteristios of the species whidi 
have served as models, comprising mammals, birds, and amphibia, are frequently 
expressed witli suiprising fidelity ; a modern artist, indeed, notwithstanding his 
fai- superior instruments, would find no little diihculty in reproducing the more 
finished of these objects, especially when carving them from porphyry, which 
was the kind of stone chiefly employed by the manufacturers. It must be borne 
in mind that the real use of metal was uaknown to the ancient populations of 
North America. Implements and ornaments of copper, it is true, have been dis- 
covered, to a limited extent, iu the mounds of the western Suites, and elsewhere, 
Imt the copper thus employed has not been obtained by the redaction from its 
ores; on the contraiy, it is evident that the al)origines fashioned those articles 
from pieces of nutirv vo\^\^^'\•, wliich tlu'v brought into the required shape by the 
elmple process of liaiumering. They ctbtaincd the copper from the southern shore 
of Lake Su})erior, where extensive traces of their rude mining operations are still 

* The originals are now in the Blackunoie Mueeutn, at SaUsburj, EuglAud, an institution 
of recent origin, to which Dr. Davis sold his excellent collection of Indian relics, mostly 

obtaintnl duriiifr tlie survey to whioh I have al!udt'<l. Beforp the .sale took place, I bad coo> 
stantly occasiou tu see the coUoctiou, aud thus became familiar with the character of the spe^ 

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to bo seen * This hammered native copper is so soft that it can easily be cat 

with a knife, and therefore cannot have furnished the implements for workinfir 
those hard mineral subi^taiiccs, wliich, indeed, successfully resist well-tempere(l 
steel. As a consequence, it must be presumed that the mauufucturers of the pipes 
performed tbeir work in the most teaions and pauofiil manner, by robbing the 
stone and ^rrinding it with sharp sand and water, although this method leaves 
many details in the execution of tlicir productions unexplained. In viewing, for 
example, their fi<:jnres of birds, it is difficult to comprehend how they succeeded 
iu representing the feathers, which are indicated by steady and boldly cut lines, 
straight and carved, in dose imitation of natnre. t The perforations and hollows 
of the mound-pipes are drilled with perfect accuracy, showing at once that the 
implement which produced them was not merely turned between the hand;?, but 
moved by an apparatus which coincided, in all probability, with the bow-drill 
still used by watchmakers and other artisans. The latter, it is well known, con- 
sists of a straight drill, which passes throngh the centre oif a disk grooved at the 
peripheiy and revolves around two fixed points, one of them being fonned by 
the bore. Motion is imparted by means of* a bow, the sti ing of which encircles 
the disk. It certainly would appear hasty to attribute to the aborigines of North 
America a knowledge of this implement, if it were not for the circamstance that 
there oocnr among the relics of the former population rings of stone and bone 
wliich arc almf)sit identical with the disks just mentioned, and most probably 
liav^e sei'ved the same purpose. In fact, it is almost impossible to assign them 
any other destination. These rings are of various sizes, but similar iu shape, 
being deeply grooved upon the outer edge, and pierced by eight equidistant 
small holes radiating from the centre. f Ilg. 9 is a fiaU-Bised drawing of one 
which was discovered in a mound on 
the north fork of Paint creek, about 
six miles distant from Chillicothe, 
Ohio. The sketch, however, repre- 
flentathe object as perlVrt, wherea.s 
the oriirinal, formerly belonging to 
Dr. Davis, constitutes only one-lialf 
of the ring, which consists of a dark 
stone of medium hardness. The 
character of the rinc^s encoura<'esme 
to atteinjit the restoration of the an- 

* Only Ibe fnhfthitsnts of Mexico, and some eoantries in the sonthera portion of the Ameri- 
can continent, understood flie mannfacture of bronze. It will hardly be necessary to add 
that iron wan altogctliir unkuuwu to ibe natives of America until Europeans taugbt them 
its uso. 

t The amount of labor bestowed npon the manufacturp of these specimens must Iiave been 
enormous, considering the time it is said to have required for fasbiouing articles of a much 
simpler character. According to Lafitau a North American Indian sometimes spent his life- 
time in making a stone tomahawk, yet without enUreij finishing iU L4{fitau, Maun 4$» 
Sauvages Am^rtquains^ Paris, 1724, vol. 2, v, 110. 

" Mr. Wallace has found that plain ( yliiiacrs cf iiiiperfect rock crystal, four to eight inches 
long, and one inch in diameter, are made andpertoruted by very low tribes on the Hio Negro. 
They are not, as Humboldt seems to have snppoeed, the restilt of high mechanical skill, ji>iit 
merely of the most simple and j^avafje processes, carried on with that utter disrefrard of time 
that lets the ludian spend a nujuih iu making an arrow. They are merely ground down into 
shape by rubbing, and the perforating of the cylinders, crosswise, or even lengthwise, is said 
to be done thus : A pointed nexible leaf-shoot ot wild plantain is twirled with the bauds against 
ibe hard stone, till, with the aid of fine sand and water, it bores into and through it, ana this 
is said to take years to do. Such cylinders as the chiefis ^veul■ aie said sometimes to take two 
men's lives to perforate. The stone is brought from a great distance up the river, and is vcr/ 
Liehlj yalued.—Tjihrf Restarchet, ife.f p. 187. 

I Ancient Monuments of the Hisnssippi VoUe^, p. HSU, 

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cimt Ttidim i Iraw-drill} which may have presented tlio sliapo indicated hy Fig. 10. 

The ring, it seems, encircled a massive 
Mlf, 2 drill-holder, to which it wae fastened by 

pegs driven throngh the holes on its 
])oriphery. Their purpoee \b thus fuUy 

May not an apparatus of similar con* 
stmction also have heen kDown m 
Europe during the Itionio age, and even 
at an earlier period ? In xmng the pump- 
drill, described and figured by me, ton- 
stant oscillations of tho shaft, tending 
to enlarge the bore, cannot be avoided ; 
but they are altogether obviated wlien, 
as in Fig. 10, tho upper end of the shaft or drill-holder revolves aiouud a iixed 
point And further, may not in Europe as well as in America the latter more 
poliBOft apparBtos have sapereeded, in the conrse of time, the simpler contrivance 
with which I have experimented ? This view ^\ i II not appear strange^ considering 
that man in all parts of the globe progressed slowly, and that every new develop- 
ment of ingenuity was based upon the results <»f former experience. 

The greater number of drilled Indian implements which I had occasiDU to 
ezamhie bore the vnm^talLable marks of having been perforated with hollow 
drills; yet I have also seen Indian performances in drilling indicating the appli- 
cation of solid implements. As an illustration I annex (Fig. 11, full size) tho 

drawing of a pipe consisting of almost transparent rock 
crystal, which was taken from a mound near Bain- 
bridgc, Rosa county, Ohi<^ and is now the property oi 
Dr. Davis. Its shape^it will bo observed, is that of a 
barrel somewhat naiTowing at the bottom ; it is regu- 
larly formed and highly polished. I left tho drawing 
purposely without shading in order to indicate the two 
hollows, of which the upper one served as the recepta- 
cle for the smoking material, while that which meets 
it from the side was destined for the insertion t»f a stem. 
The terminations of the hollows are rounded, and cou- 
seqnently have heen drilled with a solid implement. 

It is very likely that the he^low drills of tho abori- 
gines of jSorth America were pieces of that hard and 
tough cane (Arundinaria macrospcrma, Michaux,^ 
which grows abundantly in tho southern part of the 
United States, mostly along the banks of large rivers, 
and forms at present an arUde of trade, being used for pipe-stems and fishing- 
rods. This cane varies considerably in thickness; sometimes as thin as a straw, 
it assumes, when fully grown, the diametral proportions of a strong rifle-barrel, 
and even of larger cylindrical objects, in which cases it reaches the enormous 
height of 25 or 30 feet. A piece of this cane, from which the knotty joints have 
been cut, forms a regular hollow cylinder sufficiently strong to S^e as a drill. 
I learned from Dr. Davis that many years ago a stone pipe witli an unfinished 
hollow, paitly filled with vegetable matter, was sent from Mississippi to the late 
Dr. Samuel G. Morton, of Philadelphia. When subjected to a nucroscopical 
examination the vegetable substance exhibited tho fibrous stnictnre of cane, and 
thus appeared to bo the remnant of a drill broken off in tlic bore. It is, how- 
ever, my intention to try ihe a}»plicubility of this cane l»y drilling experiments. 

In conclusion, I will obsei-ve that the more finished stone ai ticles of the former 
inhabitants of North America, and especially the pipes from the mounds, are 

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pernaps tlie best specimens of art left by any people to whom tlie use of metal 
was unknown, and that in oxamininj^ the archaeological collections of Europe, 
1 have seen no objects produced under similar circumstances which display aa 
equal degico of skill in the art of fosliioning stone. 

Aadmut Stone Asm ftom North Gennaay; 

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In an article published in the Siuiiht;ouian report for 18631 gave, for the first 
tim^ an acooimt and drawings of certain North American flint implements of 

largo size and superior workmanship, which were evi- 
dently UHcd liv tlio .'iboriirinos for ciilfivntiiiir the soil 
and other digging purposes, and hence, arconling to 
their shape, classified by me as shovels and hoes, Tho 
annexed %ures represent both kinds of implements. 
I describecl the shovels (Fig. 1) as oval plates of flint, 
flat on one side and slightly convex on the other, the 
outUnc being chipped into a shai'p edge. Tho speci- 
men hero figured measnres above a foot in length, a 
little more than five inches in its greatest breadth, and 
is about three-(] nailers of an inch thick in the middle. 
Others are narrower and not quite as heavy. The 
shape of iho hoes is illustrated by Fig. 2. This speci- 
men is seven and a half 
inches long, nearly six 
inches wide, and about 
half an inch tliick in 
tho middle. The roun- 
ded part forms a sharp 
edge. The matenal 
(tf w liich those iniple- 
nicuts are made is a 
peculiar kind of bluish, 
gray or brownish flint, 
of slightly conohuidal 
fracture, and capable 
of splitting into largo flat fragments. I never 
succeeded in discovering this stone in situ. The 
agricultaxal implements of my collection were all 
fo?incl in St. Clair county in southern Illinois, 
with tho exception of one shovel, which was dug up in ISGl in St. Louis, dunng 
the construction of ear thworks for the protection of the city. Both shovels and 
hoes were, doubtless, attached to handles, those of the latter probably forming 
a right, or even an acute angle with the stone blade, which is always provided 
with two notches in the upper part to facilitate tho fastening.* 

• I quoted ft passage from Du Fratz, which is, perhaps, referable to tlic hoes. According 
to this author, the oativei of LoulfeiaDa bad invented a hoo, (pioche) with the aid of wbi^ 
they prepared the soil for tbe enltnre of maiie. *'Tbew hoei,** he says, " ara duqped likea 
ca;>ititl L ; tliey cut witli the ciige of the lower part, wbich is enflrdy aa/L"—Bmrin de la 
Louisiant, Paris, 1758. Vol. II, p. 17i>. 

Plate XXI, in vol. II of De Bry, (Frankfort, l.'SOl,) repreaenti Florida Indians of botk 
sexes cnpap^ed in field labor, the men using the hoe and tho women sowing. The Latin text 
(bj L>e JSloyue) ncconipanying the engraving states that tho hoes aio niado of fisb«boae, 
(l^fOMM e ptncin m ossilms ) and pforided with wooden bandies. Tbe women sow beans and 
'*J'emin<e/abas Sf mUimn mm Mttgxum senuU," 

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Some of tlie shovels, like the S])C'ciracii of wliicb a drawing is given, measure 
a foot and more in lengtli, and consequently are among tlie largest flint tools 
thus far discovered in any i)ai t of the world. Is either the rude hatchet-like ami 
lanceolate implements found in tLe ^'drilf of France and England, associated 
with the osseous remains of the mammoth, the rhinoceros, and other animals of a 
hyjjoiio fanna. equal ihoni in si/c ; nor have, to my knowledge, the caves of the • 
reindeer j)eriod in southern I'r.'uicc and Belgium, once the resorts of savage hunt- ' 
ing tribes, yielded any chij)j»ed flint articles of the same diraensious. Indeed, 
they are rivaled^ as 1* tbink, only by .the large flint celts of Scandinam and 
northern Germany, which belong to a more advanced stage of the Enropean 
stone age. 

That the North American flint tools des( ribed by me were really used for dig- 
ging can hardly be doubted. " If the shape of these implements," I stated ia 
my account, " did not indicate their original use, the peculiar traces of wear 
which they exhibit would furnish almost conclusive evidence of the manner in 
which they liave been employed; for that part witli which the digging was done 
uppearSj notwithstanding the hardness uf the material, perfectly smooth, as if 
glazed, and sligljtly striated in the direction in which the implement penetrated 
the ground.^ 1 fmtlier mentioned that this peculiar feature is conmion to all 
specimens of my collection as well as to the few \\liich 1 have seen in the hands 
of othere; and that they seem to be rather scarce, and merely confined to certain 
States bordering ou the Mississippi river. 

I was, therefore, much interested in the recent discovery of a large deposU of 
such implements at East St. Louis» (fomerly Illinoisti»wn,) in St. Clair county, 
.Illinois, a place situated directly opposite the city of St. Lonis, in the so-called 
"American Bottom," which fonus a fertile ydain extending for a cunsideraldc 
distance along the Mississippi shore in Illinois. This region, 1 must state, is 
very rioh in Indian remains of various descriptions,* but particularly intereslkg 
on account of numerous artificial mounds, among which the celebrated tnuMSated 
pvramid called Cahokia Mouud, or Monk's ^lound, is by far the most conspicuous, 
reminding the beholder of those gigantic structures in the valley of the Nile, 
which the rulers of Egypt have left to [)osterity as tokens of their power and their 

The particulars of the discovery to which I alluded were communicated to me by 
Dr. John J. It. I'atrick, of Belleville, Illinois, a gentleman towdiomi am greatly 
indebted for long-continued co-operalion iu my pursuits relative to the subject of 
American antiquities. As sdon as Dr. Patricic heard of the discovery he haatemed 
to East St Louis, for the purpose of ascertaining on the spot all details oonoem- 
ing the occuiTencc of those flint tools; and in order to obtain still more minute 
infomiation, he afterwards repeatedly revisited the place of discovery which is about 
14 miles distant from Belleville, and can be reached alter a short ride, the latter 
place being connected by railrcAd with East St Louis. The removal of ground 
tn extending u street disclosed the existence of the deposit, and Dr. Patrick 
derived all lacts concerning its chara{ter from Mr. Sullivan, the contractor of the 
street work, who was present when the tools Mere exhumed, and therefore can 
be considered as a reliable authority. The results of my informant's inuuirics, 
communicated in various letters addressed to moj are contained in the folfowing 
account : 

In the early part of December 1868, some laborers, while engaged in grading 
an extension of Sixth street in East St. Louis, came upon a deposit of Indian 
Telics, consisting of flint tools, all of the hoe and shovel type, and of small fossil 
marine shells, partly pierced, and in quantity about equal to the contents of a 

bushel. Close by were found several boulders of flint and greenstone, weighing 

I ■ ■ I Ml ■! M ~ 

* Some years Ago I dimimmd near East St Leolt the traces of an Indian potteiy, de* 
scribed in the Smithgonian nptxci for 1866. 

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fitun 15 to 30 pounck encli, and many fra^cntM of flint. The noil in tlio imin»> 
diate neigliborliood is compoHod of bhick loam, overlying ft trtratnni of n sandy 

clinractcr, and tlie dcitosit wliicli o<( iim'(l in (Im- l.itlcr, wiiHcovorod with fnmi 18 
to 24 iiichcu of the bluck enith, ])cann<^ a liixmiaiit tuii' iiH Hiiriace. Accurd- 
ing to tlio contractor'B etatonient, tlicnint tooln, tlio MhcllB, nnd the bonlderawero 
deposited in three Hcparato holes dug out in tlio siind, liut not hkmc tlum a foot 
apait from each other, and placed like tlie coniers of a Irianirh-. To use his lan- 
f^iiaiTc, the in)plenients formed a n<'st " l»y thcinsrlves, .'iiid so did th<' Hhells. 
and like uise the boidder.s. Thu ilinl I«mi1s, liowcver, instead of being pa( ke<l 
close together, liko the sliells and the bonhlern, wore aminged with some regu- 
larity, overhipping enrh other or standing cdgewiBCiand covering u circular spaco. 
The \vh(de depo>ir did nnt cxfcnd more tlian s<'ven or ciirht feet on <'itlier sid(^. 
The contnictor negle< ted to couiit the implements, but he ihinktt there were from 
70 to 75 in all; t?ome 00 hoeh and about 20 bIiovcIk. No other stono articles* 
«ucli as anow and spcar-headS) tomahavkK, Sec, had been deposited with the 

agi'icultnral implements. The latter 
w ere soon taken awny by persons from 
the place, uttracletl by the novelty ol 
the occurrence, and it is to be regret- 
ted that many, if not most of ihem, 
h.ave fallen into the hands of individu- 
als who are unable to appreciate their 
value. But this in UMually tlie case 
when discoveries of siuiilar character 
arc made. Dr. 1 'at rick examined 
tipwardsof 20 of the Hint iiiiplenients, 
and found that none of them had i>eeu 
uHed, as they bad not received the 
sliirhtest polish on the cuttini,' edge. 

The ]ila( e(»f di.«'overy lies alxiut a 
niile and a half, or still further, fromthe 
^libhisbippi, on elevated ground, and 
above orcunary high«wati«r mark ; bot 
fonnmly, b<'fore the l)ed of the river 
waH nnniAved by the dike connect- 
ing the lllinoih hhore with JLJioody 
Island, the distance cannot liave been 
rhore tlian li.ilf a tuile. The spot is 
nituated lU'arly midway between two 
moiuids, half a mile apart from r-ach 
other. One of them waa formerly 
used aa a graveyard by the French en 
the neigbbotbood, and the other serves 
as tlic sti}»Htnicturo for a dwelling-honse. The oooompanyingplau (furnished by 
my correspondent) gives a view of the locality. 

Several of the agricultural im|dement8 found at East St. I^ouis are now in my 
possession. Their material is a yellowisb-brown variety of the flint to which I 
alrcatly refemnl. In sliape they coi respond with the tools <»f the same class 
previously descnl)ed by me ; most of the .shovels, liowever, instead of havini^tho 
end opposite the cutting ]»art worked into a rounded edge, (like Fii,', 1,) termi- 
nate in a more or less acntc angle. The edges of lul are chipped with the 
utmost regularity, and exhibit nottla slii^ditest wear, which proves that the 
implements were in a perfectly new c<»n(lition when buried in the (rronnd* 

The fossil shells of marine orii^in are all small univalves, and belong almost 
entirely to the genus ntclumpus. (.)f nearly 300 specimens sent to me by Dr. 
Patrick^ 19 only n*prcscnt other genera, namely, oolkmbdUit mar(fmeOaf conua^ 






— IIH 111 I I — 





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tmd hulla. All liavo n (Ifrfiyd ami rlialky n|)fK'nranrc. They wow pro}»al»ly 
ubtuined in the iK'igliboilii>u<l| and obvioiiHly ilcHtincil for uriianienUil 
^ purposes. This may be inforrcd fnim iho fact that a numlicr of the 

Omdampus Bbclls are picrci'il with ono hole in the lower party (Fig. 3, 
natural kI/.o, > whi<;li wjw siiHirient for Htiiiiiriiii^' tliciii, as the ronncctinff 
thread eoiild easily he passed throii^'h the iiatma! ai>« rtiir«' of the Hliell. 
On cloKC exatniiiutiun 1 found thai thetnt hIh-IIh had Ix^en reduced, hy 
grinding, to /greater thinness at the place of ii<>rforalion, in order U> 
facilitate tho pruci'HS of piercing. 

The l)OulderK, whieh foniied a part of the de|)oHit, were jirohahly dehii^tiatr-d 
for tho manufacture of iinplernentH. A pieite of one of tiie hoiilderri wtm nerjl to 
mti for examination. It i6 a comjiact diuritc, thu nuitcrial of which many ground 
•itioleg of tlioNortli American Indians, racb as tomabawks, chisels, pestles, ice, 
are made. 

It would bo useless to speeidalr^ on tli*' aiili«|iiit y of the »»bjeetn tliiis aeeiden- 
ialiy dittcovorod, for there are no indicationn for determining, even approximately, 
the period when they were buried. It is far easier to account for the moHvea 
which indooed the owners of the UhAh and the oth<'r objecstK to dis|)OHe of tbein 
in tho manner described. 'J'lu ir object was, in all probability, f(» fiiih' them. 
I'erhapK they left the phice with a view to return and to luk<' posH ssion a^^ain 
of their concealed projKirty, but were prevented from earn iug out tiu ir intention. 
Or, they may have bnriea them in time of war, when they were killed, driven 
away, or led into captivity; and their 'Mii<M('ii treftsure" lay undisturlNHl in the 

frrouiid, |>erbapH for < < iilnii('S, until tin* ^padc ol the Irisli laborer broti^'ht it to 
ight again. There in no room whatever for the snpiMMition tliat thiii deposit 
ooDstitoted one of those religioua offerings by which tue aodent inhabitant* of 
the HiiwiKHippi valloy believed they cou^ gratify or propitiate the powers thai 
ruled their dchtitiieH. 

Similar depohitH of fiint arti< les have repeatedly been discovered in the United 
titateu,* and MeHHrs. Hquier aiid Davib mention Miverui instaiuu s of tins kind in 
tiimr work entitled Andent Monnments of the MissiKKippi Valley." Tbemott 
extensive accumulation described by them ric<;urred in (me of the so-called Mori- 
fidal moundH of "('lark'H Work," ou North Fork of Taint cre<'k, Uo88 county^ 
Ohio. This mound coutaiued, instead of thu altar uHuall^' foimd in tluH clatts of 
earth-stnictures, an enorroons number of flint diiks standing on their etlgos, and 
arranged in two layerH ono alHivo the other, at tho bottom of the moond* The 
whole extent of theno laverH haH not Ix'en ascertained • but an <'Xcavation six 
fe<'t lorifjr and four broad disclosed upwards (d'six hundred of ihone disks, rudely 
blocked out of u Huperior kind of gravitih t<trij>ed flint, i ha4l occasion to exam- 
ine the spodmeni formerly in the collection of Dr. Davis, and have now a nom- 
bar of them in my own collecti(m, which w ere sent to mo from Ohio. They are 
either roimdish, oval, or heart-shaped, atid of various sizes, but o!i an average 
Hix inches long, four inchen w id(;, and from three-quarters of an inch to an inch 
in thickness. They weigh not far from two pounds eocli. Tbeao flint disks are 
believed to have been buiied m a religioua offering, and the peculiar structure- 
of tho moun<l which inclosed themf rather favors this view. The diakH, bow- 
ever, lepresent no bnished irnpb'inents, but taerely fiat pic^ocs, ru<lely chipped 
around their edgeu, and destined, in ail probalnlity, to bu wrought into luora 
•ymmetrical forrofc. Thoa it would rather seem that the contents of this mound 
oonatitnted a kind of depot or magazine, from which supplies of Hint (^inld bo 
drawn whenever then? was a want of that material. .Many of ihc <liskrt ntider 
notice bear a striking rchcmblance to thu flint " hat<;hets" disc(>vered by iJoucber 
do I'erthes and iJr. Uigollot in the diluvial gravefs of the valley of the .Souime^ 

" Alsu in f^iirupu. Di^xmitH nf flint itrruw-liemlH, fur iiiHtnuc^i, wuut luuud iu ijcutlAtid.~ 
LogaH, "The Scottiah (Ju^H." Low]., 1831., Vol. I, p. '.i'.VJ. 
t Andent Moouoieats, iM; drawings of tlw disks on p. 214. 

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In northei'D Fnmoe.* The similanty in form, however, is the only analogy that 
can be claimed for the nulc flint articles of both oontinentK, considering that 

thoy occurred under totally different circutustances. T\u' drift iniplemtnts of 
Europe represent tlie niopt jiriinitive attempts C)f man in rhr art of working stone, 
while the Ohio disks aic the unlinished speciiuens oi a race that constructed 
earthworks of amazing rize, and was alreatly highly skilled in the manofiictore 
of weapons and tools of flint. 

Yet I little doubt but that implements analoj^ous in sh;ipe as well as in asso- 
ciations to those of the drill of Europe, will be found also iu Aniericii; for indi- 
cations of tho high antiquity of man on the latter continentare not wanting, and 
the similarity in the earl V condition of the human race in various parts of the 
globe becomes more and more manifest by the results of archaeologioal inyeett* 
gat ion. 

Another occuneucc of flint disks is recorded in a notice by Dr. Iloy, published 
in Lapham's ''Antiquities of Wis- 
eonnn,'' one of the Smithsonian vol- ^ 
Times : ^' Some workmen, in di:r£,'ing 
a ditch through a peat swanip near 
Racine, found a deposit of disks of 
homstone, about 30 in nnmber. They 
were immediately on the day, at tho 
bottom of the peat, about two and 
a half feet below the surface. Some 
of the disks were quite regnlar ; they 
▼aiy from half a pound \o a pound 
in weiglit." A few <»f these are pre- 
8er\'ed in the collectiou of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

About 1860, while I lived in St. 
Louis, a (juantity of mdely-shiped 
flint articles of simihir character were 
discovered close together on the bank 
of the Mississippi, between St. Louis 
and Carondelet. It is probable that 
the falling down of a jjart of the bank 
had exposed them to sight. I could 
not ascertain their number^ but saw 
about eight of them, of which I ob- 
tained three. They arc r early all 
of the same si/e, (»val in shape, and 
consist of whitish flint. Fig. 4 
represents one of my specimens in 
natuxfll flise. The original Is seven- 
eighths of an inch thick in tho mid- 
dle part. It is evident that they are 
not iuipknicnts in a state of comple- 
tion, but roughly-edged fi-ogments, 
which were destined to be made into 
arrow and spear-heads at sonie future time. Their jircscnt convenient shape was 
doubtless given them for ihe sake of easier transportation and for saving space. It 
is believed that flint can be chipped more reatiily after having been exposed 
for some time to the humid influence of the earth, and this may pai tly account 
for the practice of the aborigines of buryingtbeir BOpplies of flint in auitabie places. 

* Implemettto very similar ia shape to the OUo disks were also found iu the caves of 
Dordogne, espedally that of Lc MouHtier. They are described and figured in the qilendid 
work by Lartet and Christy, entitled " Beliquice Aquitanicie." * 

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lletuiniiig Id my lonaer siibjijct, I will obtjCrve tliat the oocnnvnce c»f Indian 
flint tools which Bcrved fur ag^cultural purposes is not more surprising than 
that ofodieretone implements indicating less {jeaceablc pursuits; for it is known 
that many of the ahoricinal tribes uf North America mised maize and other nntri- 
tious plants before this continent was scttlcfl by Knru|H'ans.* The production 
of maize, indeed, must have been cuusiderable. ^Ir. Gallaliii ha^s taken some paius 
to ascertun the area, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of Mexico, over 
which cultivation extended. It was bounded on the cast by the Atlantic; 
on the S(Mith by the (inlfof ^Mexico: on tlic west l>y tlic .Missi»ij>])i, or, 
mor(> iHojK'rly. by the prairies. Towards the nortli the limits varied accord- 
ing to the climate; but near the Alhintic the nnrthifn boundary of iigriculture 
lay in the region of tlie rivers Kennebec and Penobscot. Nortli of the Cheat 
Ijakes ai^ricnltun* was only fnimd among tlie Unions and some kindred tribes. 
Tlie Ojibways. on tlic sdiirli lit' l^ike Snjierior. and tlicir neii^hbors, the Meno 
monies, it api>ears, de]»enilc<l fv»r vegetable looil principally on the wild rice or 
ivild oats, called /o/fo awhw by the Frencli.t The Iroquois tribes raised large 
quantities of Indian corn. In the year 1G$7. a corps under the coninumd of the 
Marqnis de Nonville made aji invar<inn inf<i the connlrv of the Senecas. dining 
which all their t^ujij)lies of niai/.c wen- citlii r burned or otlierwisc spoiled, juid 
the quantity thus deslrtjyed is said t«i have amounted to 400,000 miuots, or 
1,200,000 Snshels.! Though this estimate may be somewhat exag^rated, it 
neTertbeless shows that these tribes paid much attention to the cuiuvation of 

The nations who inhabite*! the large territories formerly calle<l Florida and 
Louisiana, probably obtained their fornl mostly from the vegetable kingdom. 
They cultivated chicly maize, beans, ])eas, pumpkins, mclouK, and sweet pota- 
toes. Maize, however, was their principjd produce. In the accounts of De 
Soto's exj»editiovi. not only lV('(jnent allusion is made to the extensive maize lields 
of the natives, but it may also be gathered from these relations that the army of 
De Soto would have starved without the supplies of Indian com obtained b<m 
the inhabitants. These people laid up stores of that useful cereal, and among 
other facts if is Tncntioncd iliat one of De Sot<i"s otlircis I'dnnd in one hoHse 
alone, five hundreil measures of mai/e ground to njeal, besides a laii,'e quantity 
in grain.§ Bat those southern tril>es met by De >Soto and his followers in the 
nzteenth centnry were the most advanced atnong the North American aborig- 
ines. No longer in the pure hunter state, but attached to the soil, they lived in 
large villages, consistinir of dwellings more commodious tli.m those of the ruder 
tribesy and paid geueiully more attention to the c^mdorts oi life than the latter. 

Adahr, who spent during the last century many years as a trader in the dis* 
trict under notice, mentions that the Frendi of West Florida and the English 
colonists olttained from llie Indians difi'crent sctrts of beans and peas, with which 
they were before entirely unacquainted. Tliry raised also a snuiU kind t»f tobacco, 
dili'ering from that in use among the i'rencli ami Knglish settlers. The wouien, 
he says, planted pumpkins and difiiei'ent s{iedes of melons in separate fields, st 
a considerable distance from the towns.]] It is even probable that the foniier 
inhabitants cultivated fruit trees. Bartram, at least, found in Geor<;ia and Ala- 
bama, on the sites of ancient Imliau settlements, various kinds of trees, such as 

* Some of the lacts mentioned in the following remarks were already given inmv previoiu 
article, pablwhed in the Smithsonfan report for 186:); I repeat them here, for the sake of 

greater compli tciiess, in conueetioii Aviili some additionid ilrtiiil.s Iwarhig upon the sanif 
subject. F(i) descriptions of the remarkable "garden-beds " of Michigan, Wiuconsin, and 
IndiMia, -which indicate an ancient cultivation, I must refer to SchoMcraft, Lq»luuii, and 

t Gallatin, Archreologia AiiiericftTm, Vol. II. p. 149. 
t Documentary History of New York, Vol. 1, p. 2',it*. 

^ Garcilusso de la Vtga^ Conqodte de la Floride. Loydeu, 1731, Vol. I, p. 250. 
y AdaiTf Ilistorj of the Ameneaa Jhidiuus. London, 1775, p. 40ti. 

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tlie perenminofi, honey-loonitt;, Ghiokasaw plum, mnlberry, 1)lack walnut, and 
shell-barked hickory, which, be thinks, ''were cnhivated by tlio ancients on 
acefiunt «»f their fruit, a.s bein<^ wholesome and nourishing fmxi."* 

The FJoridians, it is stated, emi)hjyed at .S«»to's time prisoners of war for 
\vorkiu«^ the iiebl», aud iu order to pruveut iheir et>capo tht;y partly nmimed them 
by cntting tbo tendons of the leg above the lioel or the instep!f It appears, 
liowever, that amonff most somi-agricultaral tribes of North Anienea field labor 
wa^^ imposed upon the wotnen ; while the men, when not •'n«jf;ii^e<l in huntini^ or 
wai* expeditiuDti, ubundoDe<i theniselvud to tliut iistlebsi re]>obe iu which barbar 
rians generally love to indnlge. 

*£artram'9 Travels. JL>ublin, i71i3, p. 3d. 

iawilm$9o 4» U nf«t Con^uMe de U Ftoride, Vol. I, p. iid6, and Vol 11, p. 389. 


By Charles Bau. 

The family of the celebrated botanist and etUnolopst, to whose mem- 
ory this sketch is dedicated, traces its origiu back to Galeottus Mar- 
tins, a famous physician and astrologer, born in 1427, at Kami, in 
Umbria. Abont the year 1450 be occopied a professorial cbair at 
Padua, but, persecuted by the Inquisition on account of reformatory 
tendoiicies and compelled to leave Ita)y. he subsequently weut to the 
court of the learned King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, who ap- 
pointed bim bis counseUor and librarian. Tbe descendants of Oaleot- 
tns mostly spread themselves over Germany, and many are known to 
have i)ursued learned ])r()fossiou8, thus ibrmiag an ancestry worthy of 
their distinguished successor. 

Carl l^riedri^ Pbilipp von Martins was bom on tiie 17th of April 
179i, at Erlangen, Bavaria, where his father, Ernst Wilbehn Marilos, 
owned an apothecary establishment, holding at tho same time the po- 
sition of honorary professor of pharmacy in the university of that city. 
A mail of superior general acquirements, he was especially iuterested 
in botany, and has left some writings relative to his fiivorite Atudy. At 
tbe advanced age of ninety, he published an interesting and well-writ- 
ten book', containing recollections of his long and eventful life. He 
<iied iu 1849, in his ninety-third year. 

His eldest son, the subject of this sketch, was carefully educated at 
home and in tbe t^chools of Erlangen. At an early w^o. he already dis* 
played the germs of those talents whicli afterwar<l made him conspicu- 
ous in the world of letters, and, when still (|iiite youn^, he manilested 
a determined resolution to devote himself to a scieutilic career. Though 
his juvenile inclinations leaned toward natural history, he also exhibited 
much taste for the study of ancient classics, a tcinlency which, nurtured 
by skilllul teachers, not only di'veloped an<l strengtiiened his intel- 
lectual capacities, but also enabled him, when iu after years he 
composed many of his writings in Latin, to express himself in 
that language with a precision and elegance not often met with 
in our time. In fact, during his whole life the reading of Latin 
and (Ireek authors formed one of his principal recreations. When 
only sixteen years of age, Martins was admitted, in 1810, as a 
student in the nniversity of his native town. He had decided to 
prepare himself for the medical ])rofession, chiefly l>eeause this study 
aftbrded him the wid<\st field for indulging in his love for natural 
sciences. His favorite branch, botany, was then tau^iht at Erlangen by 
a pux)il of Liuuteus, the learned 8chreber, who does not seem, however, 
to have been gifted with a happy method of imparting intbrmation; 
hence Martiusand his fellow-students felt more attracted by the lectures 

* NoTK. — It is hut fair to state that mostof tho facts contained in this sketch have been 
furnished by C. F. itleiBsnar'a Dcnkachrift auf Carl Fricdr. Phil, von Martim, (Munich, 
1869.) The article Carl Philipp von Mariius, acin I^ben und »eine Leiatungen, ia tho 
itiMM, (No. 36, I860,) bae alao been used. 


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of other professors of tlic iiiiivorsity, such as nildebranclt, Harless, 
Goldfiiss, Vogel, Wendt, and others who tlourishod at tliat period. Iii 
1814 Martins received the diph-ma of doctor mcdicimvj haviug passed 
witb houors the ezaminatioii necessary to obtain tha€ grade. His in- 
aiigiiral dissertation was a critical ( atah)gue of the plants in the botan- 
ical garden of Eilangen.* In this first literary attempt, which forms an 
octavo vohiuie of 210 pages, he followed the classihcation of Linuajus. 
Shortly afterward we tind Martius among the elctes of the Boyal Acade* 
my of Sciences at Munich, deeply engaged in botanical studies, and 
appointed assistant to Schraidc, the conservator of the botanical garden. 
An excellent oppori luiily being thus oftVred to the young botanist (►f 
enlarging the knowhulge already ac(j[uired, he devoted himself with en- 
thnstastic seal to a i)ursait that harmonized so well with his taste. 
While in this position he published his Flora Cryptoffamica ErlangensiSj 
{Xorimbcrfffr, I SIT,) a work already begun at Erlangen, which embraced 
his first indcpciuhMit investigations, and attracted by its merits consid- 
erable attention Irom competent botanists. His suijerior talents, com- 
bined with an indefatigable indnstry and excellent personal qnalities^ 
«onld not fail to endear him to the older members of the Academy, men 
eminent in their special departments of science, whoexerted a most bene- 
ficial and lasting inliuence on his mind. Indeed, he was placed in an 
enviable position j fortune, smiled on him and smoothed his path to dis- 
tinction. One circumstance, however, mnst be partieularly mentioned 
in this place ; for it is that on which his future success in life chietiy 
depended. The King of Bavaria, Max Joseph I, an anient lovta- of 
botany, frequently visited the botanical garden of his capital, on which 
occasions he usnally selected Martins for his companion and guide. 
Thus becoming acquainted with the young naturalist's acquirements 
and talents, he honored him with his special favor, and seized upon 
the first opportunity of showing his good will in a practical manner. 
This excellent monarch had for some time conceived the plan of sending 
scientific explorers to Sonth America, and in 1815 he. had already con> 
ferred with the Academy in relation to this matter; yet two years 
elapsed before the realization of his design. In 1817, when the Austrian 
Archduchess Leopoldina, the bride of the crown-prince of Brazil, after- 
ward Emperor Dom Pedro 1, was about to depart for the New World^ 
Mettemieh caused some Austrian savants, charged with sdentifio labora 
in Brazil, to be added to the suite of the princess. The Bavarian gov- 
ernment, wishing to profit by this occasion, asked, and was granted, 
])erTnission to send in the same vessel two natnralists, who, upon their 
arrival in South America, were to carry on tlieir investigations inde- 
pendently of the Austrian coips. For this purpose Max Joseph selected 
as botanist his gifted protege Maitius, then a young man of twenty- 
three, and Johann Ba])tist von Spix, a member of the Ac'ademy, who 
was to take charge of the zoologic-al department. On the Ud of Ax^ril^ 
1817, the party left the harbor of Trieste in the Austrian frigate Austria^ 
and touching at Malta, Gibraltar and Madeira^ reached Bio JaneirOt 
after a prosperous voyage, in the middle of July. One may easily 
imagine the feelings of the two travelers, especially of the youtliful and 
enthusiastic Martius, when they stood upon the soil of the wonderful 
country thiit lay befoi*e them with all its treasures of nature — ^the very 
El Dorado of a naturalist, then far less explored than at the present 
time, and promising the richest harvest in every field of natural science. 

On the Sth of December, 1817, the two Bavarian savants set out on 
their expedition into the interior, llaviug first visited the province of 

* Fkmiarum Horti Aoademici ErlangautU Unumeratio. Lrlanga, ltil4. 


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San P;«()lo, tlioy passed in a iiortlicastoiiy din'ctioii tbroufrh tlif prov- 
ince of Miuas lieraes as I'ar as Minus Xovas; then t liroufili the Sena 
DiamaDtina, tonchiug the province of Groyaz, when they turned a^aiu 
toward the iiortlieast aud proceeded to Sati Salvador, the capital of the 
])roviuce of Bahia. They arrived there in Xovenjhcr isis. After a 
short sojourn at tliis phice, and Inivinj^ visited the IJotot udos and other 
aiyiiceut ludiau tribes, they (Mintiuued tlieir journey toward the uorth, 
traversiDg the provinces of Pematubnco, Piauliy, and MaraabSo, until 
they reached San Luiz, situated at the mouth of the Itapicarti. From 
there they went by sea to the estuary of tlie Amazon IJiver, arriving at 
Para iu June 1811). They then ascended this mi;;^hty stream for more 
than two-thirds of its leu^^th, as far as Tabatinga, close to the fioutier 
of Peru. The travelers having separated for awhile to visit different 
parts of this region, 3Iartiu.H explored one of the tributaries of the 
Amazon, the Uio Japura, (Ynpura) until he arrived at the <-ataract 
Salto Grande do Araracoara, whicli imi>eded a further advance. The 
larger affluents of the great river, the Bio Kegro and Bio Madeira, were 
lilcewise explored some distance, the latter as far as the districts of the 
Mundrueu and Maulie Indians. It must be remembered that tin? navi- 
gation of those waters, whieli is now «,aeatly facilitated l)y steam ves- 
iiels, had theu to be performed in hired or purchased boats, which, being 
manned with Indian rowers, afforded hardly room for the travelers and 
their ever increasiDg luggage, and offered no other protectiou against 
the burning equatorial sun aud the heavy rains but a slight cover cou- 
utructed of boughs. Amid a multitude of iuconveniences, and some- 
times exposed to real danger, they had to keep their journals, and to 
prepare and preserve the natural objects obtained during their excnr« 
sions on the banks; yet the collections they brought back, which now 
enrich the museums of Munich, bear evidence of tiieir great success.* 
Descending the Amazon, they arrived again in Tara in the middle of 
April 1820. ' Two months afterward they embarked for laslran, and 
reached Mnnich in December i si'O, after an al)8enceof nearly four years. 

The expedition of Spix and Martins certainly ranks among the most 
important enterprises undertaken for scientitic jmrposes in this century. 
Their explorations extended over a distance of nearly one thonsand 
four hundred geographioal miles, and have, like the travels of Alex- 
ander von Humboldt, furnished the material for numerous works (Un- 
bracing many departments of science ; indeed, the period of nearly half 
a century, which has elapsed since the return of the naturalists, was 
not sufficient for fhlly developing, and giving to the scientific world, all 
results of their researches. Since La Coudamine descended the Ama- 
zon, and Martins were the first learned Europeans who visited 
tliose mighty waters; an<l though others had i)reviously explored cer- 
tain jjortions of Brazil, the country, on the whole, still remained com- 
fiaratively unluiown. Hence the importance of the Bavarian expedi* 
tion. The names of Spix and Martius are intimately connected with the 
natural history and ethnology of the empire, and will be gratefully 
remembered in future times by all those who take a scientitic interest iu 
that country, or wish to inform themselves concerning its condition iu 
the early part of our century. 

^Beridesvalaablemtneraloffioalaud ^eolugical specimens, their collectiongeniliraoed: 

manimalH, Ho s[i(>cips ; birds, 350; amphilMa, 130 ; lislios, IKJ ; iusects, 'i,700 ; aracliiiidae 
and cruHtaccauH, each oU; plantA, about (t,5U0. Tbu latt4sr, mostly rcpicsi-iited by hcv- 
enl 8peciiii(>u9 ami carefully i>resorvii<l, conntitatc now thu mO0t valuable portion of 
the royal herbarium at Municn. The botanical garden also received its shure, partly 
in Uriog plants, partly iu such as were raised trom the collected seeds. The wb<Mii» 
was jlaoea under Che care of the Academy. 

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The Bfasdlian voyage laid the foundation of Martins- future success. 
On the very day of their return, he and Spix were decorated by the 
King with the civil order of Bavaria, and sliortly afterward Martius was 
elected a member of the IU>yal Academy, and ax)poiuted second con- 
servator of the botanical garden. At the age of twenty-six l^irtios 
akeady enjoyed a repntation which, in common life, is usually only 
acquired by men of riper years ; for not many are favored with advan 
tages such as were otlered to liim. His sojourn in a country perfectly 
new to him, and hence the necessity ut acting independently, hfid made 
him self-reliant and practical, while the number of objects constantly 
claiming his attention had served to quicken his i)ower of x)erception| 
and to develop all those qualities which, when combiued, constitute the 
true naturalist. His ex[)eriences in the wilds of Brazil were to him a far 
better school than many years spent in constant otoset-stady. 

His return from Brazil marked the beginning of a long-continued lit- 
erary activity, resulting in highly important works, to which reference 
will be made hereafter. As an event of this period we have also to 
record his marriage with an accomplished lady of noble descent, a union 
which gave him a home and a family, and promoted in no small degree 
the happiness of his existence. The domestic circle wasto him through 
out life an asylum of peace and contentment, where he rested from his 
professional labors, enjoying the so(;iety of his family and of numerous 
friends who loved to gather under his hosx>itable roof. A great change 
occurred in Martins' position in the year 1826, when King Lndwig I, 
w ho had ascended the throne of Bavaria, transferred the universily of 
Landshut to Munich, and appointed him professor of botany. Six years 
later, the first conservator of the botanical garden. Von Schrank, being 
then very old, retired from office, and Martius was installed in his place. 
He was eminently qualified for discharging the duties now incumbent 
on him. Perfectly acquainted with his science, he possessed the faculty 
of presenting it in an easy and attractive manner. He spoke with ele- 
gance and liuency, and sometimes, when carried away by the subject, 
his eloquence even partook of a poetical character. For practical de* 
monstration the botanical garden, carefnlly superintended by Martius, and 
the herbarium, aflforded ample means, to wliicli must be added frequent 
botanical excursions undertaken in company with the students, with 
whom he entertained very amicable relations, gaining their affections 
no less by conscientious instruction than by the benevolent, paternal 
friendship he bestowed on them. Among the numbw of his pnpils who 
became i)romineut, may be named Alexander Braun, TTugo von Mohl, 
Carl Schimper, O. Sendtner, C. U. Schultz-Bipontinus, and Spring. 

In 1840 Martius was elected secretary of the physico-matheiuatical 
class of the Academy, an honorary office imposing much labor, which 
he performed until his death with care and punctuality, and great ad- 
vantage to that scientific body. By this position he was charged witli 
all correspondence and literary exchanges with other learned institu- 
tions, and whenever a foreign or resident member of the Academy died 
it was his duty to deliver an address commemorative of the life and 
merits of the deceased. These eulogies have been much admired for 
the excellent style in which they are composed, and the skill displayed 
in the general treatment. They are deemed fully equal to the celebrated 
^loges by Cuvier and Flourens.* 

' The eulogies roatl by Martins are contained iu an octavo vohiiue of 619 pagcn, 
entitled Akademiachs Dcnkredm von C. F. Fh.von MarUus, {Leipzig, 1S66.) Those of a 
later date (on Faraday, Brewster, Floareaa, dto.) vera pabliahed in the tRknsactioiis of 
the Academy of the year 1668. 



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For the rest, the professional career of Martiiis is not marked by auy 

Btrikiiifr incidents. Lectures, literary labors, and tlie siiperintendenoe 
of the botanical garden fully occiii^ied his time, tind his t5#avels, after 
tlie American voyage, extended not farther than France, lielju'inni, Hol- 
laud, England, and Switzerland. He used to spend his summer \ aca- 
tions in the piotnresqiie Bavaiian monntains, especially at Schlehdorf, 
on the Kochel-See, where his hoqiitable house formed a rallyinf,' place 
for Ilia nnmerons friends, who remember with feeliu^rs of frratitude the 
(lays passed there amid delightful natural scenes and in a highly intel- 
lectual, refined society. Though of a vigorous constitution, Vou Martius 
was in later years sabject to those chronic indispositions which usually 
result from the sedentary habits of iiumi of letters, and he fonnd himself 
therefore obliged to resort repeatedly to watering places, espeoiallj' to 
the mineral springs of Kissiugcn. The salutary eliVct derived liom the 
use of these waters was in some measure eonnteracted by the bustle 
and distractions peculiar to snch localities; for, meeting there distin- 
gnished friends, aiul being, rnoreover, naturally inclined to social life, 
the mental excitement i)roduccd was mther unfavorable to the improve- 
ment of his physical condition. 

In the year 1854 an unexpected event caused the premature termina- 
tion of Martins' official activity. It was decided by the government 
that the glass buihling for the iiidustrin? eNliibition then to be held at 
Munich should be erected within the area of the botanical garden, 
which had but lately undergone great improvements at a sacrifice of 
much time and labor. It was in vain that Martius remonstrated against 
a measure which threatened his beloved institution with serious disad* 
vantages, and when he found his objections unavailing, he finally re- 
signed, deeply disappointed, both his professorship and the superintend- 
ence of the botonicsd garden. 


The literary activity of Professor Von Martius was very great The 
writer has in his possession a printed list of his works and minor writ' 
ings, which embraces no less than one hundred and sixty titles. A 
number of these publications are written in the Latin language, and 
most of tliem, of course, relate to botany, his specialty in science; bat 
there are also valuable conteibutions to ethnology among them, la 
treating of his nu*rits as an author, it is ])roper to mention first the nar- 
rative of the Brazilian voyage performed by him and Spix.* This is a 
substantial and most carefully prepared work, in three (piarto volumes, 
accompanied by an atlas of large size. The volumes appeared respect- 
ively in 1823, 1828, and 1831; Spix, however, died in 1S20, and henoe 
the two last volumes were almost entirely written by Martius alone. 
Every one who examines this work must be struck by the vast amount 
of varied information it contains, for the travelers directed their atten- 
tion not merely to the natural history of Bra£il« but investigated also 
with sciirching care everything else within their reach which they 
deemed worthy of inquiry. The nature of the country, its productions, 
different races, social condition, commerce, agricultuie, mining, statis- 
tics, &c., are treated with a surprising minuteness, and, where the sub- 
ject is of an elevated character, in a superior style, which has repeatedly 

* BeUe tR Jlraa{|j«ii, auf fie/M 8r, M^^estSt Maximilian Joseph I, Koniga ton Baj/em^ in 
ien Jahrcn 1817, 1818, 1819 nnd 1820 fjemacht, nnd beochrichen von J. fi. wm)S^ und C F, 
Ph. von Martius. Ttiree vols., 4^; Munich, 1823-31; with an atlaa. 

There is au English translation of the lirst volume by H. E. Lloyd; Loudon, 1894 ^ 
2 vols., 8vo.; plates reduced to the sise of the volttmce. 

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elicited the praise of Goethe, the ^reat master of German composition. 
In fa(;t, certain portions of the work, such as '/i\ e the im]>ressions pro- 
duced upon the travelers l>y the sublime natural scenes of Jirazil, liave 
passed into collections containing model pieces of German prose.* The 
large atlas, ornamented with a well-execnted allegorical title-page, 
comprises maps, orographical diagrams, panoramic views of moautain 
chaiii.^, lainlscapes, reprosentations of tyi)ical animals and i)lants, ami 
quite a number of plates illustrating the domestic and hunting life,' the 
feasts, dances, and ceremonies of the aboriginal inhabitants. Their 
fabrics and arms are figared on two ])lates. In addition, there are many 
faithfully executed, large portraits of Indians of various tribes, exhibit- 
ing their i)eculiar features aud the curious manner in which they dis- 
ligure their ears, lips, and chins by the insertion of oruameuts. Of 
particular interest are some plates containing representations of figures 
sculptui^d on rocks, as affording the means of comparing the pictogra- 
phy of the Brazilian abori;j:ines with that of other indi^ions inhabit* 
ants of the American continent. 

On the whole, the narrative of Spix and Martins is one of the most 
important and comprehensive works of travel published in modern 
times, equaling in merit the researches of Humboldt relative to Mex- 
ico aud other i)arts of Anieri<'a. It will remain a lastinii' moiimnent of 
the zeal and perseverance of. its authors, and an honoral)lr rcstimo- 
uial to the enlightened prince who brought about its realization. 

Simultaneously with the account of their travels, Spix aud Martins 
began to prepare their strictly scuentiftc works on the botany and zoo- 
logy of Brazil ; the former department, of course, being in charge of 
Martius, while Spix treated the subject of zoology. I5ut as Si)ix had 

* We caunot refirain from iiiserliiig Lere, uh a BpecimeU| ttie d«i»cripUuii of evcningB 
•pent at tho country honse of Mr. Von Laii<^ilorft', near Rio Jan^ro: 

"Nothing can bo compared to thv Itcaiit y of tliis ri'tn-at wlu n tlic most snltry lioiim 
of the day are past, and goutlo breczMs, iiuurcguutcd with baliiumic perfumivt firoin the 
neighborin;;. wooded monntains, cool the afr. This enjoyment conlinnea to increaao as 
the night spreads over tho land and the sea, which sliiries at a distance, and tho city, 
where the uoiso of busiuciis Inm suhsidi d. is gradually lighted. Ho who ha.s not per- 
sonally ezpacknoed the encbantmeut ot trauqnil moonlight nights in thcHo happy 
latitudes can nover be inspired, even by tUo most faithful description, with these Ibei- 
ings which scenes of snch wondrous beauty excite in tho mind of tho beholder. \ 
delicato, trauspar. iit mist hangs over tlie ■ (nintry, tho moon shines Itrightly ainiilst 
heavy and singularly jrrouped clouds; the outlines of the ol\ject8 which ore illuminated 
by it are clear and wmI defined, while a raaj^o twilight seems to remove from the eye 
those which are in tho shiule. Scarce a breath of air i8 stirring, and the neigldwring 
mimosas, that have iVdded up their leaves to sleep, sUvnd niotionh'tw beside the dark 
• dOwnsof tho manga, the Ja< a. and tho ethereal jambos; or sometimes a sudden wiud 
arises, and tho juiccleHs leaves of the ac^ju rustle, tho richly flowered grumijama and 
pitanga let drop a fragrant shower of snow-whito l>lossom8; the crowns of the ma- 
jestic palms wave slowly over the: silent roof which they oversliade, like a symbol of 
peace aud tranquillity. IShiUl cries of tht^ cicada, the grasshopper, aud the tree-fcoff 
make an inoessant bnm, and prodnco by their monotony, a i)leasiug molsncholy. A 
stream, gently munnuring, descends from tlie mountains, ami the macuc, (I'erdrix iviya- 
nensis,) with its almost human voice, seems to call for help from » distance. Every . 
quarter of an hour different balsamic fi<lors fill the air, and other flowers alternately 
unfold their leaves to tho night, and almost overpower the senses with their perfume; 
now it is the bowers of pauUinias, or tho neighl»oring orange grove, then tho thick 
tufts of the enpatoria, or the hunches of the llowers of the palms, suildenly bursting, 
which disclose their blossoms, and thus maintain a constant suooessiou of fragrance. 
While the silent vegetable world, illnminated by swarms of fire-flies, as by a thousand 
moving stars, charms tho night by its delicious effluvia, brilliant lightnings play 
iuctissautly in thu horizon aud elevate the mind in joyful admiration to the stars, 
whieh, glowing in solemn silence in the iirmament above tbe continent and ocean, fill 
the soul with a ])re-*eTitiiuent of still subliraor wonders. In tho enjoyment of tho 
peaceful aud magic intlucnce of such nights, the newly-arrived European rcmombers 
with tender longings his native home, till the luxuriant scenery of tho tropics has 
become to him a second country/' — (English translation, vol. i, p. lOU.) 

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died in 1S2G, the assistance of Agassi z, Perty, and Andreas Wagner 
was required to continue the zoological labors, which resulted in the 
publication of several toUos with beautifully executed plates. We men* 
tiou the I'oUowiug : 

Kew species of BraziHan mook^ and bats, by Spix.* New spe- 
cies of lizards, snakes, turtles, and frogs, by Si)ix.t New species of 
buxls, by Spix-I Fluviatile tostaceans, by J. A. Wagner.§ Fishes, by 
Agassiz.ll Insects, by Pcrty.t] 

In treating of the Brazilian dora,** Murtius hrst coutiued himself to a 
sdeotion of the plants collected by him, which he described in two 
w<nks, entitled Nora Genera et Species Plantarum BrasiUensium^ and 
leones Selectw Plantanan Crifptoffatn tear inn BrasiJio'.^ In the prepara- 
tion of the first volume of the tirst-uamed work, which describes the 
phanerogamons plants, he was assisted by his too-early-deceased col- 
leagne Znccarini. The object of the leones Sdeette^ £e., is indicated in 
tiie title. To the latter work lingo von Mold contributed an excellent 
tieatise on the structure of tlic stems of tree-ferns. Both works are 
luglily esteemed. They contain lull and precise descriptions of single 
plants as well as of whole series and gronps of kindred species ; and it 
is particularly worthy of notice that many of these monographic trea- 
tises have laid the foundation of a thorough knowledge of the plants 
to which they relate. The <lrawings of whole plants and their anatom- 
ical details are executed with a degree of faithfulness and art surpass- 
ing almost anything of a similar character that had previously appeared 
in the litoatnre of botany. 

As early as 1823 3Iartius began the publication of his " Natural His- 
tory of l'alms,"§§ a work which is considered his most important contri- 
bution to botany, and that by which he has most conspicuously linked 
Ids name for fiitnre times with that soienoe. At the first sight of these 
majestic tiTcs, which LinnaBus already had designated as the princes 
of the vegetable kingdom,^ he conceived the plan of making them the 
object of his si)ecial observation and scientitic treatment. He, there- 
fore, studied with attention the many species of palms he saw during 
his travels in Brazil, and collected ^ter his retom from that country 
with the utmost diligence all the material concerning the palms of other 
parts of the world, which was required to render his work complete. 
He thus succeeded, after the labor of many years, in producing a mono- 
graph nniqne in its kind, which caused Alexander von Humboldt to 
exdaim, ''As long as palms are known and mentioned, the nameot 

* amSmnm VeiperlUi»mm BnuiUeiiamt S^eae$ A'ome. Ed.J,B.^ 8pU, Jfonaefti^ 

iS2^. Large folio, with colored plat»^s. 

i Aftimalia JN'om. s. Species .Vorrr Lacertarum^ Serpent urn, ll*t»diHum, liaHarum, quaa in 
Itinere jyrr Brasiliam a. ISlT-'Jl) «w«c«pfO, eoUtfU it imrip$tt J, B»4e Spbt, JIomkM^ 
1824-*3l». Folio, with ir> colored plate;*. 

* JnniM Speciet Sova qmis in Itinere per Bra«iluim a. lS17-'20 4us<xpto colkgit el descrip- 
$ii J. B.i» Mmmem, 18M-^ Two toIqiiim fi>lio, irith ll&and ItSeolnnd 

^ IMmm FbnieMki ^pam eolUgit J. B. ie Spix, d(9crip9it J. A. Wagner, edd. F. 

tFauln de Schranket C. F. V. de }fariiu8. Monachiif l^•-'T. Folio, with 29 colored plates. 

I SeUcta GeMera et Spwies Fiscium quo* coUegit et pingendo» curavit J. B. de 

^digetML.A9amSgyet\.Mariku. JToMflMf, 1889. Folio, with phites. 

% Delecttts AnittuiHnm Articulatorum qn(P eolhiiernnt Spix ct Martiua, detOriptU 

Max. Pertjf, ed. ilartius. Monachii, ISM)-"M. Folio, with 40 colored platea. 

*• Not being a botanist himself, and consequeutly uuacquainted with most of the 
votks mentioned hereafter, the writer keeps cloeely to the statements giTen by PM* 
ftmr Meissner in his Demkachrift. 

tt Monachii, \^£,W.\0. Thr. c volmncs folio, with 300 colored phltcs. 

U ifonodkM, 182&-'3L SmaU foUo. with 76 colored plates. 

H Jliilfrte K€tmnM» POmanm . JfoMMMi, Thne ToliamM hnperial ftUo^ 

with MS phrtea^ puilj colond. 

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Martins will not be f()rp)tttMi ! *' Certain specialties embraced in this 
large work were treated by skillful co-laborers: the aiiatoiny, by li. von 
Mohl; the fossil palms, by Uugerj and a i)art. of the morphology by 
Alexander BiaoD and O. Sendtner. 

Whilo the preceding works were commenced and in progress, Martins 
entered upon another literary undertaking of still larger extent, namely, 
the systematic enumeration and description of the wliole Hora of IJrazil. 
But as a labor of such magnitude could not be carried out without the 
assistance of persons in high stations, the patronage of King Lndwig I, 
of Bavaria, and of the Emperor of Austria, Ferdinand I, was success- 
fully solicited, and the work commenced nntler their auspices.* The 
Emx)eror Dom Pedro 11, of Brazil, afterward united liis aid to that of the 
two German sovereigns. At the outset Martins had secured the co- 
operation of oompeteut botanists, each of whom \va» to take charge of » 
certain portion of the work; and their united efforts resulted in the 
publication of the F/o>vj />m.vj7<V«si.v,t one of the greatest literary achieve- 
meuts of oui' time. Tiie work was commenced iu 1810, aud though yet 
f^T fh>m completion, already constats of forty-seven imrts, with more 
than i'lccen hundred plates in folio. Notwithstanding the ample mate- 
rial which ]\tartins had at his command, the researches necessary to 
arrive at full and satisfactory results extended over many botanical col- 
lectious of Europe, aud everything iu the shape of luauuscripts and 
drawings bearing on the subject was eritically examined and need when 
found available. The immense work connected with the editing of the 
Flora prevented Martins Irom participating conspicuously in the botan- 
ical labors themselves; yet he has furnished two entire monographs 
(Auouaceai and Agavcie) and many highly valuable additious relating 
to the geographical distribntion and the use of the plants described. 
In Wew of the important bearing of this publication upon the develop- 
ment of the vegetable resources of Brazil, the ambassador from that 
country to the court of Vienna lately spent some time at Munich, in 
order to confer with Professor Von Martius concerning the completion 
of the work. The Brazilian government agreed to pay 100,000 florins 
for that purpose ; but as Martius was already tar advanced in years, ho 
thought it expedient to a]>point, in the ])erson of Dr. Eichler, a successor 
to superintend the publiciitiou in case of his decease. Thus the work 
will suffer no intermption.j: 

• It must not bo It'ft uiiuotici'd that the patronage of tho Emperor of Austria in this 
oaae wasowhigto tho inlhuMicu of Princo Motternich. This miftoh-abuHCMl Htateaman, 
it ia well known, took a lively interest in the piomotioa of science. Uia letters to A. 
von Hamboldt, contained in tho correspondence between Humboldt and Varnhagen 
vonEnse, bear witness to tho fact. 

t Fkra Branlieiutit. ». Enumeratio Plantar um in £rtmlia hadenua detectarum qua* — — 
Menmt C. F. Ph. de MotHm ei8t.L. Omektr,. VbM. et 184(M60, fa$e. 1-17, 
folio The first nine parts were edited by Martins and Enolicher ; the rest, alter 
Eudlicber's death, by Martius alone. 

t Of Martius' numerous less estensiye pabUoatlons relating to botany we will men* 
tion only the following: 

Herbarium Florm Bratiliensia. Monachii, 1837-40. — Syatema MaterUe Mcdica Vegdabili* 
Branlieiisis. (8= : Leipzig, 1843.) This is a systematically arranged ennmeratinn of the 
plants used for medicinal porpoaes by the iuhabitants of Brazil. The preparation, 
nurnner of application, and efleots are eareftilly described. This work has been trans> 
latcd into the Portuf^iiese language liy IT. Vclloso d'Oliveira. Rio do Janeiro, 1B54. 

Specimen Materia Medica BraailiemiH (iu vol. ix, of the Memoirs of the Academy of 
Sciences.) A nnmbor of articles likewise relating to tho medicinal plants of Brazil and 
their uses were published in liiirhiu-rn Iteperlorium der Pharmacie. 

Worthy of especial mention is a publication on tho poLato-rot : Dit Kartoffd-Epidemie 
der letsten Jahre (Munich, 1813. 4^. With plates.) Martius was the first who noticed 
in iha diseased fruit a microscopio fuugusy called by him FMitporitim wlanu Ue 
aeeoantad tat the q^reoding of the rot by toe transmisstoa of the spores of that f nngna 
to sonnd potatoes. 

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Having given some account of MartiiuaP more importaait botauical 
labors, we will briefly allude to his great merits as an ethnologist 
Durinfj: liis travels in South America he became deeply interested in tho 
aboriginal tribes, and collected, in coujunctiou with his traveling com- 
INinioD, many valuable faets relating to their mode of life, relationship, 
languages, migrations, &c. It has already been stated that a consider- 
able portion of the "Travels in Brazil," by Spixaud Martins, is devoted 
to the ethnology of that country. Martius, however, published subse- 
qaently several valuable treatises relating to ethnologiciil subjects^ 
winch will be mentioned hereafter; bat his most important ethnologi- 
cal work, entitled Beitruffe zur Ethnograplne und SprnchenlcHtule Amerikm^ 
zuntal Brasiliem, (Leipzig, 18G7,)* which was i)ublished shortly before 
ids death, and therefore contains his matured views, deserves particu- 
lar noMoe. The Bei^ri^ comprise two octavo volnmes, the first of 802, 
the second of 548 pages. An ethnographic map is added to the first 
volume. Its contents are: 

1. JJie Vergangcnheit und Zukunft der amerUuumchen MenschJifii^i a 
lecture delivered in 1838, at a meeting of German naturalists and phy- 
sicians, and first published in 1830. 

2. A rej)nblieation of the admirable treatise Von dem Recht^zustande 
unter den Ureinwohnern ]>r(isllirnx,\ first published in 1832. This is cer- 
tainly OIK' of the most intin sliiig essays ever written on Aitu ricau 
ethnology, although Martius' view of a degeneration of the Urazilian 
Indians firom a higher state of civilization may be contrary to the 
opinions of many aiitliropologists. 

3. Tho remainder of the volume (pp. 145-801) is taken up with a 
description of the native tribes who inhabit Brazil and the a(j[jaceut 
regions. It is minute, accurate, and vivid, much more full than Waitz, 
and enriched by numerous personal observations. Martius is a believer 
in the gradual extension of the Tupi language and blood from tho head- 
waters of the La Plata northward, quite to the Antilles and Baha- 

The second volume, entirely devoted to South American languages, 
contains over a hnndred vocabularies, which are arranged in allied 

groups exhibiting the ailinity of tongues. Being of the utmost import- 
ance in tracing the relationship of nations, they furnish highly valuable 
material to the student of American ethnology. Many of these vocab- 
ularies are from manuscript sources. In rendering the aboriginal words 
the Latin, R)rtuguese, GermiEUi, and French languages have been 
emploved. The articles PJlanzennamen in der Tupi-Sprache\\ and Thier- 
namcn in der Tupi-Spracfte,]] lirst printed, respectively, in 1858 and 1860^ 
are repubJshed with additions in this volume. 

Besides the above-mentioned ethnological essays reprinted In the 
Beitrii^e, Martius, as Stated, has left some other conmbutions of kindred 
character, which appeared in perio<lical i)ublications. We give here the 
following titles translated into Eny,lish: On the scul])tures on Mount 
Gabia," near llio Janeiro.** On Buschmann's work — " The traces of tho 

* CnntribntionH to the ethnorrrnph y and philology of Ameiioa, eflpeoially oi Bnusil. 
i The past and future of the Auici ican race. 

t Ou the civil and social condition of the aborigines of Brazil. 

§ 111 a letter which Martius aildressed, shortly before his death, to Dr. D. 0. Brinton, 
of rhiladelphia, he expresses himself on this point even more dccidt-diy than in the 

I Names of plimts in the Topi language, 
t Names of animals la the Tupi language. 

* * Ueber die Senlptmm a^f dm Berge CfoMa MRiodt Jwunro, (QddaU Ansaffm, 1843» 

Hot. 38, jy.) 

12 S 

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Aztec language id IsTortberu Mexico.''* The pbysical condition, dis- 
eases, physicians, and remedies of the aborigines of Brazil. t On the 
I)reparation of the arrow poison TJrari among the Jnri Indians on the 
Rio Yupura,in North Brazil.J The creation of the Negro: a Braziliau 

Tho time int(»rvening between Professor Yon ^^FartinsVotirement from 
oliicial duties in 1854 and his death was to him no period of repose; jl 
on the contrary, liaviug now more leisure at his command, he devoted 
himself exclusively to scientific! labors. Much of his time was taken up 
in editing the Flora Jirasilicnsis, and his position as secretary of the 
Eoyal Bavarian A( :i(h'iiiy ih-manded his constant caie and attention. 
Only one year before his death, at the age of seventy-four, he i>ublished 
the Beitrufie, his most important contribution to American ethnology. 

He was one of those few whose merits are dul.s acknowledged and 
appreciated during their life time. Ib^ maintained intimate relations 
with many of the most distin.miished men of our time, an<l most learned 
societies of m>te counted him among their members. Numerous works 
are dedicated to him ; his name is perpetuated in the scientific denomi- 
nations of plants and animals; even a monntein in New Zealand, Mount 
Martins, is calh-d after liini. ■\bMlals were struck in his honor, and 
crowned lieads manifested their esteem by decorating him witli the 
insignia of their orders. 

Martins eiyoyed the fhll possession of his mental faculties to the last 
moment of his life, and even his physical aj)pearance betokened no con- 
siderable degree of decline; it was only during the years immediately 
I)rece(ling his death that his altered features and somewhat stooping 
hgure indicated the changes which advanced age will produce upou the 
Strongest constitution. But the lively expression of bis eye, his ani- 
mated conversation, and the interest he took in everything that passed 
around him, gave evidence of his unimpaired mental vigor. In the fall of 
18GS. being then in his seventy-hfth year, he made a journey to Berlin 
and t>resden to visit his son and his old mends. He returned in good 
health, and nothing intimated his approaching end. But shortly after 
ward, having been exjiosed to a severe storm, he was attacked by a febrile 
ndisposition, which, increasing, developed itself into inliauimation of 
-he lungs. His strength sank rapidly, and on the loth of December, 
1868, after an illness of nine days, his earthly career was closed by an 
easy death. Fresh palm leaves decorated, significantly, the coffin in 
which bin mortal remauis were conveyed to theu: last place of rest. 

* Ucher lUmchmmin's Werk: Die JS^mn dgr Agk^Otehtm Apmefce im tOrdUekem A£exiko. 
{GO. An., 1860, iVos. 41-43.) 
t Ho* Ifaiitrell, die JTrfmltJkdlm, da» Arstihrn und die R^mltM der Urbewohner Bn- 

tiliena. (Bitch no's Ilcprrtonam der Phannacie, vol. n:^, p. '2H0. &c.) 

t Ueber die Berdtuiuj diJi I'feilqiftca Urari bei den Indianern Juris am Hio Yttpurd in Xord- 
breuiUen. ( Buchner'a Rep. d. Pharm., vol. 36, XS'iO, p. 337, &c.) 

1839^ ^rMA^^iM^ de» ^«ger», mm BraaiUaniacke Fiak»--Sag9, ( Attgtbwrgar AUffem, ZeiU, 
y Der Ekketbrnd voarfStr On kdm Stand ier JZkfte."— Melasnei's Jkuktokrift, p. S4. 

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Bt Cbablbs Bau. 

The loUowiog eaaay was pablialMd In Qermau, Vol. V of tbo ArdUc jur Anthro- 
pohgie (BniuMehweig, 1872); bat a» the snl^eet is pnnlj North Amerioan in chai^ 

acter, the author has deemed it proper to prepare a versioa in the language of tb« 
country to which it nfers. The pceeent leprodactioo, bowevar, is eDlaued and im- 

COHT£2« T8. 


«»• *■••< 




Flint „, 

R«d Pipestona,... 

DivteioQ of L«bor........„ 


« IM 




...... ISl 


lodieatioDS are not wantinif that a kind of trade or traffic of some 
extent eziated among the prehistoric inhabitants of Europe, even at a 
time when they stood comparatively low in the scale of human develop- 
ment. The same practice' prevailed in iSforth America, before that part 
4ji the new w<nrld was settled by Europeans $ and as the the sntrjeet of 
primitive commerce is of particular interest, because it sheds addi- 
tional U|^t on the conditions of life among by-gone races, I have col- 
lected a number of data bearing on the trade-relations of the former 
inhabitants of North America. The fact that sach a ixsAe was carried 
on is proved, beyond any doubt, by the frequent occarrcncc of Indian 
mannfactores consisting: of materials which were evidently obtained from 
far distant localities. In many cases, however, these manufactures may 
have been brought as booty, and not by trade, to the places where they 
are found in our days. The modern Indians, it is well known, sometimes 
undertook expeditions Of a thousaud or twelve hundred miles, in order to 
atttick their enemies. The warlike Iroquois, for example, who inhabited 
the present State of New York, frequently followed the war-path as far 
as the Mississippi river. Thus, in the year 1G80, six hundred w^arriors 
of the Seneca, tribe invaded the territory of the Illinois, among whom La 
Salle sojourned just at that time, preparing to descend the Mississippi 
to the Gulf of Mexico.* More than a hundred years ago, the traveler 

• Mor^^aii, League of the Iroquois, Rochester, 1651, p. 13. More precise information 
coQceruiDg this memorable expedition is to be found in the writings of Hennepin, 
Membr^, Lahoutau, and others. 

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Carver learned from the Winnebagoes (in the present State of Wiscon- 
sin) that they sometimes made war-excnrsions to the southwestern parts 
inhabited by Spaniards (New Mexico), and that it required montha to 
arrive there.* JSiinilar excursions and migrations, of course, took place 
during the early unknowu periods of North American history. In the 
course of such enterprises the property of the vanquished naturally fell 
into the liiuids of the victors, who appropriated everything that ap- 
peared uselul ur desirable to them. The consetpience was an exchange 
by force — if J may call it so — which caused many of the manufactures 
and commodities of the various tribes to be scattered over the face of 
the country. This having been the case, it is, of course, impossible ta 
draw a line betweeo peaceable barter and appropriatton by right of 
' war, and, therefore, while employing hereafter freqaently the terms 
''trade" or exchange," I interpose that zeaervation which isneces* 
eitated by the oireamstanees Just mentioned. 

Of the Indian commerce that has sprang ap since the arriyaL of the 
Europeans I shall say bat little, considering that this sabjeot has snffi- 
ciently been treated in ethnological and other works on North America^ 
and I shall likewise omit to draw within the sphere of my observations 
that interesting trade which was, and still is, carried on between the tribes 
inhabiting the high north of Asia and America, where Behring's Strait 
separates the two continents. My attention is chiefly directed to the 
more ancient manufactures occurring in Indian mounds and elsewhere f 
and the distribution of these relics over distant parts of the country, 
in connection with the known or presumed localities which furnished 
the materials composing them, forms the basis of my deductions. Thus, 
my essay will assume an archceolor/ical cliaracter, and for this reason I 
shall confine my remarks to that part of the United States concerning 
whose antiquities we possess the most detailed information, namely, the 
area which is bounded by the Mississippi valley (in au extended sense), 
by the Great Lakes, the Atlantic coast, and the Gulf of Mexico. 

A number of archreolo^ists make a distinction between the builders 
of the extensive mural earthworks and tumuli of North America and 
the tribes whom the whites found in possession of the country, and 
consequently separate the relics of the so-called mound-builders from 
those of the later inhabitants. Such a line of demarcation certainly 
most appear totally obliterated with regard to the relations which I am 
about to discass, for which reason I shall by no means adhere to this 
vagne division in my essay, bat shall only advert to the former Indian 
popnlation in general. 

In the following sections I have first treated of a number of materials 
which formed objects of trade, either in an nnwionght state or in the 
shape of implements and ornaments; and snbseqnently, in eondnsiont 
I have made some observations tending to add more completeness to 
my preoedlng statements. 

• Carver, Travels, &c.. Harper's reprint. New York, 1838, p. 4il. 


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Every one knows that the region where Lake Superior borders on the 
northern part of Miehlgaa abounds in copper, which occnrs here in a 
native state and in immense masses, the separation of which and rais- 
ing to the snrfhce contribute in no slight degree to the diffleoltiee of 
the mining process. Long before Europeans penetrated to those parts, 
the aborigines already possessed a knowledge of this wealth of copper. 
This fact becamB known in 1847, at which time the traces of aiiciont 
aboriginal mining of some extent were pointed out in that district. The 
drcnmstances of this discovery and the means employed by the natives 
for obtaining tlie copper being now well known, a repetition of those 
details hardly would be in place, and I merely refer to the writings 
relating to this subject.* 

Copper was, indeed, the only metal Miiich the North Anieiic;iii 
tribes employed for some imrposes before their territories were colo- 
nized by Europeans. Traces of wrought silver have been found, but 
they are so exceedingly scanty that the technical significance of this 
metal hardly can be taken into consideration. Gold was seen by the 
earliest travelers in small quantities (in grains) among the Florida In- 
dians ;t yet, to my knowledge, no object made of gold, that can with 
certainty be attributed to the North American Indians, has thus fhr 
been discovered.} The use of copper, likewise, was comparatively lim- 
ited, and cannot have exerted any marked influence on the material 
devdopment of the natives* The copper articles left by the former in- 
habitants are by no means abundant. As an example I will only 
mention that, during a sojourn of thirteen years in the neighborhood of 
St. Louis, which is particularly rich in tumnlar structures and other 
tokens of Indian occupancy, I did not succeed in obtaining a single 
specimen belonging to this class. Copper implements, such as axes, 
chisels, gravers, knives, and points of arrows and spears, have been 
found in the Indian mounds and in other places; but most of the ob- 
jects made of this metal served for ornamental purposes, which circum- 
stance alone would go far to prove that copper played but an indiflferent 
part in the industrial advancement of the race. If the ancient inhabit- 
ants had understood tlie art of melting copi)er, or, moreover, had na- 
ture furnished them with sufficient supplies of tin ore for producing 

*8qilierand Davis, Ancient Monuments of tho Missienppi Valley, Smith son i an In- 
Btitntion, Washington, 184^^. Foster and Whitney, Report on tho Geology and Topog- 
raphy of the Lake Superior Land District, Part I, Washington, 1850. Schoolcraft, 
Indian Tribes uf thu United States, Vol. I, Philadelphia, 1851. Lapham, The Antiqui- 
ties (tf WiBoooaiDy Washiogton, 186S. Wbitdflaej, Aoeient Milling on the Shmres of 
Lake Saperior, WaihingtoD, 1863. Sir John Lnbbook, Fzehittorio TLmea, London, 
18G5, &c. 

t See : Brinton, Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Philadelphia, 1859, Appendix IIL 
t In the Smithsonian Beport for 1870, just pubUshed, the ocourrenoe of gold beads in 
n moond near CartenriUe, in tiie Etowah Talley, Qeoigiai is noorded. KatiTO gold ia 
aaid to be Ibnnd in the neighborhood, (p. 380.) • 


bronze, that peculiar composition which the Mexicans and Peruvians 
employed, their state of civilization doubtless would have beeu much 
higher when the whites arrived in their country. They lacked, how- 
ever, as far as investigations liitherto have shown, the knowledge of 
rendering copper serviceable to their ]»iirp()ses by the process of melt- 
ing, contenting themselves by hammering pun^iy metallic masses of 
copper with great labor into the shapes of implements or articles of 
decoration. These masses they doubtless obtained i)riucipally, if not 
entirely, fiom the copper districts of Lake Superior.* Owing to the 
arborescent or indented form nnder whieli the coi)i)er occurs in the 
above-named region, nearly all copiier articles of aboriginal origin ex- 
hibit a distinet laminar srrnctnre, though quite a considerable degree of 
density has been imparted to the metal by continued hammering. It 
must be admitted, fhrthermore, that the aborigines had acquired great 
skill in working the copper in a oold state. From an areb»ologiGal 
point of view this, peculiar application of natural copper is certainly 
very remarkable^ and, therefore, has often been cited, both by American 
and European wntM«. To the native population, however, the com- 
paratively sparing use of copper cannot have afforded great material 
aid, and its chief importance doubtiess consisted in the promotion of 
intercourse among the various tribes. 

The first travelers who visited North America saw copper ornaments 
and other objects made of this metal in the possession of the natives, 
and very scrnpnlonsly mention this fact in their iicrounts, while they 
often leave matters of greater importance entirely ini noticed. This can- 
not surprise us, consideiiiij; that the tirst discoverers were [)<>ssesse(l of 
an immoderate greediness tor [)recious metals, and therefore also paid 
particular attention to tliose of less value. The Florentine navigator, 
Giovanni Verazzaiio. who saileil in 1521, by order of Francis the First 
of France, along the Atlantic coast of North America for purposes of 
discovery, noticed, as he states in his letter to the French king, on the 
persons of the natives pieces of wrought copper, " which they esteemed 
more than gold." Many of them wore copjier ear-rings.t In the nar- 
rative which the anonymous Portuguese nobleman, called the Knight of 
Elvas, has left of De Soto^s ill-foted expedition (1039-'i3) it id stated 
that the Spaniards saw, in the province of Catifachiqui,some copper axes, 
or choppiug-knives, which apparentiy contained an admixture of gold. 
The Indians pointed to the province of Ghisca as the country where 
the people were &miliar with the process of melting copper or another 

♦ Some of the natives of tbe uortberniuost part of the United States, lately pur- 
nbased from Bassia, worked copper before the Enropean ocoapatkm. Tlwir indnstry 
wa8| of ooune, eatiiely indq^deat of tbat hero under eonsldeifttion. (See, ftr in- 
•kance, Von Wrangell, Btutimke Btritinngm on dor NmriweMtie «e» Amtrtka, St. Peterv- 


tThe Voyage of John do Verazzano, in Collections of the New York Uistorical So* 
^ety, Second Series, Vol. I, New York, 1841, pp. 47 and 60. 

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metal of a lighter color aud iuferior barduess.* It is very natural that 
these gold-seeking adventurers slioald liave anticipated evoywhere 
traces of that Talaable metal; and coDoerniDg the statements of the 
Indians in relation to the melting, it is well known how apt the crafty 
natives always were to logolate their answers aooording to the wishes 
of the iuqoirers. Yet, notwithstanding these improbabilities, the Act 
remains that the natives of the present Southern States used imple- 
ments of copper some oentnries ago^ Indeed, I have seen in the col- 
lection of Colonel Oharles 0. Jones, of Brooklyn, copper articles of the 
above description, obtained in the State of Georgia. When Henry 
Hudson diacoveredf in 1(K)9, the magnificent river that bears his name, 
be noticed among the Indians of that region pipes and ornaments made 
of copper. ^^They had red copper tobacco-pipes, aud other things of 
copper they did wear about their necks." Kobert Juet, who served un- 
der Hudson as mate in the Hall-Moon, relates these details in the jour- 
nal he has left behind.! Additional statements of similar purport 
might be cite<i from the early relations couceruiug the disco vei^ of 
North America. 

While Messrs. Stjuier aud Davis wciv cu^aj^t^d, more than twenty 
years ago, in surveyinjif the cartliworks of the Mississippi valley, more 
especially those of the Slate of Ohio, they found in the sepulchral and 
so-called sacrilicial mounds a number of copper objects, which they have 
described aud dgured in the work containing the results of their investi- 
gations.! They also met small pieces of the unwrought natural metal 
in some of the mounds. The copper specimens obtained during this sn p- 
vey were formerly in the possession of Dr. Davis, one of the explorers, 
and I had fi«quent occasion to examine them. At present they form a 
part of the Blackmore Museum, at Salisbury, England, to which insti- 
tute Dr. Davis sold his valuable collection. They are eitiier implements, 
such as axes, chisels, and gravers; or bracelets, beads, and other probably 
ornamental ottfects, exhibiting quite peculiar forms, which were, iierhaps, 
owing to the singular methods employed in fashioning the copper into 
defini te shapes. The axes resemble the flat celts of the European bronze 
period, and doubtless were fastened in bandies like the latter. Some 
of the bracelets of the better class are of very good workmanship, the 
simple rods which form them being well rounded and smoothed, aud 
bent into a regular circle until their eii-ds meet. I have seen quite simi- 
lar bronze bracelets in European collections. The objects Just described 
obviously have been lashioned by hammering; others, however, con- 
sisting of hammered coi)per sheet, received their tinal shape by jircasurc. 
To these belong certain circular concavo-convex discs, from one aud oue* 

'Narratives of the Career of Hernando do Soto in the CoiHiucst of Florida, as told 
by a Knight of Elvas. and in a Relation by Lays Hernandez do Biedma, Factor of 
the Expedition. Translated by Buckingham Smith. New York, 1866, p. 72. 

tJoomalof tihe Toy age of tlie Half^Moon, In GoUeetloos of fhoKew Tnk Hiatoiieal 
Societj, Seeond Series, Vol. 1^ 1841, p. 383. 

I Aneient MoniUDenta of the Mitsiasippi Valley, pp. 196-W. 

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half iuchea to two inches in diameter, which have been likened to the 
bosses, observed on harnesses. Ck>neeming their use, nothing is defin- 
itely known, bnt it is presumed that they were destined for purposes of 
ornament. The manipulation of pressure was likewise employed in mak- 
ing smaller articles of decoration resembling the convex metal buttons 
8tiU seen on the clothes of the peasantry of Germany and other Euro- 
pean countries. However, in niinntely describing these remarkable 
products of aboriginal art, 1 would merely repeat what already has 
been stated, detailed accounts being given in the well-known work of 
Messrs. Squier and Davis. 

Although the tire on the hearths or altars now inclosed by the sacri- 
ticial mounds* was sometimes sufficiently strong to melt the deposited 
copper articles, it does seem that this proceeding induced the ancient 
inhabitants to avail themselves ol" fire in working copi)er ; they ])ersisted 
iu the tedious practice of liaiiniieriii^. \\'t one copper axe, evidently 
oaatj and resembling those taken from the mounds of Ohio, has been 
ploughed up near Auburn, in Cayuga County, in the State of New York.t 
This specimen, which bears no traces of use, may date from the earlier 
times of European colonization. It certainly would be wrong to place 
mach stress on snch an isolated case. The Indians, moreover, learned 
very soon from the whites the art of easting metals. For this we have 
the authority of Boger Williams, who makes the following statement in 
reference to the New England Indians ; **They him on excdUni Art to 
cast our Fewter and Brasae into very neate and arHJiciaU Pipe8/*t 

In the Lake Superior district, resorted to by the aboriginal miners, 
there have been found, besides many grooved stone hammers (sometimes 
of very large size) and rude wooden tools, various ' copper implements, 
such as chisels, gads, &c., and some spear-heads in which, iu lieu of a 
socket, the flat sides at the lower end are partly bent over,§ a feature 
also peculiar to certain European bronze celts, which, on this account, 
are denominated " winged'^ celtvs. 

The copper-lands of Northern Michigan, it lias been stated, were 
visited by the aborigines for the sake of obtaining copjier at a period 
auteceding tlie arrival of the whites. It is probable that small bands of 
various northern tril)es made periodical excursions to tluji locality. return- 
iugto their homes when they had supplied themselves withsutlicientqnan- 
tities of the much-desired metal. The indications of permanent settle- 
ments, namely, burial-places, defensive works, traces of cultivation and 

•For a preeiso de«criptioD of the remarkable stratified mounds denominated "sacri- 
fi( i;i]," I uiust refer to the "Ancient Monuments of the Mis.sis8ippi Valley." Burned 
hunuin boueti being often discovered iu them iu couuectiuu with manufactured objects, 
i)ir Juiiu Lubbock suggests that these moands are of a 8e]>olchial nther tban a saoii* 
fieial oliaraeter. (Prehistorio TimeSf first ed., p. S19, &oO 

t Squier, Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York, Washington, 1849, p. 78. 

t Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of Amei'ica ; ProTidenoe» 18@7, p. 55. 
print of the London edition of 1G43.) 

i Whittlesey, Ancient Mining, &c 

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4lwelliDgs, &c., are wantiDg, and the Bmannamberef ebaseaUleaDiiiialflt 
indeed, offered bat little iodiioement to a protracted sojonni. The qaee- 
tioD, at what time the natives oeaeed to resort to the mines, has been 
answered in yarions ways. Mr. Whittlesey is of opinion that fiom five 
to six hnndied years may have elapsed since that time, basing his argn- 
ment on tiie growth of trees that haye sprang np ia the rabbish thrown 
<oat from the mines; Mr. Li^ham, on the other hand, beUeves in a oon- 
tinuanoe of the aboriginal mining operations to more recent periods, and 
thinks they were carried on by the progenitors of the Indians still in> 
habiting the neighboring parts, although they possess no traditions 
relative to such labors. I'robably as early as the first half of the sev- 
enteenth century the French of Canada entertained with those tribes a 
trade that provided the latter with iron tools, and the ornaments and 
trinkets so much coveted by the red race. Thus, the inducements to 
obtain copper ceased, and the practice of proeurin|]f it being once dis- 
4 ontiniie(l, a few centuries may liave sufficed to efface the tradition from 
the memory of the snocceding generations. Yet, like many otlier points 
of North American an liieology, this matter is still involved in obscu- 
rity, and it wonld be hazardous, at present, to prououuce auy decided 
opinion on the subject.* 

The occurrence of native copper in the United States is not contined 
to the shore of Lake Superior. As I am informed by Professor James 
D. Dana, it is also met, in pieces of several pounds' weight, in the valley 
of tiie Oonneeticnt river, and likewise, in smaller pieces, in the State 
<»f New Jersey, probably originating in both cases from the red sand- 
stone Ibrmation. Near New Haven, Gonneodcnt, a mass was fbnnd 
weighing ninety pounds. Snch copper finds may have fhmished a small 
part of the metal worked by the aboriginal inhabitants; its real scarce, 
however, mnst be sought, in all probability, in the mining district of 
Lake Snperior. It is a remarkable ciroamstance that the native copper 
there oocnrring sometimes indoees small masses of native silver, a Joz- 
taposition which, as I believe, is not to be observed at any other place 
in the United States and just such pieces in which the two natural 
metals are combined have been taken from a few of the tnmnli of 

Though copper articles of Indian origin are comparatively scarce in 

*Tbe ludiaaa certainly are a forgetful race. The traveler Stephens, who has exam- 
ined sod described the grand rains of anelent bottdiogs in TnestAO and the neii^boring 
states, maintains— and I belieye on good gtoands<-that these erections, at least ia 

part, are the work of tlio 8anie Inrlian popnlutions with whom the coiiquistiulorfis 
(Hernandez de C6rdova, (hijulva, Cort6i) wtre hronght into contact during tlx* six- 
teenth century. The prudent descendants uf the builders of those luagm^ceut works 
bave preserved no reeolleetions of their more advanced aaoestors. Wbraever Stephens 
ssked them concerning the origin of the buildings, their answer was, they bail bssn 
erected by tho antiguos; but they conld not explain their destination; they were un- 
seqaaiated with the meaning of the statnes and fresco paintings, and manifested in 
^neral a total ignorance of all that related to their former history. 

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the Uiiite<l States,* tlic field of their distribution, nevertheless, is very- 
wide, extending iVoui the Great Lakes to the Gidf States, and from the 
Atlantic coast to the Mississippi, and, perhaps, some distance beyond 
that river. Taking it for granted, as we may do, that the northern part of 
Michigan is the point from which the metal was spread over that area, 
the traffic in copper presents itself as very extensive as far as distance 
is concerned. The difficulties connected with the labor of obtaiuiug this^ 
metal doobtless rendered it a valaable object, perhaps do less esteemed 
fhiiQ bronze in Europe, when the introduction of that composition was- 
yet of xecent date. The copper probably was bartered in the shape of 
raw material. Small pieces of this description, I have already stated,, 
wero taken ih>m the mounds of Ohio, and larger masses occasioDally 
have been met in the neighborhood of these works. One mass weigh- 
ing twenty-three pounds, from which smaller portions evidently had 
been detached, was discovered in the Scioto valley, near Chillicothe^ 
Oliio.f Of coarse, it is impossible at present to demonstrate in what 
manner the copper trade was carried on, and we have to rest satisfied 
with the presumption that the raw or worked copper went from hand t» 
hand in exchange for other productions of nature or art, nutil it reached 
the places where we now find it. Perhaps there were certain persons 
who made it their business to trade in copper. I must not omit to refer 
here to some passages bearing, though indirectly, on the latter question^ 
which are contained in the old acconnts of Hernando <lc Soto's expedi- 
tion. Garcilasso de la Vega speaks of wandering Indian merchants 
{ma rchands) y vfho traded in salt-f The Knight of Elvas is still more 
explicit on this point. According to him, the Indians of the province 
of Cayas obtained salt by the evaporation of saline water. The method 
is accurately described. They exported* salt into other provinces, and 
took in return skins atid other commodities. Biedma, who accompanied 
that memorable expedition as accountant, likewise sx)eaks in various, 
places of salt-making among the Indians.§ 


It has been a common experience of discoverers that the primitive- 
peoples with whom they came in contact manifested, like childron, a re- 
markable predilection for brightly-colored and brilliant ol^ects, whiob^ 
without serving for any definite pm^tose, were valued merely on account 
of their external qualities. The later North American Indians exhibited 

" The SmiTlisonian In^tilut ion has bcMni receiviuj; for years Indian antiqiiitios from 
all parts of North America, yet possessed iu 1670 ouly seven cupper objects ; uamely, 
time spearheftdsy two maaXL rods, a aeniilaDat knifo with oonveic catting edge^ aod am 
axe of good shape. Professor Bftiid was kind anonffh to ^nd me pbotogn^be ood 
deecriptiouB of these articles. 

t Ancient Monuments, &c., p. 203. 

tCouqadte de la Floride, Leide, 1731, Vol. 11, p. 400. 

^HanratiTes of the Career of Hernando 'de Soto, ite., p. 184. Biedmai pp. 152, 153^ 

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this tendency in a marked degree, and their predecessors, whose history 
is sbronded in darkness, seem to have been moved by similar impalses* 
Thus the common ore of lead, or galena, was much prized by the for- 
mer inhabitants of North America, though tlioie is, thus far, iioconclu- 
Five evidence of their having understoojl how to render it serviceable 
by melting. Quite considerable quantiti<'s of this shining mineral 
have been met in the mounds of Ohio. On the hearth of one of the 
sacrificial mounds of that State, Messrs. Squier and J^avis discovered a 
deposit of galena, in pieces weighing from two ounces to three poundi^, 
tbe whole quantity amounting perhaps to thirty pounds. The sacrificial 
fir© had not been strong enough to convert the ore into pare metal^ 
tfaongh some of the pieces showed the beginning of fhsion.* As 
stated before, there is no definite proof that the aborigines were ao- 
qnainted with the process of reducing lead from its ore; for as yet no 
leaden implements or ornaments have been discovered that can be as- 
scribed with certainfy to the former population. Tbe peculiarly shaped 
object of pure lead figured on page 200 of the Ancient Monuments,*^ 
which came to light while a well was sunk within the ditch of theearth- 
work at Circleville, Ohio, was perhaps nuide by whites, or by Indians 
at a period when they already had acquired from tbe former the know- 
ledge of casting lead. This carious relic is in possession of Dr. Davis^ 
and I have often examined it. The archaeological collection of the 
Smithsonian Institute contains not a single Indian article of lead, but 
quantities of galena, which were taken fnnn various mounds. Yet,, 
supposing the Indians had known the fusibility of galena, the lead ex- 
tracted therefrom could not have afforded them great advantages, con- 
sidering that its very nature hardly admitted of any useful ai)plicatioiu 
"Too soft for axes or knives, too fusible for vessels, and too soon tar- 
nished to be valuable for ornament, there was little inducement for it* 
manufacture.'' — (Squier and Davis.) However, in making net sinkers, it 
would have been i>referable to the fiat pebbles, notched on two opposite 
sides, which the natives used as weights for their nets. Pebbles of this 
description abound in the valley of the ISusquehanna and in various 
other places of the United States, especially in the neighborhood of 

The frequent occurrence of galena on the altars of the sacrificial 
monnds proves, at any rate, that the ancient inhabitants attributed a 

peculiar value to it, deeming it worthy to be ofiered as a sacrificial 
gift. The pieces of galena found in Ohio were, in all probability, ob- 
tained in Illinois or Missouri, from which regions they were ti*ansferred 
by' way of barter, as we may presume, to the Ohio valley. No original 
deposits of galena are known in greater ])roximity that could have 
furnished pieces equal to those taken from the mounds of Ohio. 

•Anelent Monmneiite, pp. 149 and 900. 




The peculiar glass-like stoue of volcanic origin, called ob?iidian, which 
played such an important part iu the household of the ancient Mexi- 
oans, has not been met in Htu within that large jiortion of the United 
States (probably of K(Hrth America in general) that lies north of Mexico 
and to the east of the Bocky Mountains. Messrs. Sqnier and Davis, 
neyertlieless, have found obsidian in the shape of points for arrows and 
spears and cutting implements, though mostly broken, in five mounds 
of the Scioto valley, in Ohio $ an a^aient made of this material was like- 
wise found in. Tennessee,* and the numerous unopened mounds of tiie 
United States may inclose many more articles of this class. The cop- 
per used by the Indians, It has been seen, occurs as a product of nature 
within the area over which it was spread by human agency ; it is di£^e^ 
•ent, however, with regard to obsidian, and the question therefore arises, 
from what region the builders of the large indosures and tumuli in 
Ohio obtained the last-named mineral. Obsidian, we know, is found 
in the present territory of the United States on the western side of the 
Rockj' Mountains. Captain Bonneville noticed, about forty years ago, 
that the Shoshonees or Snake Indians in the noifT^hborhood of Snake river 
(or Lewis river) used arrows armed with points of ubt^idiau, which, he 
adds, abounds in that vicinity.t The latter fact is confirmed by Samuel 
Parker, who found, some years later (1835), in ti e volcanic formations 
of that region, "many larj^o and fine specimens of pure obsidian or vol- 
cauic glass.''j: According to \Yyeth, the Slioshonees also employ sharp 
obsidian flakes of convenient shape as knives, which they sometimes 
provide wit3i handles of wood or horn. The same author mentions the 
frequent ooenrrence of obsidian in the district inhal^ted by the Shosho- 
nees.! It is known that various tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, and 
neighboring parts, Apaches, Mojaves, and others, frequently employ 
obsidian in the manufacture of their arrowheads. 

Mr. John B. Bartlett, from 1850 to 1863 commissioner of the United 
States for determining the boundary line between the latter and Mexico^ 
found pieces of obsidian and fragments of painted pottery along the 
Oila river, wherever there had been any Indian villages; and also 
among the ruins of the Cmm grande$j in Chihuahua, as well as those of 
the Oila and Salinas rivers. 1 1 The same observation has been made by 
earlier and later travelers. The natives of U])])er California employ 
obsidian extensively for making arrowheads. Mr. Caleb Lyon, who 

* Troost, Ancient Remains in Tennessee, in : TnoaaetloiiB of the Anwriean Ethmdqgi- 

•cal Society, New York, 1845, Vol. I, p. 361. 

t Irving, Advonturos of Captain Bouneville, New York, 1851, p. 255. 

t Parker, Expluriug Tuur beyoud the liocky MuuutaiuSi Ithaca, New York, 1644, 


i Wyetb, in Sohooetftft'ft Indian Tribes, Vol. I, p. 213. 

II Bartlett, Personal Narrative, &c., New York, 1854, Vol. II, p. 50. Compare: Hum- 
boldt, Essai politique snr la Nouvelle-Espagiie, Paris, 1825, Vol. II, p. 243, andClavi- 
^ero, History of Mexico, Philadelphia, 1817, Vol. I, p. 151. 

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was, aboat ten years ago, amoug the Shasta Indians in Galifornia, saw 
ene of the tribe engaged in making arrowheads from obsidian as well 
as from the glaas of a broken porter-bottle. He describes the method 
of mannfjEfcctnre in a letter which was published by the American Eth- 
nological Society.* To this letter I shall refSer in a snoceeding section 
of this essay, when treating of the division of labor among the STorth 
American Indians. Mr. Bartlett visited, while in Oalifornia, a locality 
in the I^apa valley (north of San Frauci8Co)| where obsidian occurs 
iu pieces from the sise of a pea to that of an OHtrich egg, which are 
imbedded in a mass resembling a coarse mortar of lime, sand, and 
fcravel. He found the surface in many places covered, from six to 
twelve inches in depth, with broken pieces and small boulders of this 
volcanic substance. The appearance of these spots reminded him of a 
newly-made macadamized road.t 

The most extensive use of obsidian, however, was loriiKMly made in 
ilexico, before the empire of the Aztecs succumbed to the Spanish in- 
vaders. Old obsidian mines are still seen on the Cerro de A avajas, or 
*'IIill of Knives," which is situated in a northeasterly direction from 
the city of Mexico, at some distance from the Indian town Atotonilco el 
Grande. mines provided the ancient popuhitiou of Mexico with 
vast quantities of the much prized stoue, of which they made those fine 
double-edged l^nives, arrow and spear-heads, mirrors, very skilfully 
ezecnted masks, and ornaments of varioas kinds. Humboldt speaks of 
the Hill of Knives in a transient manner; ( for a precise description we 
are indebted to the meritorious English ethnologist, E. B. Tylor, who 
visited that interesting locality in 1866, while traveling through Mexico 
in company with the late Mr. Ohristy.§ In describing the mines, Mr. 
l^lor says : " Some of the trachytic porphyry which forms the substance 
of the hills had happened to have cooled, under suitable conditions, from 
the molten state into a sort of slag, or volcanic glass, which is the obsid- 
ian in question } and, in places, this vitreous lava, from one layer hav- 
iug flowed over another which was already cool, was regularly stratified. 
The mines were mere wells, not very deep, w ith horizontal workinjgs 
into the obsidian where it was very goo<l and in thick layers. Eound 
about were heaps of fragments, hundreds of tons of them ; and it was 
clear, from the shape of these, that some of the manufacturing was done 
on the spot. There had been great numbers of pits worked, and it was 
from these minillais, little mines, as they are called, that we tirst got an 
idea how important an element this obsidian was in the old Aztec eivi- 
hzation. In excursions made since, we traveled over wiiole districts iu 
the plains w here fragments of these arrows and knives were to be found 

*Bull«tiii of th« Americau Ethuological Society, New York, 1S61, Vol. I, p. 39. 

t Person al Narrative, Vol. II, p. 49. 

t EmaI politique aor ]» NouTelle-EspagDe, YoL III, p. 123. 

(Tykr, Anabafte: or Mesioo and the Me^tmoM, Andent and Ifodern, Zjond., 1861. 
This volume coTitainSybeaidee many facta relating to the arobaology and ethnology of 
Mesioo, the beat obaeryatient on oheidian I have found in any work on that oonntiy. 

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literally at every step, mixed with morsels of pottery, and hero and 
there a little clay idol."* 

From the ceutre of the State of Ohio to the couutry of the Sbo- 
Bhonees, as well as to the liio Gila, and the justdescribed mined in 
Mezioo^the straight distances are almost equal, measuring about seven- 
teen hundred English miles; indeed, the Mexican mines are a trifle 
neazer to Ohio than the above-mentioned districts. It would be lost 
labor, therefore, to Indulge in speculations from which of these locali- 
ties tiie obsidian found in Ohio and Tennessee was derived. The nnm* 
ber of articles of this stone that has been met east of the Mississippi 
is so exceedingly small that its technical significance hardly deserves 
any consideration. Yet, the sole fact of finding worked obsidian at 
such great distanees from the nearest places where it occurs either «» 

* Anaboac, p. 99. The foUowing interesting commauicatiou was addressed to me by 
Br. C. H. Beiendt : 

MDozing ooAiif miHiy ezcnnioiiB wbioh I made in the years 1853-^56 aroond tiie 

Citlaltepetl, or Pico do Orizaba (in the Stntt- of Vera Cruz), I saw an obsidian mine on 
the eaatem slope ol" that nioiiutaiii. I had heard of it from my frieml the lato Mr. C. 
Sartorius ,-who had viaited the place years ago. 1 was iniormed that the ludiaus of the 
Tillage of Alpatlahna knew the place, bnt that they did not like to bave it visited. 
Some say they have treasures hidden in the caves of the neighborhood ; while others 
believe that they have idols in thoso lonely jdaees which they still secretly worship. 
The cura of Juan Coscomatepee, who was of this latter opinion, gave uie the name 
of a mestizo farmer iu the neighborhood who might be iuduced to show me the place. 
Onr party followed from CoBOomatepeo the road which leads to the rancho Jacal and the 
pass of La GncbiUa. We did not find the mestizo at home, but bis wife, who direeted 
her boy to show ns the cave. Reaching the bridji^e of the Jamapa river, we took a 
by-road parting to the north, which brought us to the village of Alpatlahua, and ulx)ut 
four miles farther north to a branch of the Jamapa river, which we crossed. We then 
left the road and proceeded about half a mile up the river through thick woods, when 
we found ourselves suddenly before the entrance of the cave. It was about fifty feet 
high and of considerable width, but obstructed by fallen rocks and shrnbs. Heaps of 
obsidian chips of more than a man s heiM-ht tilled the bottom of the grotto, which had 
apparently no considerable horizontal depth. To the left the mine was seen, an excavation 
of ft«Nnsiz to eightaqnaieyndsythe bottom filled up with labbishand chips. Obsidiaa, 
evidently, had not only been quarried, bat also been made into implements at this 
spot, the latter fact being proved by the occurrence of cores, or nuclei, of all sizes, 
from which Hakes or knives had been iletached. We were not prepared for digging, 
and it was too late for undertaking explorations that day. So we left, with the purpose 
to ratom better prepared at another time, hoping to find eome relies of tbe mfaieia 
and workmen, and, perhaps, other antiquities. But it happened that I nevwbad a* 
opportunity to visit the pla(>e again. Mr. Sartorius saw iu this cave three entrances 
walled up with stone and m«»rtar, but 1 did not discover, having, as stated, no 
time for a careful examination. Future travelers, I hope, will be more successful. 

"Mr. Sartorions mentioned another pUce, likewise in the State of Vera Cms, wbera 
obsidian formerly was quarried. This place is situated in the chain of mountains ex- 
tending from the I'ico de Orizaba to the Cofre do Perote. One of the intervcnin|f 
mountains, called Xalistac, is distinguished by a white spot that can be seen at the 
distance of many miles, even at Vera Cruz. It is produced by an out<.roppiug of pumice- 
stone resting on an immense mass of olisidian that bas been worked in vaiions places. 
I know tbe mountain weU, but not tbe road leading to it, never having traveled in tiwfe 

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9Uu or in consequence of bnman agen<^ .(a8, perhaps, on the 0i]a), ia in 
itself of importance, for it famishes an additional illustration of the tK- 
reaching commnnications among the aborigines of ^orth America* 

Like the shining galena, mica (commouly called is! n glass), was a 
substance held in high estimation by the former inhabitants; but, while 
the first-named mineral apparently fulfilled no definite purpose, being 
deemed valuable merely for its brilliancy, the hitter was often made into 
articles of ornament, a purpose for which it certainly was well fitted on 
account of its metallic lustre. It is also said to have been used for 
mirrors. Mica is found in the tumuli in considerable quantities, some* 
times in bushels, and is often ploughed up in the neighborhood of old 
<»arthworks. It occurs in sepulchral mounds as well as, though more 
rarely, in those of supposed sacrificial character. In the former the 
plates of mica are placed on the chest or above the head of the skeleton, 
and sometimes they cover it almost entirely. If I speak here of "plates 
of mica," the expression is to l>e taken literally, it being known 
that this mineral occurs in some of the eastern parts of North America 
in masses of considerable size, as, for instance, in New Hampshire, 
wheie pieces of ftom two to three feet in diameter haye been observed. 

The most important archocdogical finds of mica, as Hur as I know, 
oconned in Ohio. Of some of them I will give here a brief account. 

Mr. Atwater has left a very accurate description of the earthwork at 
Cindeville. Ohio, now mostly obliterated, which consisted of a large cir- 
cular and adjoining quadratic embankment. In the centre of the ciide 
there arose a sepulchral mound which contained two skeletons and 
varioos objects of art, among which was a mirror" of mica, about three 
feet long, one foot and a half wide, and one inch and a half in thickness. 
Atwater found these so-called mirrors at least iu fifty different places in 
Ohio, mostly in mounds. "They were common among that people," he 
says, "and answered very well the puri)Ose lor which they were in- 
tended. These mirrors were very thick, otherwise they would not have 
reflected the light."* It has been doubted, however, whether the objects 
served as mirrors. It is true, every one who has come in contact with 
the modern Indians Ieuows how eager they are, prompted by vanity, to 
obtain fh>m the traders small looking-glasses, which they often carry 
about thdr persons in <»der to contemplate their features, or to have 
them on hand when tiiey are about to paint their faces, or to eradicate 
their scanty growth of beard. Yet, after all, 1 am indinded to believe 
that Atwater's so-called minors were nothing else but those large plates 
of mica, probably of symbolic character (as will be seen), which have 
ficeqaently been met since the publication of his account 

In the year 1828, dnring the digging of a canal near Newark, Ohio, 
4me of the low mounds frequent in that neighborhood was removed. It 

* Atwater, ia; Aiehttologia Amaiioana, Woroestar, 1880, YoL I, pp. 178,8S5» 


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contained fourteen skeletons in a high state of decomposition, \vhich 
were covered with a regular layer of mica itlates. The latter were from 
eight to ten inches in length, four or th e iiiclics wide, and from half an 
inch to an inch in thickness. The quantity of mica thrown up from this 
raound anionnted to fifteen or twentij bushels* 

During their archaeological investigations, Messrs. Squier and Davis 
frequently found mica in the mounds, and they have given precise ac- 
counts of their dis(;overies. In one of the sacrificial mounds near Chilli- 
oothe, ObiOy they came apou a layer of round plates of silvery mica, 
measaring from ten to twelve inches in diameter, wliich overlapped each 
other like the tUes or slates on a roof, and were deposited in the shape 
of a half-moon. The excavation laid bare more than one-half of this 
eresoent, which coald not have measured less than twenty feet tnm 
horn to horn. The greatest width (in the middle) was five feet. It has 
been thought that the shape of this cnrions deposit of mica might be 
suggestive of the religions views of the bnilders of the monnd, and 
imply a tendency to moon-worship.t Another mound not far from the 
preceding one—both belonged to a group of twenty-three within an in- 
closare — likewise contained raica.J The circular cavity of the altar in 
this mound was filled with fine ashes intermixed with fragments of clay 
vessels and some small convex copper discs. Over these- contents of 
the basin a layer of mica sheets, overlapping each other, was spread 
like a cover, which, again, served as the basis for a heap of burned 
human bones, probably belonging to a single person. § 

The authors of the ''Ancient Monuments'' also found occasionally in 
the mounds ornaniciits made of thin sheets of mica, cut out very neatly 
and with great reguhirity in the shapes of scrolls, oval plates, and discs, 
and pierced with small holes for suspension or attachment. They 
doubtless were intended to embellish the dress of persons of di8tinction.|| 
Dr. Davis has some of these ornaments which, lastened on black vel- 
vet, almost might be taken for silver objects, the mica of which they 
are made being of the perfectly opaque kind. Ornamental plates of 
mica, fbrther, were met in the large Grave-Greek Moond, situated 
twelve miles below Wheeling, in Western Virginia. This burial- 
mound, which is one of the highest in the United States—- it is seventy 
fiset high— was opened in 1838. Near one of the skeletons^ one hun- 
dred and flfiy rather irregularly-shaped thin sheets of mica, from one 
inch and a half to two inches in sise, were collected. They were all 
provided with two or more holes for stringing them together, and had 
evidently formed a scarf or some other article of personal adomment.1f 

* Ancient Monuments, p. 72. 
f Ancient Monuments, p. 154. 

IThis eartibwork, called ** Mound City'' I^SqnierandDsviBf willbedmoribed fai aaab* 
■eqaeat aeotion. 

$ Ancient Monuments, p. 145. 

II Ancient MonumentSi p. 155 ; representations on p. 240. 

f Sehooknll^ In: T^eaiUHMllanB of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I, p. 399. 

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The precediug quotataons, to which others of aimihir purport might 
he added, will suffice to show how moch mica was valaed by the 
ftnner inhabitants of the Mississippi valley ; indeed, the frequent and 
peculiar occurrence of this mineral in the mounds almost might justify 
the conjecture that it was believed to be invested with some mysterious 
Rignific;ince, and played a part in the superstitious ritos of the abori- 
gines. Mica has been found in a worked and raw state in districts 
where it is not furnished by nature, and therefore may be safely classed 
among the aboriginal articles of exchanfre. In the State of Ohio, to 
which my observations chiefly refer, mica is not found in situ, and it is 
presumed that the mineral discovered in that State was derived from 
the southern spurs of the Alleghany Mountains. Yet, it may have 
been brought from greater distances, and from various points, to its 
present places of occurrence. 


Various kinds of ancient Indian stone manufactures frequently con* 
sist of a greenish slate, which is often marked with darker parallel oi 
concentric stripes or bands, giving the objects made of it a very pretty 
appearance. This slate is not very hard, but of close grain and therefore 
easil}' worked and polished. The objects made of this stone, which occur 
on the surface as well as in mouuds, are generally executed with great 
Ciire and regularity, and it is much to be regretted that the destination of 
some of theui is not quite well known. Among the latter are certain 
straight tubes of cylindrical and other shapes and various lengths, 
which sometimes terminate in a kind of " mouth-piece." While the 
smaller ones, which often measure only a few inches, have been thought 
to represent articles of ornament, or amulets, a different purpose has 
been ascribed to the longer specimens. Schoolcraft appears to consider 
these latter as telescopic instruments which the ancient inhabitants 
used for observing the stars. This view, I think, has been generally re- 
jected. It is fiur more probable that these tabes, iu part at least, were 
implements of the sorcerers or medicine-mai» who employed them in 
their pretended cores of diseases. They applied one end of the tube to 
the snffisring port of the patient and sacked at the oth^ end, in order 
to draw oat, as it were, the morbid matter, which they afterwards 
ftigned to ^ect with many geaticahitions and contortions of the body. 
Ooffeal calls the tabes aaed by the medicine-men of the Florida ladiana 
a kind of shepherd's flute {une etpiee de tiuUumeau) and the character of 
some of the stone implements in qaestion that have been foand cer- 
tainly jnstifies this comparison.* Kohl saw, as late as 1855, one of the 
aboTB'meiitioned cares performed among the Qlibways of Lake Sape- 

* CmmI, YoyagM wax lodes Ooddeatales, AmsCerdam, 178^ YoL I, p. 3d. 

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rior; in this instance, howr-vcr, the tube used by the inediciue-man was 
a smooth hollow bone, probably of the brant goose.* 

A far more numerous class of articles often made of the greenish 
striped slate is represented by small, variously-shaped tablets of great 
regularity and finish, which are pierced in the niiddle with one, two, or 
more round holes. Tlie most frequent shape of these tablets is illus- 
trated by the upper figure on Plate 28 in Vol. I of Schoolcraft's work on 
the Indian tribes. It is that of a rectangle with sides exhibiting a slight 
outward curve. The ftiU-size drawing of this rather large specimen is 
done in colors, and thos affords the advantage of showing the greenidi 
tint and the markings of the stone. Other tablets are losenge-shaped, 
quadratic with inwardly-cnrved sides, oval, craciform, &e.t Most of 
them have two perforatious, though specimens with only one are not 
scarce, while those that have more than two holes are of less frequent 
occurrence. The holes are drilled either from one side or from both, 
and, accordingly, of conical or bi-conical shape. They seldom have 
more than one-eighth of an inch in diameter at the narrowest part. 
Concerning the destination of the tablets nothing is definitely known. 
At first sight one might be inclined to consider them as objects of orna- 
ment or as badges of distinction; but this view is not corroborated by 
the appearance of the perforations, which exhibit no traces of the wear 
produced by continued suspension, being, on the contrary, in most cases 
as perfect as if they had but lately been drilled. The classiticjition of 
the tablets as " gorju'^ets," therefore, may be regarded as erroneous. 
Sehoolciaft calls them implements for twine-making. It has been sug- 
gested that they were used in condensing and rounding bow-strings by 
<lrawing the wet strips of hide, or the sinews employed for that pur- 
pose, througli the round perforations. The diameter of the latter, it is 
true, corresponds to the thickness of an ordinary Indian bow-string; 
but also in this case the usually unworn state of the holes rather speaks 
against this supposition. 

Being desirous to learn whether Mr. George Oatlin had seen, daring 
his first sojourn among the western tribes, anything like those tablets 
used by them in making bow-strings, I availed myself of that gentle- 
man's return to the United States, and asked him by letter, among other 
matters, for information concerning this snl^ect. He replied (Decem- 
ber 24, 1871) as follows : 

" Of the tablets you speak of, I have seen several, bat the holes were 
much larger than those you describe. Those that I have seen were 

*Kohl, KiUicbi-Gami, oder Erzuhlangen vom Obern See, Bremen, 185(i, Vol.1, p. 
148. Compare : Yenegas, History of Califimda, London, 1769, Yol. I, p. 97, and Baogsr^ 
Aoeonnt of ttao Aboriginal bihabitants of ^ Galilivniian FeninBnU^ Smitbaonian Be- 
portfoT 1864, p. 386. Drawings of the stone tnboa are giTon on pp^ SS4-S7 of the 

"Ancient Monnmonta of the Mississippi Valley." 

t The various shapes of these tablets, and of other perforated objects, not exactly 
tablets, but probably intended for the eame parpoee, are represented on pagea 936 and 
837 of the Anoieiit Monnmenta." 

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i»ed by the Indiana for grooviog the shafts of their arrows. All arrows 
of the primitire Indians are found with three grooves from the arrow's 
shoulder, at the flnke, extending to, and conducting the air between, 
the feathers, to give them steadiness. These grooves, on close exam- 
ination, are found to be indented by pressure, and not in any way out 
out; and tills pressure is produced, whUe forcing the arrow, softened 
by steam, through a hole ia the tablet, with the incisor of a bear set 
tirmly iu a handle and projectiDg over the rim of the hole as the arrow- 
shaft is forced downward through the tablet^ getting compactness, and 
on the surface and in the groove a smoothness, which no catUng, filing, 
or scraping can produce. It would be useless to pass the bow-string 
through the tablet, for the evenness and the hardness of the strings are 
produced much more easily and effectually by rolling them, as they do, 
i)etween two flat stones while saturated with heated glue." 

Thus, Mr. Catliu's experience is rather unfavorable to the supposition 
that the pierced stone tablets mentioned by me were used in condens- 
ing bow-strings. Yet, after all, they probably served for some similar 
purpose, which may be clearly defined hereafter by continued examina- 
tion and comparison. I regard them as implements, and not as objects 
of ornament or distinction.* 

The greenish slate is frequently the material of another numerous 
class of Indian relics of enigmatical character. I allade to those ourioas 
articles bearing a distant resemblanoe to a bird, which are pierced at 
tiie base with diagonal holes, evidently for suspension, the traces of 
wear being distinctiy visible. They probably represent insignia or 
amulets. I have also heard the suggestion that thes^ were used for 
removing the husk of Indian com.t 

Of much rarer occurrence than the articles thus fiir enumerated in this 
section are perforated implements somewhat resembling an aze with 
two cutting edges, or, more often, a double piclc>axe, which, donbtiess, 
were provided with bandies and worn as badges of distinction by the 
soperiors.l These objects are lor the most part elegantly shaped, bat 
of small size, and cannot have been applied to any practical use, their 
fflftteiial, moreover, consisting generally of soft stone, more particularly 
of the greenish slate in question. It is evident, therefore, that they ful- 
filled a symbolical purpose, and were employed in the manner jnst men- 

*The SmithaonlMi Report fi» 1870, whieh bis appeared ahioe tbe tlbW9 was written, 
eootains, maaong other eOiitcdogieal mettw, an aeooont of an exploration of moonda bx 

Kentacky, by Mr. Sidney S. Lyou. Among the contents of one of the mounds was "a 
black stone with holes through it." / have seen this kind of an instrument, says Mr. 
Ly oQj mod by the rah- Utes 0/ ^Southeastern NevadOf for giving untform size to their bowstriMg*. 

tAgraiipoftheeesingaUwoli|Jeotsteiiqneeeiitedonpage939oftli» ^'Anoientllono- 


t Schoolcraft gives on Plate 11, Vol. I, of his large work, twoeoloced balf-aiae zepio- 
eentations of such implemeDts, which he calls maces." ' 


Having now briefly described the most important classes of relics 
made of the striped slate, 1 pass over to tlie principal point of inquiry, 
namely, the extent of tlieir occurrence. 1 know from personal expe- 
rience that they are Ibund from the Atlantic coast to the ^lississippi 
Hver, a distance about equal to one-third of the whole breadth of 
the United States. It is possible that they are scattered over a far 
greater area. In 1848, wbeo Squier and Davis published their work, in 
which aboriginal manafactuies were for the first timeaccorately described^ 
they could nut specify the looalily fkom wbioh the oft-mentioDed date 
was derived. Since that time geological surveys have been made in all 
States of the Union, and the places of its occurrence are no longer an- 
known* It appears, I am informed, as the oldest sedimentary forma- 
tion, in qaite considerable masses along the Atlantic coast, and has 
been observed from Bhode Island to Canada. This slate is not believed 
to occur in other parts of the Union, and it may be presumed, therefore, 
that it was brought ftom the Atlantic.coast-districts, either in a rough or 
already worked condition, to the more western regions of the United 


The real flint {Mouentein in German) which is found abundantly, in 
rounded pieces or nodules in the cretaceous formations of the countries 
bordering on the Baltic, of Bngland, France, &c., and which has played 
sudi an important part in the prehistoric ages of Europe, does not seem 
to occur within the United States. For this information I am person- 
ally indebted to Professor James D. Dana. On the other hand, many 
parts of this country are very rich in various kinds of stones of a sili- 
doos character, whidi, in consequence of their hardness and condioidal 
fhhctnre, were well fitted to replace the missing variety in the produc- 
tion of chipped implements. The term "flint," therefore, is nsed here in a 
rather extensive sense, comprising hornstone, jasper, chalcedony, fer- 
ruginous quarts, Sweetwater quarts, milky quartz, semi-opalic stones, 
&C.J and the uumeroas transitions from onequartzy variety into another, 
for which the science of mineralogy has no special denominations. The 
common white qu;irtz, also, I may remark in this place, and the trans- 
parent rock-crystal, were used for pointing? arrows ; and in di.stricts 
where harder stones were scarce, even slates and greenstones served as 
substitutes for them in the fabrication of arrow and spearheads. 

As in Europe, so also in the United States, places have been discov- 
ered where the manulacture of flint implements was carried on. These 
"open-air workshops" {ateliers en jf^ein air) are by no means rare in 
North America, and they begin to attract considerable attention since 
the successful archaeological researches in Europe have stimulated to 
similar pursuits in this country. As the North American tribes all used 
e bow, and consequently were in constant need of arrowheads, the 
u£M)tuie of the latter took place in many localities, espedally in 
as furnished the stones most proper for that purpose. The Ejoeh* 

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1tenmo0dding at Keyport, New Jersey, described by me in the Smithsoii- 
iaD Beport for 1864, evidently was one of the places where flint imple* 
ments were made by the natives. 1 not only saw there among the shell- 
heaps couDUess chips of fliut, but found also a namber of unfinished 
arrowheads, which had been thrown aside on account of a wrong crack 
or sonic other defect in the stone. The necessary material was here fur- 
nished on the spot, in the shajie of innumerable water-worn pebbh'S of 
silicious character, which lie intermixed witli the shells. Anion-; the un- 
finished arrowheads picked up by me at this place there are some wliieh 
exhibit a part of the smooth water-worn surface of the pebble from 
which they were made. 

In the middle part of the Mississippi valley, where I lived many 
years, and had occasion to make various observations, the Indians were 
amply provided by nature with the material employed in the fabrication 
of spear and arrowheads. The prevailiog rock of those regions is a 
limestone in which several of the varieties of the quartz fomily are 
found, either in layers or in irregular concretions. In the bluff forma- 
tions of the ^< American Bottom" in IllinoiSy £»r instance, I have traced 
myself layers of homstone, chalcedony, &c, for the distance of miles. 
In the districts under notice, moreover, the surfooe is covered here and 
there with many silicious iiebbles and boulders, which fhmished an 
inexhaustible supply of available material. 

An im])ortant locality to which the aborigines resorted, perhaps front 
great distances, for quarrying flint, is in Ohio, on the line of a calcareo- 
silicious deposit, called "Flint Hidge," which extends through Muskin- 
gum and Licking Counties of that State. ^'Tlie compact silicious mate- 
rial of which this ridge is made up," says Dr. 11 ildreth, seems to have 
attracted the notice of the aborigines, who have maunlactined it largely 
into arrow and spearheads, if we may be allowed to judge Itom the 
numerous circular excavations which have been made in mining the 
rock, and the piles of chipped quartz lying on the surlace. How exten- 
sively it has been worked lor these purposes, may be imagined trom the 
countless number of the pits, experience having taught them that the 
rock recently dug from the earth could be split with more freedom 
than that which had lain exposed to the weather. These excavations 
are found the whole length of the outcrop, but more abundantly at 
* Flint Bidge,' where it is most compact and diversified with rich 

The Indian working-places of which I spoke are not always met in 
the neighborhood of those spots where flint was quarried or otherwise 
abundant, but also sometimes at considerable distances from the latter, 
in which cases they are^ of course, of comparatively small extent. 
Their existence, however, proves that the material was transported from 
place to place, and thus assumed the character of a ware. Colonel 

* Hildietb, in Mather's FinI AbuuI Report on the Geological Survey of the State 
of Ohio, Colmnbiis, 1838, p. 31. 

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OhaileB 0. Jones, of Biooldyii, who has paid parttealar attention to the 
fomer history of his native State Georgia, informed me he had oh- 
served qtumtities of silieions stone, surrounded by numerous rejected 
fragments and nnflniahed spear and arrowheads of the same material, 

in districts of that State where far aud uear no quartz minerals occur 
in situ. He showed me a number of these incomplete flint objects ob- 
tained from such places. 

For the fact that stones for arrowheads formed an object of traffic 
among the natives, even historical evidence is not wanting-. I refer to 
a passage in the rehition of Cabeya de Vaca, the lirst European who 
has given an account of the interior of Xorth America. GHie passage 
iu question will be quoted in a subsequent section. 

I am of opinion that flint in a half-worked J^ate, that is, in flattish 
pieces roughly chipped around tiieir circumference aud presenting 
irregular heart-shaped, oval, or rouud outlines, formed an object of ex- 
change, and as such was ti an sported to places far distant from the sites 
which fiimished the raw material Those who quarried the flint flish- 
ioned it in this manner for the sake of saving space and for eader tran- 
sportation. Smaller or greater quantities of such worked flint ftag- 
ments of homogeneous character are sometimes Ibnnd in the earth, 
where the natives had buried them, believing that flint splits more 
readily when recently taken from the ground. These depodts, however, 
are not always composed of pieces which required ftirther chipping in 
order to receive their final shape, but also sometimes of finished imple- 
ments. I have treated of these buried deposits of flint objects iu an 
article published iu the Smithsonian Beport for 1868, to which I refer 
in order to avoid repetitions.* The agricultural implements of East 
St. Louis, described in that article, are very skilfully executed 
manufactures of the aborigines ; the large flint discs, on the contrary, 
which, as 1 mentioned, Messrs. Squier and Davis tbund in great num- 
ber in a mound of ^'Clark's Work" in Ohio, and the rude flint objects 
of elongated oval outline from the bank of the Mississippi between 
St. Louis and (]arondelet, present, in all probability, only rudi- 
mentary forms of implements, aud were destiued to be finished at a 
future time. It cannot be doubted that the stone of which the discs 
of Glark's Work are made was derived from the quarries of Flint 
Bidge. This fact has been established by careful comparisons. The 
stone in question is designated as hornstone. It is a beautiftd ma- 
terial, resembling in color and grain certain varieties of the real 
European flint, and is sometimes marked with darker or lighter con- 
centric bands, the centre of which is formed laj a small nucleus of 
blue chalcedony. These bands are particularly observable on the snr- 
ftces which have undergone a change of color by exposure. The stoney 
in general, possesses qualities by which it can be recognized at once, 
even when met in a wrought state far from its original place of occor- 

* A Depodt of Agrienltnral Flint liuplcments ia Boutheru Illinois, p. 401. 

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ranoe. AceordiDg to Mr. Sqoier, arrowheads made of tbia homstone 
have been fonod ia £eutacky, Indiana, ininoia, and Michigan. That 
they ocenr in Illinois, I can atteafc from personal e^^erienee. 

A Yety lemaifcable find of objects mannfiMtnred from the homstone 
of Flint Bidge occnned in the summer of 1809 on the farm of Oliver H. 
MnlleOf Dear F^yetteville, in St Glair County, of the State of Illinois. 
Some cbildreD, amusing themselves near the bam of that farm, happened 
to dig into the groand, and came upon a deposit of fifty-two diso^like 
flint implements, which lay closely heaped together. I obtained a num- 
ber of these iai()1emeDts through my indefatigable co-laborer, Dr. Pat- 
rick, of Belleville, Illinois. They coincide in shape with those of Clark's 
Work, but are somewhat smaller, and not, like the latter, saperficially 
prepare<l objects, but highly-fiuisbed implements. This fact is shown by 
the careful chipping of the edges, to which sharpues.s and roundness have 
been imparted by small and carefully measured blows. Unlike the de- 
posit of East St. Louis, which consisted of perfectly new implements, 
that of Fayetteville was made up of such as had alreadj' done service. 
To this conclusion 1 am lead by the character of their edges, which ex- 
hibit a slight wear or iwlish. 1 regard these implements as scraping or 
tmoothing toolSf to which purposes they were well adapted by their 
shape } and I have bot little doubt that the less finished discs of Clark's 
Work were to be ocmverted, by fhrther chipping, into implements of the 
same kind. 

In connection with the object, however, which I have in view in this 
essay, the identity of the stone of Flint Bidge with that of which the 
tools found at Fayetteville in Illinois conidst, is the point that desmes 
particular consideration. This identi(y admits of no doubt. I was 
convinced <si it at first sight when I reomved the implements from Fay- 
etteville, and so were Messrs. Sqnier and Davis, to whom I showed my 
spedmeus. The direct distance from the quarries at Flint Bidge to 
Fayetteville is about four hundred English miles, and thus far, at least, 
the stone was exported, in a rudimoutary or finished shape, from its 
original site. So much is certain ; but it is not unlikely that implemente 
made of this hornstone will be found hereafter at still greater distances 
&om the quarries in Ohio. 

The celebrated red pipestone, that highly valued material employed 
by the Indians of past and present times in the mannfacture of their 
calomets, occurs in »Uu on the Coteau des Prairies, an elevation extend- 
ing between the Missouri and the headwaters of the Mississippi. 
This is the classical ground of the surrouuding tribes, and many le 
gends lend a romantic interest to that region. It was here that the 
Great Spurit assembled the various Indian nations and instructed them 
in the art of making pipes of peace, as related by Longfellow in his 

ILED riPi::S10:«£. 

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oharming '<SoDg of Hiawatha." Eveo hostile tribes met here in peace, 
for this district was, by common consent, regarded as nentral ground, 
where strife andfeads were snspended, that all might resort nnmolested 
to the quarry and supply themselves with the much prised red stone. 
This material, though compact, is not hard, and therefore easily worked, 
aud, moreover, capable of a high polish. It consists chiefly of silica 
and alumiua, with an admixture of iron, which produces the red color. 
American, and probably also European, mineralogists call this stoue 
Catlinite, in honor of the zealous ethnologist and pair)ter, Catlin, who 
was the first to give an accurate account of its place of occurrence, and 
to relate the traditions connected with the red pipestone quarry.* This 
locality is the only one in North America wliere this peculiar stone is 
found, and it is doubtful, indeed, whether in any other i^lace on both 
hemispheres a mineral substauce is met which corresponds in every re- 
spect to the one in question. 

The enterprising Jesuit missionary, Marqaette, whose name is for* 
ever linked with the exploratioa of the Mississippi, smoked already in 
the year 1673 the pipe of peace with the Illinds Indians, and gives the 
following exact description of that important utensil, the bowl of which, 
it will be seen, consisted of the red stone of Cotean des Prairies. <*It 
is made of a polished red stone, like marble, so pierced that one end 
serves to hold the tobacco, whUe the other is fhstened on the stem, 
which is a stick two feet long, as thick as a common cane, and pierced 
iu the middle ; it is ornamented with the head and neck of different 
birds of beautiful plumage; they also add large feathers of red, green 
and other colors, with which it is all covered.^t His ecclesiastical suc- 
cessors also frequently mention the red pipes in their writings, but none 
of them, as far as I know, alludes to the locality where the stone was ob- 
tained. The first notice referable to that place, I found iu the " History of 
Louisiana" by DuPratz, and even his statement is totally erroneous as far 
as the situationof the quarry iseoiicerned. " On the bank of the Missouri," 
he says, "there is to be seen a pretty high cliff (^ore), which rises t>o 
abruptly from the water that the nimblest rat could not climb it. From 
the middle part of this cliff projects a mass of red stoue, which is 
marked with white spots like i)orphyr^', from which it diflfiBrs, however, 
by inferior hardness, being almost as soft as tufa. It is covered ^y an- 
other kind of stone of no value, and rests upon the same sort of earth 
that forms the other hills. The inhabitants of the coantry, knowing 
the applicability of that stone, are in the habit of detaching pieces of 
it by arrow-shots, which pieoeS| falling into the water, are recovered by 
diving. From fragments of saffident size they make calnmets, nsing 
' their knives and awls in mannfiMtnring them. This stone can be 

' Catlin, North American Indians, London, 1848, yolII,Letter8 54 and 55. 
tSbea, IMaoovety and Bxploimtioa of tiwHisBiidppi VallAy, Hew Totk, UB2, p. 3{L 
24 8 

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iroiked without diilknilty and renststheflra well.''* Leavingaside the 
• inooiTeot deaoription of the locality and of the character of oocoiience, 
the stone here mentioned corresponda exactly to that of Goteaa des Prai- 
ries, the latter being, indeed, very often marked with lighter fthongh 
not white) spotSt which give it a perfectly porphyritic appearance. 
I have seen many raw pieces of the red pipestonc and have some my- 
self, in which this peculiarity is prominently exhibited. The unworked 
stone is usually of a dull pale red, the heightened color appearing only 
alter the process of polishing. 

Carver, who explored the region of the Upper Mississippi in llQd-Wf 
mentions the red stone, but does not seem to have visited its place of oc- 
currence, which he marks on his map as the "Country of Pciice." lie 
also states distinctly in his work that even individuals belonging to hos- 
tile tribes met in peace at the *'l{ed Mountain," where they obtained the 
stone for their pipes.t This shows that, at his time, the neutrality of the 
district was still respected. This laudable regulation, it also appears, 
had not yet become obsolete in the beginning of the present century, 
Ibr on the map accompanying the work in which Lewis and Clarke 
describe the territoriee explored by them in 1804-^0, the locality in ques- 
tion is thna designated : *<Here the difEbrent Tribes meet in Friendship 
and collect Stone for PIpee." Yet, about forty years ago, when Catlin 
visited the Ootean des Prairies, the warlike Sioux or Dakotahs had 
usurped the exclusive authority over the quarry, not permitting their 
enemies to provide themselves with stone. Catlin and his English 
traveling companion encountered at first diCBculties on their way to the 
quarry, a band of those Indians trying to prevent them from going 
there. "As this red stone," the warriors said, "was a part of their 
flesh, it would sacrilegious for white men to touch or take it away; a 
hole would be made in their flesh and the blood could never bo made to 
«top running. "f When, subsequently, after Ciitlin's return from the 
quarry, an old chief of the Sacs saw some pieces of the red stone in the 
traveler's possession, he observed: "My friend, when I was young I 
used to go with our young men to the Mountain of the lied Pipe and dig 
out i)ieces for our pipes. We do not go now, and our red pipes, as you 
see, are but few. The Dakotahs have spilled the blood of the red men on 
that pliice and the Great Spirit is offended.'*! 

Mr. Gatllu is of opinion that the Indian quarrying operations at 
Ootean des Prairies reaeh back into fiur remote times, basing his view 

* Da Pratz, Ilistoiro do la Louisiaue, Paris, 1758, Vol. I, p. 32G. The passage in 
^aestion !■ not quite desr. It reniMDS doobtftal whether DnPniti, in tpeaking of tiM 
•tone resembling pmrpbyry, relates what he has heard himself oraUades to the Jour- 
nal of M. de Boargmont, to which ho n-fers on the precodins? page. The la8t-Dam<Ml 
cavalier UDdertook, in 1724, au expuditioa to the couutry uf the Padoacas, or Co- 
, mancbee. The erroneous accouot may be due to the nstlTee, who purposely misplaoed 
tibe loenlity of the qnnriy. 

t Carver, Travels, p. 78. 

tCatliu, Vol. II, p. 166. 

i Ibid., Vol. II. p. 171. 

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chiefly on tlu» traditions of the ludians, which ceitaiuly indicate a com- 
paratively long acquaintance with the lociility. It appears, however, 
hardly admissible toaseribe a very high antiquity to the quarry, consider- 
ing that thus far no pipes or objects of ornament made of the red stone 
have been discovered in the oldest tumuli of the Mississippi valley, and 
the results of a recent examiuation of the Cote^iu des l*rairies by Dr. 
F. V. Hayden likewise tend to detract much from the supposed autiquity 
of this aboriginftl place of resort Aooofdiug to Dr. Hajden, the layerof 
OatUnite, hardly a fbot in thickness, rests npon a gray quartzite, and 
there are about five feet of the same gray qnartxite above it, which the 
Indians had to remove with great labor before the pipestone could be 
seeored. A ditch from four to live feet wide and about five bundled 
yaids in length indicates the extent of work done by the Indians. Only 
about one-fourth of the pipestone layer, thin as it is, can be naed for the 
manufacture of pipes and other objects, the remainder being too impure, 
slaty, or fragile. Dr. Ilayden describes the place as unpicturesque and 
deficient in trees. He found no stone implements in the vicinity, dot 
did he learn that any had ever been found ; rusty iron tools, on the 
other hand, are frequently discovered. According to bis view, the qnany 
belongs to a <'()my)aratively recent period.! 

Nevertheless tlie fact seems to be well establisljed that the surround- 
ing tribes resorted for many succeeding generations to this locality, and 
that it formed a neutral ground, which they approached with a kind of 
superstitious awe. The Indians looked upon the red stone as a particu 
larly valuable gift of the Great Spirit, and Catlin relates from personal 
observation that they humbly sacrificed tobjicco before five huge boul- 
ders of granite near the quarry, in order to acquire the privilege, as it 
weiie, to take away a few pieces of the stonct At present the settle- 
ments of the whites are advancing toward that intefesting spot, which 
lies now, indeed, within the State of Minnesota^ close to its western 
border, and in a county to which the name Pipestone*' has been given. 
A communication ftom Dr. Hayden informs me that the place is still 
visited by Dakotah Indians, but not very frequently, and without the 
observance of those ceremonies which formerly appeared indispensable. 
Not much longer, however, will the red man be aeen to make his pil- 
grimage to the quarry of Coteau des Prairies. 

Mr. Gatlin has published veiy good drawings of the red pipes, which 
are, moreover, familiar to every one who has paid some attention to 
Indian matters. Some of them bear testimony to the skill and patience 
of their makers, who, in most cases, probably possess no other imple- 
ments than the knives and tiles obtained from the traders. The cylin- 
drical or conical cavities in the bowl and neck of these pipes are drilled 
with a hard stick and sharp sand and water.} 

* H^ydea, in Aoieriean Joornal of Soienoe end Aria, Vol. XLIII, January, 1807. 

t Catlin, Vol. II, p. 166. 

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Not loiif!f ago a small UaUiuite pipe of unasaal sbape was seut to me, 
which had been ploughed np in a maize-field near Centreville, in Southern 
Jllinois (St. Clnir County). Such older specimens are even met in 
tiie New England States, near the Atlantic coast. The collection of the 
Smithsonian Institute contains some i)ipes and ornaments made of Cat- 
Unite, which were taken from Indian graves in the State of New York, 
or obtained from the Iroquois still inhabiting the same State. The raw 
or worked red pipestone, therefore, constituted an article of barter, 
which was brought from its original place of occurrence to the present 
BaBtern States of the XJnioD. A passage io Loskiel, who chiefly treats 
of the Delawares and Iroquois, refiers to this tiade. In describing the 
pipes of those Indians, be says: *'Some are mannfoetured from a 3dnd 
of led stone, which is sometimes brought for sale by Indians who live 
near the Marble river, on the western side of the Mississippi, where they 
ertract it (tie) from a mountain.''* This passage, it will be noticed, im- 
plies a direct trade-connection of great extent, the distance between the 
red pipestone qnany and the Northern Atlantic States being equal to 
twelve or thirteen hundred English miles. 


A substance ple4ising to the eye, and easily worked, such as is offered 
by nature in the shells of marine and fresh-water mollusks, could not 
fail to attract the attention of men in the earliest times. The love of 
personal adornment, moreover, already manifests itself in the lowest 
stages of human development,! and shells beiii^, above other natural 
productions, particularly htted to be made into ornaments, it is not sur- 
prising that they were employed for that purpose in all parts of the 
world. The North American tribes made an extensive use of the shell* 
of the sea-coast as well as of those of their rivers, and fossil marine 
shells were also employed as ornaments. The valves of recent marine 
aioUusks, indeed, must have been widely circulated by barter, consider- 
ing that th^ are found, in the shape of ornaments, and sometimes of 
utensils, in the interior of North America, at great distances firom the 
shores of the sea. The oldest reference to the shell-trade among the 
aoorigines is contained in the remarkable account of the Spaniard 
Alvar Nnfies Oabega de Yaca, who accompanied in the year 1527, aa 
treasurer and alguazil mayor, the nnfortnnate Pamphilo de Narvaez on 

*Lo8kiel,lfis8l<m dcr eTangdiaeben BrOder nnter den Indiaoeni in Moidamerikay. 
Bwby, 1789, p. 66. 

tit 18 probablo that tbc barbarous manufacturers of the rude flint tools found, asso- 
ciated with the bones of extiuct Animals, lu tbo diluvial deposits of Nortbern France, 
■Md BniaT. rouod petrefoeta of the chjilk (CoaobMporo gUMarttt D'Orb.) as beads, by 
Mringing them together, these petri6ed bodies being pzoTided by natare with bole* 
paBingtbrougli tbfir middle (Lyell, ATitifjuity of Man, p. 119). Personal vanity is a 
prominent ftatuie in liic cluiracter of tbo North Americuu Indians. Araoug the mis- 
erable Koot-Diggers au old woman has been seen, who "hod absolutely nothing oa 
krpaiaoD bat a thread joond her neek, from whieh was pendent a acditaiy bead.*^ 
dnring^ Adventorea of Captain BonneTiUe^ 96L) 

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his expedition Ibr the oaniiiMfit of Florida The leader and nearly all 
his followers having periahed, Oabesa de Taca, one of the snrvivors, 
wandered with his companions for many years through North Amerioai 
until he finally sacceeded in reaching the settlements of his country- 
men near Culiacan, in the present Mexican province of Sinaloa, after 
having traversed the whole continent from the Floridian peninsuhi to the 
Pacific coast. The description of his adventures and snflerings forms 
one of the most remarkable early works on North America, being, in- 
deed, the first that treats of the interior of the country and of its na- 
tive i)()pulatiou. For the latter reason it is of particular value to the 
ethnologist, presenting, as it does, the Indians as they were seen by the 
first white visitors.* While he sojourned among the Charruco Indians, 
a tribe inhabiting the coast, ho carried on the business of a trader, 
which, as he observes, suited him very well, because it protected him at 
least from starvation. The excursions undertaken in the porsnit of his 
trade sometimes extended as ihras forty or flfly leagues from thecoast into 
the interior of the district. His wares consisted of pieces and ^ hearted 
of .sea-shells {pedo/ffos earaeolM de la mar y eorofimn de eKot), of 
shells employed by the Indians as cutting implements, and of a smaller 
kind that was used as money. These ottl^to trade he transported 
to parts distant from the sea, exchanging them there for other articles 
of which the coast-people were in want, such as hides, a red earth 
for painting their faces, stones for arrowheads, hard reeds for shafting 
the latter, and, finally, tufts of deer's hair dyed of a scarlet color, which 
were worn as head-dresses. f Thij^ passajre. indeed, is of particular in- 
terest in connection with the subject treated in this essay, because it 
affords not only some insiglit into the system of Indian tiade, but like- 
wise informs us that among the objects of exchange those were con- 
spicuous which served lor the gratification of personal vanity. By the 
^'hearts" of sea-shells Cab(H;a de Vaca understands the spines or colu- 
meU(P. of large conchs, which parts were worked by the aborigines into a 
kind of ornament, of which more will be said hereafter. 

Large quantities of shell-omaments, mostly destined to be Strang 
together or to be worn as pendants, have been found in the sepnlchial 
mounds and other burial-places of the Indian race. In Ohio, accoid- 
ing to Messrs. Sqnier and Davis, beads made of shell and other mate- 

"The iiiipuituiKti of Cabefrt do Vivca'a work, it Mcems to me, has been niuUTvaluod, 
p«rUap8 uu uccuuiit ut' the luarvulous cures which he preteuds to have performed 
•along the ostiTM. Imlmed with the mperatitioiiB of hUi time, he probably believed 
in his own powers of healing the Mok in a Hapernaturul way. When these iucredible 
detailN are taken away, there romains ninch in the book that desorves th»' highest ap- 
preciation. According to Arthur Helps, a most careful iuvestigator, his account 
boen every mailc of trnthfiilneaa." See: Helps, The Spanish Conquest in America, 
Bsrper*s edition, VoL IV, p. 397. 

t Relation et Naufrages d'Alvar NuQez Cabe^a de Vaca, (Ti'rnuiix-Compana Col- 
lectiou), Paris, ld37, p. 121, dec. The Bpaaisli original appeared in the year 1566 at 

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rials occur even more froqnoDtly in the sacrificial monnds tban in those 
of a sepulchral chanu5ter, a circamstance that may be accounted for by 
(be value attached to these objects by their owners, who deemed them 
worthy of being offered in their sacrificial rites. The methods employed 
by the mfinntacturers doubtless being of the most primitive character, 
each shell-bead was the result of a certain amount of patient labor, and 
cousequently was esteemed according to the time aud art bestowed on 
its production. 

The Indian shell-ornament in its simplest form consisted of entire 
speciuieus of small marine univalves, such as species of Marginellay 
Natica^ aud Oliva^ which, after being conveniently pierced, could be 
strung together at once wltiieiib flirther preparation, and worn as neck- 
laces, armlets, &c. The above-mentioDed kinds were met by Squier and 
Davis in the monnds of Ohio, and in opening the Grbve Creek Mound 
five hundred specimens of Harginella were obtained near one of the 
skeletons. Some time ago, I received pierced specimens of Marginella, 
recovered in removing a mound at East St. Louis, in Southern Illi- 
nois which, I believe, contained a great number of them. Small sea- 
shells appear to be particularly abundant in the Indian graves of the 
Onlf States. More than a hundred years ago, it was noticed by Carver 
that sea shells were much worn by the Indians of the interior parts- 
he chiefly refm to the Dakotahs on the Upper Mississippi— and reck> 
oned very ornamental. He could not learn how they procured them, 
but thought they were obtained by traffic with other nations nearer the 
sea.* Small /o«»?7 marine shells were sometimes used for the same pur- 
pose. In an article published in the Smithsonian Report for 18GS, I 
bave stati'd that a largo number of such fossil shells were found, asso- 
ciated with agricultural Hint implements, under the surface at East 
St. Louis, the place already nientioiied.f They belonged almost ex- 
clusively to the genus Conorulus (3/e?flwpw.s), and many of them were 
prepared for stringing by a lateral perforation, as shown in the drawing 
(on p. 404) representing one of those shells. My knowledge, however, 
that the Indians used small fossil sea-shells as ornaments is not confined 
to the case in question, and I presume that many of the small marine 
shells taken from the mounds, which are.eonsideied as bdonging to, 
leeent species, are, in reality, of fossil origin. Other ibssil remains in 
a worked state, it may be mentioned in this connection, were obtained 
from the mounds of Ohio, as, for instance, shark's teeth, and others ol 
considerable size, perhaps bcilonging to a cetaceous animaL The for- 
mer are notched on both sides, or pierced at the lower end, and may 
have served, respectively, as amulets, arrowheads, or cutting imple- 

Yet, the number of entire sea^hells employed as beads by the natives 

* Carver, Trayels, p. 151. 

tlheir Ibnil dunoter wu fint pointed oat to mo by a competent eoncbailogiatk Mr* 
TbooMM Bland, of Brooklyn. 

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appears insignificant when compared with the enormous quantity of 
objects of the same class, which they manufactured from fragments 
of the valves of marine and fluviatile shells. These wrought beads ex- 
hibit various forms and sizes, but, according to my experience, are 
mostly found in the shape of more or less regular sections of cylinders, 
pierced through the centre. They are often proportionately thick, but 
sometimes rather thin, resembling the small bone buttons of commerce. 
I have shell-beads from different parts of the United States. Most of 
them are stnall, not exceeding six or seveu millimetres in diameter ; my 
largest spedmeos, however, have a diameter of no less than twenty^ 
eight millimeties. These latter, which were found, some time ago, with 
skeletons in the now leveled Big Monnd" at St Louis, are very flat 
in proportion to their diameter, and may be called discs rather than 
beads. They are evidently made from the valves of species of Unio of 
the Mississippi valley. These and other shells, which abonnd in many 
livers of the United States, fkequently may have furnished the material 
for ornaments, especially in districts remote from the sea-coast. The 
holes of Indian shell-beads generally are drilled from both sides, and 
therefore mostly of a bi conical shape.* The colored glass beads and 
enameled beads often found in Indian graves are, of course, of Euro- 
pean origin, the art of making them being unknown to the aborigines, 
and their occurrence in Indian burial-places, therefore, indicates that 
the interment took place at a perio<l when an intercourse with the 
whites already had been established. Of the so-called wampum-beads 
I shall speak at the close of this section. 

The largest and therefore the most esteemed beads and pendants, 
however, were made by the Indians from the columellae, or, as Cabe§a 
de Vaca expresses it, from the hearts," of large conchs, among which 
the tStrombus gigas seems to have been most Irequeutly used. These 
beads are more or less cylindrical, or globalar, and always drilled length- 
wise. Some are tapering at both ends, resembling a cigar in shape. J 
have seen specimens of two and one-half inches in length. The abmiginea 
also made from tiie colnmelUe of large marine univalves peculiar pin- 
shaped articles, consisting of a more or less massive stem, which termi- 
nates inaronnd knob. Professor Wyman mentionsyin the Third Annual 
Beport on the Peabody Museum (1870), a specimen of this kind found 
in Tennessee, which is five inches long, with a head an inch in diame> 
ter. In the collection of Colonel Charles 0. Jones, of Brooklyn, there 
are quite similar specimens of this class. Their destination is yet onex- 

* Flat Bfadl^lMads aro amoug the oldest antiquities of Europe. Lartet found them in 
the grotto of Anrignae, whieh served as » bnrial-plaoe at a period, when the eave-bear^ 
caTe-hyeoa, mammoth, rhinoceros, drc, still existed. Some small flat beads in my pos- 
session, made of Cardhim, which wei'e obtained from a dolmen in Southern France, can- 
not be distinguished from similar productions of tlie North American Indians. Entire 
•eihsheUs (mostly IMvrina litvrea), pierced for stringing, oeonrred iu the eave of Cro- 
Ibignoo, in the valley of the Yte^Sre. Pierced valves of fossil seasheMa were found ait 
other statkms of the reindeerperiod in the same valley, &e. 

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plained : they were pttiiaps attached to the he<ad-dre88, or worn as orna- 
ments in some other way. The nnwroaght colameIl» of large sea-shells 
have been foand at considerable distances from the ooast^ as, for in- 
stance, in Ohio and Tennessee. 

I have seen some very old Indian shell-ornaments, which were worn 
suspended from the neck, like medals or gorgets. They are round or 
oval plates, from two to four inches in diameter, on which various de- 
signs, sometimes quite tasteful, are engraved or cut through. In some 
instances their oruumeutation consists in regnlarly disposed perfora- 

Very large sea-shells of the univalve kind, either in their natural 
state or more or less changed by art, frequently have been found in In- 
dian burial-places and in localities generally, where tiie teaoes of Indian 
oocnpancy are met Speeies of the PffniUk and OoMi* occar most fire- 
qnently. By the lemoval of the inner whorls and spines, and other 
modifications, these shells are sometimes prepared to serve as drinking- 
vessels and dishes. Proftasor Wyman speaks in the before-mentioned 
report of snoh vessels obtained fkom Tennessee and Florida, which 
are made from shells of the Pjfmla perversa, Lam. One of the vessels 
measures a foot in length, though the pointed end is wanting. Dr. 
Troost gives the description and representation of a large^ entirely hol- 
lowed Cassis flammea. Lam., fonnd in Tennessee, which served as the 
receptacle of a kneeling human figure of clay, to which he attributes 
the clinraeter of an idol.t 1 saw in the collection of Colonel Jones, of 
Brooklyn, a Cassis, likewise hollowed, which is eight inches and a half 
long, and has a diameter of seven inches, where its periphery is widest. 
This specimen is one of two which were fonnd near Clarksville, Ilaber- 
sham County, Georgia, in one of those Indian stone-graves, which are 
met, sometimes many of them together, in various parts of the United 

In the State of Ohio, where the former inhabitants have left the most 
conspicuous traces of their occupancy in the shape of numerons earth- 

* "Tboy oflentiineR make, of this shell, a sort of gorge, which they wear abont their 
neck in a utring; so it bangs on their collar, whereon sometimes is engraven a cross, 
or some odd sort of iiguro, which comes next iu their fancy. The gorges will some- 
timeB Mil for three or font baekskioe ready dreMed." Lawtooy History of CkeoU]|% 
London,. 1714 ; leprint, Raleigh, 1R60, p. 316. For drawings see Sohoolorafl^ YoL^ 
plttfee 19,flgaie 3, and phkteSe^figiiiea 89 and 30; aho, Uof]pMi,Leagiieof the iroquote, 
p. 389. 

t Trausact ious of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I, p. .361. 

IThe atoDo-gmve in qneatloa contained a akdetoupmneh decayed, and, besides the 
two Goafiv-ahellfl, stone axes and chtaelSySome perforated objeots of stone, &o. The 
moat important piece, however, was a copper axe, which deserves particnlar mention. 
This au is very long, but narrow and thiu, and shows on both sides very distinctly 
the fkiotion prodnoed by having been inserted into the split end of a wooden handle. 
The olitfeotB Ibond in this gnve ere all in the posssssion of Colonel Jimes^ who intends 
to publish an illastrjrtsd dssoiiption of this ihid in his foctfaoonnlng work on the aa- 
tiqnities of Georgi*. 

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works of Tarions descriptions, and sometimes of stapendous extent, those 
large shells of rmirine mollnsks are of frequent occurreuce. Atwater 
alreads iiiontions them in the lirst volume of the Archoiologia Ameri- 
cana, i)ublished in 181*0. What Squier and Davis observed in regard 
to sea-shells generally during their investigations in Ohio, I will reca- 
pitulate here in a few words. They found in the mounds the smaller 
shells al read}' specified, namely, Manjinella^ Olira^ and Aafica, as well 
as entire specimens or tragments of Coss 'ih and Pyrula perversa^ and also 
the uuwrought columellaj of a large species of conch, probably Strombus 
ffigas, Eotiro specimens of the Fyrula perversa^ they state, frequently 
have beeo discovered ontside of the mounday in excavating at different 
points in the Soioto valley. They fonnd in one of the mounds a large 
Qoniij ftom which the inner whorls and colnmella had been removed, 
to adapt it for nse as a vessel. This specimen, eleven inches and a half 
in length hy twenty-foor in oircnmference at the largest part, is now in 
the Blackmore Mosenm.* 

The above-mentioned marine sheUs, all pertaining to tropical or semi- 
tropical regions, oocnr in the United States only on the eastern shore of 
the peninsula of Florida (perhaps a little higher northward) and on the 
coast of the Gulf of Mexico. From these localities, therefore, they most 
have fonnd their way into the interior. Adopting, for example, Cape 
St. Bias, in the Mexican Gulf, and the centre of Ohio aa the limits of 
shell-trade from south to north (an estimate probably much below 
reality), we iind an intervening distance of nearly eight hundred Eng- 
lish miles. 

Havi ug repeatedly alluded to large sea-shells prepared by the abo- 
rigines to serve as vessels, I will also mention that the Florida Indians, 
when first seen by Europeans, used such shells as <lrinking cups. This 
we learn from the plates and descriptions contained in the "Brevis Nar- 
ratio," of Jacques le Moyne do Morgues, in the second volume of DeBry's 
<*Peregrinationes " (Francoforti ad Moeuum, 1591). Plate 19 represents 
Indian widows who have cnt off their hair in token of monrniug, and 
scatter it over the graves of their husbands. On the graves ase de- 
posited bows and arrows, spears, and the large shells out of which 
they drank.'^t The same shdls may be seen on Plate 29, where warriors 
nse them as drinking-cops. Plate 40, finally, illnstrates the ceremonies 
which were performed at the death of a chieftain. The tumnlns is 
already heaped np, and aronnd its base anows are stock peipendica- 
laily in the ground. The drinking-vessel of the deceased, a large shell, 
is placed on the top of the mound.| Though the shells are figured quite 
large in these plates, it is impossible to perceive to what species they 

•Ancient Monamenta, p. 283. 

tThe MoompiDylog tozt nuM tboa: "Ai mariltoinm Mywloni jienwRimto, oiyrfllM iiMfr 

aurihu» prcuecant, iUisque per Mpukn tponUf maritonm amtt ^ tOildUU t» qidinu 
bant ibidem ahjiciunt, in atrenuorum virorum memoriam." 

i In the toxt : " De/unoto alitiuo Reye ejus Provinciagf magna Bolemdtate agTeliliir, ^ ^fiu 
Imiail0 ttaUr, e qwo UbtnaMat, imjtonitur, defiri» tkm ipnm fvaiiilim muUit mtgitH$J* 

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belong. Le Moyne drew his scenes of Indian life many years after hia 
retorn from America, while living in England, and as be execated these 
delineations from memory, they are doabUess deficient in that minate- 
oess of detail which authqrizes safe eomparisons and deductions. 

Among some tribes of the interior marine shells seem to have been 
looked upon with a kind of religious reverence, and indications are not 
wanting that they played a part in their religious ceremonies. The pe« 
cnliar sound produced by a sea-shell when approached to the ear necessa 
rily appeared strange and mysterious to them, and the rareness of the 
shells, together with their elegant forms and beautiful colors, doubtless 
increased their value in the eyes of the natives. According to Long, the 
Omaha s possessed, about half a century ago, a large shell (alreiidy trans- 
mitted Irom generation to generation) to whi(!h they paid an almost relig- 
ions veneration. "A skin lodge or temple,'' says Long, " is appropriated 
for its preservation, in which a person constantly resides, charged with 
the care of it, and appointed its guard. It is placed upon a stand and 
la never snflfered to tonch the earth. It is concealed from the sight by 
aeveral envelops, which are composed of strands of the proper skins, 
plaited and joined together in the form of a mat. The whcde constitntea 
a parcel of considerable size, from which varioas articles are snspended^ 
such as tobacco and roots of certain pkints. No person dares to open 
all the coverings of this sacred deposit in order to expose the shell to 
view. Tradition informs them that cariosity indnced three different 
persons to examine the mysterions shell, who were immediately pan- 
ished for their profanation by instant and total loss of sight. The last 
of these offenders, whose name is Ish>ka-tappe, is still living. It was 
ten years since that he attempted so unveil the sacred shell, but, like 
his predecessors, he was visited with blindness, which still continaes, 
and is attributed by the Indians, as well as by himself, to his commit- 
ting of the forbidden act. This shell is taken with the band to all the 
national hunts, and is then transported on the back of a nian. Pre- 
viously to undertaking a national expedition against an enemy, the 
sacred shell is consulted as an oracle. For this purpose the magi of the 
band seat themselves around the great medicine lodge, the lower part 
of which is then thrown up like curtains and the exterior envelop is 
caidtally removed from the mysterious parcel, that the shell may receive 
air. A portion of the tobacco^ consecrated by being long suspended to 
the skin-mats or coverings of the shell, is now taken and distributed to 
the magi, who fill their pipes with it to smoke to the great medidne. 
Oaring this ceremony an individnal occasionally inclines his head for- 
ward and listens attentively to catch some soand which he expects to 
issae from the shell. At length, some one imagines that he hears a 
soond like that of a forced expiration of air from the Inngs, or like the 
■oiae made by the report of a gon at a great distance. This is consid- 
ered as a favorable omen, and the nation prepare for the projected ex- 
pedition with a confidence of snocess. Bat, on the contrary, shonld no 

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sound be perceived, the issae of the expedition wonld be considered 
donbtfol.'** This shell, it cnnnot be doubted, was of marine origin, 
though the fact is not stated in the text. The nearest sea-coast from 
which it could have been obtained is that of the Mexican Gnlf, distant 
about nine hundred miles from the district inhabited by the Omahas. 

The white traders used to derive great profit hy selling fine sea-shells 
to the tribes of the interior. Kohl, for instance, learned from Canadian 
fur-traders that the Ojibways, on Lake Superior, formerly purchased 
sea-shells from them at considerable prices. When they (the traders) 
exhibited a fine large shell, and held it to the ears of the Indians, these 
latter were astonished, saying they lieard the roaring of the ocean in it, 
and paid for such a marvelous shell fnrsto the value of thirty or forty 
dollars, and even more.'f 

Having nndertakeu to compose this essay for the purpose of bringing 
together a series of iSncts relating to the trade among the aborigines of 
North America, I wonld be goiH^ of an omission, if I neglected to men- 
tion the wampnm-beads, which, besides other nses, lepresonted the 
moneif among them. The term ^ wampnm" is often applied to shell-beads 
in general, bnt shonld be confined, I think, to a certain class of cylindri- 
cal beads, nsnally one-fonrth of an inch long and drilled lengthwise, 
which were chiefly mannflactured from the shells of the common hard- 
shell clam ( Vemta mercenana^ Lin). This bivalve oconrring, as every 
one knows, in great abundance on the !N^orth American coasts, formed 
an important article of food of the Indians living near the sea, a fact 
demonstrated by the onormous quantity of castaway clam-shells, which 
form .'i considerable i)art of North American Kjoekkenmoeddings. The 
natives used to string the mollusks and to dry them for consumption 
during winter. The blue or violet portions of the clam-shells furnished 
the material for the dark wampum, which was held in much higher es- 
timation than that made of the white part of the shells, or of the spines 
of certain univales. Even at the present time places are pointed out on 
the Atlantic sea-board, for example on that of Long Island, where the 
Indians manufactured wampnm, and snch localities may be recognuEcd 
by the accnmolations of clam-shells from which the bine portions are 
broken ofT. 

Wampnm-beads formed a fiivorite material Ibr the maan&ctiiie of 
nebUaoes, bracelets, and other articles of ornament) and they oonstitoted 
the strings and belts of wampnm, which played snoh a conspicnona part 
in Indian history. 

Loskiel make^ the Ibllowing statement in reference to wampnm : ^ Be- 
fore North America was discovered by the Europeans, the ludians 
mostly made their strings and belts of small pieces of wood, cut to an 
eqnal size and dyed white and black. They made some of shells, which 

•Long, Expedition from Pittsbaigh to the Booky Mbnntaias, perfonned in the jmm 
1819 and 1820, London, 1823, Vol. II, p. 47, asc 
tKohl, KitsoM-Gami, YoL I, p. 168. 

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ANCU!;NT aboriginal, trade in north AMERICA. 119 

they highly est^^emed, but they manufactured them very rarely, because 
this labor required luuch time for want of the proper tools ; and the 
beads, moreover, were of a rade and clumsy appearance. Soon after 
their arrival in America, the Europeans began to mannfiiotore wampnm 
firom shells, very neatly and in abundance, ezcbangiug it to the Indiansfbr 
othjBT commodities, thus carrying on a very profitable trade. The Indiana 
now abandoned their wooden belts and strings, and substituted those 
of shell. The latter, of course, gradually declined in value, but, never- 
theless, were and still are much prised.*** 

I have little faith in LoskiePs statement that the Indians chiefly used 
wood for the above-mentioned purpose, before they had intercourse with 
the whites. Loskiel never visited America; he composed, as he observes 
in the preface, his work from the journals and reports of Protestant 
missionaries, and ])robably was totally unacquainted with the early 
writings relating to North 'America, in which wampum is mentioned. 
Roger Williams, for example, who emigrated to North America in 1031, 
is quite exi>licit on that point. He states that the Indians manufactured 
white and dari^ wampum-beads, and that six of the former and three of 
thf latter were equivalent to an English i)enny. Yet it appears that even 
at his time the colonists imitated the wampum, an<l used it in their trade 
with the natives. " The Indians,'' he says, " bring downe all their sorts 
of Furs, wbieh they take in the conntrey, both to the Indians and to the 
Eng^lish for this Indian Money ; this Money the English, French, and 
Dutch, trade to the Indians, six hundred miles in severall parts (North 
and South finom New-Bngland) for their Furres, and whatsoever they 
stand in need of ftom them : as Gome, Venison, Ac'^f Similar statements 
are contained in the writings and records of various persons who lived 
in North America contemporaneously with the liberal-minded founder 
of Rhode Island, Even in the intercourse of the English colonists 
among themselves, wampum served at certain i)eriod8 instead of the 
common currency, and the courts of New England issued from time to 
time regjulations for fixing the money-value of the wampum. In trans* 
actions of some importance it was measui'cd by the fathom, the dark or 
blue kind generally being double the value of the white.f According 
to Roger Williams, the Indians of New England — he chiefly refers to 
the Narrdgansetts — denoted by the term icompam (which signities ic/u^e) 
the white beads, while they called the dark kind suckauhock (from sdckiy 
bl<wk).^ The great value attached to wampum as an ornament is well 
illustrated by the following passage from the same author: "They 
hang these strings of money about their necks and wrists ; as also upon 

* Loskiel, Mission der evangeliachea Brttdor, Sus,, p. 34. 

t Roger Williams, A Key, &c., p. 128. 

t Interacting detuiis coucoruiug wuuipum ure gi%-eii by Mr. Stevens in " Flint Chips," 
Umdon, 1870, pp. 454-64.* 

^ Boger Williams, L c. p. 130. In soother plaoe (p. 164) ho gires the word wtfayifiir 
wkUa. WmHpimpt99ttP^ MRwatif, rMnoi^ were other names to signify wampiun. 

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the necks and wrists of their wives and children. Mdchequoce, a Girdle f 
which they make curiouHly of one, t wo, three, foare, and five incliea 
thioknes.'^e and more, of this money which (sometimeH to the value often 
pounds and more) they weare aboat their middle and as a scarfe about 
their shoulders and breasts. Yea, the Princes make rich Caps and Aprons 
(or siuall breechos) of these Beads thus curiously strung into many formes 
and li^jfures: their blackeand white finely niixt together."* 

The warapuni-belts, so often mentioned in connection with the histo- 
ry of the eastern tribes, eonsisted of broa*! straps of leather, upon which 
white and blue wampuni-beads were sewed in rows, being so arranged 
that by the contntst of the light and dark colors certain figures were 
produced. The Indians, it is well known, exchanged these belts at the 
condnslon of peace, and on other solemn occasions, in order to ratify 
the transaction and to perpetuate the remembrance of the event When 
sharp admonitions or threatening demonstrations were deemed neces- 
saiyi the wampam-belts likewise phqred a part, and they were even 
sent as challenges of war. In these varions cases the arrangement of 
the colors and ilgnies of the belts corresponded to the o^ect in view : 
on peaceable occasions the white color predominated; if the complica- 
tions were of a serious character, the dark prevailed ; and in the case of 
a declaration of war, it is stated, the belt was entirely of a somber hue, 
and, moreover, covered with red paint, while there appeared in the 
middle the figure of a hatchet executed in white. The old accounts, 
however, are not quite accortlant concerning these details, probably be- 
cause the ditlerent Atlantic tribes followed in this particular their own 
taste rather than a general rule. At any rate, however, the wampum- 
belts were considered as obje(5ts of importance, being, as has been 
8tat<Hl, the tokens by which the memory- of remarkable events was 
tnuisiiiitted to i)osterity. They were employed somewhat in the manner 
of the Peruvian quipUj which they also resembled in that particular, 
that their meaning could not be conveyed without oral comment At 
certain times the belts were exhibited, and their relations to former 
OQcaixenees explained. This was done by the aged and ezperfenoed of 
the tribe, in the presence of yonng men, who made themselves thor- 
onghly acqoainted with the shape, size, and marks of the belts as well 
as with the e?ent8 they were destined to commemorate, in order to be 
able to transmit these details to others at a fatore time. Thns the 
wampnm-belts represented the archives of polished nations. Among 
the Iroquois tribes, who formed the celebrated "league,'* there was a 
special " keeper of the wampum,** whose duty it was to preserve the 
belts and to interpret their meaning, when required. This office, which 
bore some resemblance to that of the qnipu-decipherer {quipu-catHoifoe) 
of the Peruvians, was intrusted to a sachem of the Onondagas.f 

In March, 1864, a delegation of Iroquois of the State of New York 

• Ibid., p. 131. 

t MmsKOf League of the Iroquois, p. IdL 

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passed thvoagh New York Oit^ on their way to Washiugton, where they 
intended to neisotiate with the Govemtnent concerning former treaties 
relatiTe to their lands, ^ey had brought with them thoir old wampam> 
he\t», as docoments to prove the justness of their (claims. One of these 
belts, if I am not mistaken, had been given them by General Washing- 
ton on some important occasion ; for even the whites of that period were 
under the necessity of conforming to the established rule in their trans- 
actions witii the natives. The New York Historical Society honored 
thes4i delegates with a public reception, which ceremony took place in 
the large hall of the Society. The president delivered the speech of wel- 
come, which an old chief, unable to express himself in English, answered 
in the Seneca dialect. A younger cliief, Dr. Peter Wilson, called by 
the i)eople of his tribe De-jih-non-da-iceh hoh^ or the "Pacificator," served 
as interpreter, being well versed in both languages. He afterward ex- 
hibited the belts, and explained their significance. They were, as far 
as I ean reeollect, abont two feet long and of a hand*^ bieadtli. The 
ground consisted of white beads, while blue ones formed the figures or 
marks. The latter resembled ornamental designs, and I eonld not dis- 
cover in them the form of any known object. 1 compared them at the 
time to somewhat roughly executed embroideries of simple patterns. I 
asked the Pacificator'' whether these belts were the work of Indians 
or of whites ; but he was unable to give me any definite information on 
that point.* 

T possess a nutnber of white and blue wampum-beads from an Indian 
grave, operjed in 18C1, near Charlestown, in the State of liho<le Islaml. 
The late Di. Usher Parsons, of Providence, Rhode Island, to wlioiu I 
am indebted for these beads, has described the grave,f and thinks it 
enclosed the remains of a daughter of Ninigret, Sa(;hem of tbeNiantic 
or Nahantic tribe of Indians. The interment is 8up[)osed to have taken 
place about the year IGCO. These beads are regularly worked cylinders, 
drilled lengthwise, and from five to nine millimetres in length, by four 
or five in diameter. Of course, it cannot now be decided whether Vidi- 
ans or whites were their manufacturers. The grave contained many 
other objects, but almost without exception derived from the colonists 
of that period. I may also state, in this place, that thus tu I have not 
fioond in the oldest English works on North America a perfectly satis- 
fisctoiy account of the method originally employed by the Indians in 
the manufacture, and especially in the drilling, of the wampnm-beads4 

Among the tribes of the northwestern coast of North America, ftom 

*Thi8 is the Btinie chief who delivered, in 1847, before the New York Historical 
Soeiety, a powerfnl speech, quoted by Morgan, (League of tiie Iroqnois, p. 440). Hie 
cbiefs name waa then WU-o-wo-wd-nS-mk, 

t New York Historical Ma«^azine, February, 1863. 

t "Before ever they had awle blades from Europe, they made shift to boro this their 
•hell money, with stouee, ami to fell their trees with stone set in a wooden sta^ and 
oaed wooden bowes ; which some old and poore women (fiaarfiiU to leave the old tradi- 
tion) nse to this iMj.**— Soger fFUUnu, X^, p. 190. 

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the northern border of Galifoniia fiir upward to the north, the ahelhi of 

the Dentalium represented, until within the latest time, the wampom of 
the Atlantic region, being used, like the latter, both as ornament and 
money. These shells, which abound in certain places of the Pacific 
coast, may be likened to small, tapering, and somewhat curved tubes. 
Ik'iiig open at both ends, they can be strung without further prepara- 
tion. As my essay relates otilyto that portion of North Ameriea which 
lies east of the Rocky Mountains, I probably would not have mentioned 
the use of DtMitaiiiiui-sliells, were it not tor the lact that they have 
been lound in llie interior of the couiitrv, far from the Paeitie coast, as 
l)ersonal rn nanu nt ol existing tribes, and even in the ancient mounds of 
Ohio.* The latter fact, indeed, is of great interest in its bearing on the 
extent of former aboriginal tradc-relatious, the distance from the Pacific 
to the State of Ohio being almost equal to the whole breadth of the 
Korth American oontinentt 

Perforated jKnirls, destined to serve as beads, often form a part of the 
contents of aucieut North American mounds. Squier and Davis found 
them on the hearths of five distinct groups of monnds in Ohio, and 
sometimes in snch abundance that thej coald be gathered by the hun- 
dred. Most of them had greatly suffered by the action of fire, being in 
many cases so calcined that they crumbled when handled ; yet, several 
hundred weie found sufficiently well preserved to permit of their being 
stnmg. The peails in question are generally of irregular form, mostly 
pear-shaped, though perfectly round ones are also amon|v them. The 
smaller specimens measure about one-fourth of an inch in diameter, but 
the largest has a diameter of no less than three fourths of an inch.| 
According to Squier and Davis, |)earl bearing shells occur in the rivers 
of the region whose antiquities tliey describe, but not in such 
abuudauce that they could have furnished the amount discovered iu 
the tumuli ; and the pearls of these fluviatile sliells, moreover, are said 
to be far interior in size to thovse recovered from the altars. The latter, 
they think, were derive<l from the Atlantic coast an<l from that of tho 
^Mexican Gulf. It is a fact that the Indians, who inhabited the present 
Southern States of the Union, made an extensive use of i)earls for 
ornamental purposes. This is attested by the earliest accounts, and more 
especially by the chroniclers of De Soto's ex^iedition (the anouymous 
Portuguese gentlenuui and Gareflasso de la Vega), who speak of almost 
fobnlous quantities of pearls, which that daring leader and his followers 

•Stevens. Flint Chips, p. 4()8. 

t Since wiitinjx the uIkivp, I leaiueii, by Lonsiiltiug WiuHlwanrs work ou conchology, 
that the iJetUaiium is also found \o the West ludies. It' it should likewise occur ou the 
■ontiiern eoMts of the Uiiit«d 8t«l6i^ there is «t leeet » poeelbility that the qtecimeii* 
found in Ohio mey heve been obtained ftom the lest-named xegion. 

X Ancient Monameute, p. iSH 


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saw among: the Imlians of the parts traversed by them. Pearls, how 
ever, belonged to the thinj^a most desired by the Spaniards, and the 
accounts relating to them, perhaps, may be somewhat exaggerated. The 
following passage from GarcUasso de la Vega is of particalar interest: 
While De Soto sqjoonied in the proviDoe of Xchiah%* the eaoiqiie 
Tisited him one day, and gav^ him a string of pearls about two fothoms 
(deux brasses) long. This present might have been considered a vain- 
able one, if the pearls had not been pierced ; for they were all of equal 
size and as large as hazle.nnts.t Soto acknowledged this favor by pre- 
seDting the Indian with some pieces of velvet and doth, which were 
highly appreciated by the latter. He then asked h'im concerning the 
pearl-fishing, upon which he replied that this was done in his province. 
A great number of peorls were stored in the temple of the town of 
Ichiaba, where his ancestors were buried, and he might take as many 
of them as lie pleased. The jjeneral expressed his obligation, but ob- 
served that he would take away nothing from the temple, and that he 
had aeeei)t('d his present only to plrase liini. Tie wished to learn, how- 
ever, in what manner tW pearls were extraeted Iroin the shells. The 
cacique replied that he would send out pe()j)lo to tish for pearls all night, 
and on the following day at eight o'ehx k {.sic) his wish should be grati- 
fied. He ordered at onee four boats to be dispatched for pearl -lishing, 
which should be baek in the morning. In the mean time much wood 
was burned on the bank, producing a large quantity of glowing coals. 
When the boats had returned, the shellB were placed on tiie hot coals, 
and they opened in consequence of the heat. In the very first, ten or 
twelve pearls of the size of a pea were found, and handed to the 
caeiqne and the general, who were present. They thought them very 
fine, though the fire had partly deprived them of their lustre. When 
the general had satisfied his curiosity, he retired to take his dinner. 
While thns engaged, 6 soldier came in, who told him that in eating some 
of the oysters caught by the Indians, a very fine and brilliant pearl had 
got between his teeth, and he begged him to accept it as a present for the 
governess of Cuba.| Soto very civilly refused the present, but assured 
the soldier that he was just as much obliged to him as though he had 
accepted hia gift : he would try to reward him one day for his kindness 
and for the regard he was showing to his wife. TTe advised him to keep 
his (intended) present, and to buy horses for it at Havana. The Span- 
iards, who were with the general at that moment, examined the pearl of 
this soldier, and some, who considered themselves as experts in the mat- 
ter of jewelry, thought it was worth four hundred ducats. It had re- 

•The province and townof Iciah a, or IcLi aba, haTe been located in that part of North- 
ern Georgia where the OoBtanaula and Etowah rivf rs unite, and form the Coosa river. 
(See Tbeodore Irviti^'8 " Conquest of Florida," second edition, p. 242 ; also McCulloh's 
"Eeeearches," p. :>j:).) 

f The IndiaaB used to pierce them with a heated oopper wire^ apiooen by wtaioh they 
vera spoiled. 

tIMIa Isaljel de Bobadilia, I>o Soto's wife. 

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taiiied its origiual lustre, not liaving beeu extriacted by means of 

It is evident, therefore, that the Imliaus obtainetl their pearls, in part 
at least, Iroin their river- muscles, many of which are known to be 
niargaritiferoiis.t These moUusks undoubtedly were used as food by 
the aborigines, who ate alligators, snakes, and other animals less tempt* 
ing than the contents of flaviatile ahdla Indeed, I learned ftom Dr. 
Biinton, who was attached to the Army of the Gnmberland during the 
late ciTil war, that muscles of the Tennessee river were occasionally 
eaten *<a8 a change'' by the soldiers of that corps, and pronounced no 
bad article of diet' Shells of the CTiiio are sometimes found in Indian 
graves, whero they had been deposited with the dead, to serve as food 
during the journey to the land of spirits. In many parts of the North 
American inland heaps of fresh^water shells are seen, indicating the 
places where the natives feasted upon the mollusks. Atwater has drawn 
attention to sach accamnlations on the banks of the Muskingum, in 
Ohio.J Heaps of muscle-shells may be seen in Alabama, along the 
rivers wherever Indians used to live. Thousands of the shells lie 
banked up, some deep in the ground. § Dr. Brintoii saw on the Tennes- 
see river and its tributaries numerous shell-heaps, consisting almost 
exclusively of the Unio tirginiunm (Lamarck?). In all instances be 
found the shell-heaps close to the water-courses, on the rich alluvial 
bottom-lands. "The molhisks," he says, "had evidently been opened 
by placing them on a lire. The Tennessee muscle is pearl-bearing, and 
there is no doubt but that it was from this species that the early tribes 
obtained the hoards of pearls which the historians of De Soto^s explor- 
ation estimated by bushels, and which were so much prized as orna- 
ments. It is still a profitable employment, the Jewelers buying them 
at prices varying firom one to fifty dollars.^| EjoMmmoMin^ on the 
8t John's river, in Florida, consisting of river-shells, were examined 
by Professor Wyman, and described by him ; he saw similar accumula- 
tions on the banks of the Concord river in Massachnsetts* and was in- 
formed by eye-witnesses that they are numerous in California.^ On 
StalUng's Island, in the Savannah river, more than two hundred miles 
above its mouth, there stands a mound of elliptical shape, chiefly com- 
posed of the muscles, clams, and snail-shells of the river. This tuma- 

* GflxdlaaM de UVega, Conqudte d« la Florida, VoL II, p. 296. 

t As Mr. Ibuo Lea, of Philaddphie, iDfonns me, pearis am found in Tarioiis apeeiea 

of the UnionidtB, more frequently in Uiiio complanatu/f, Margaritana margaritifera, and 
Jnodonta Jluriatilia. But they occur occanioiuilly in all tlie .species of this family. Veiy 
large and valuable pearls have been found in New Jeraoy. 

% Arohteologia Araerieaaa, Yol. i, p. 226. 

$ Pickett, History of Alabama, Charleston, 1851, Vol. I p. 12. 

j Brinton, Artificial SheU-Depouts in the United State*, Smithaonian Report for 
1866, p. 357. 

T Wyman, Fresh-Water Shell-Heaps of the St. Juhu's Siver, East Florida, Salem, 

Manaobnaetts, 1986. 

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las, which k about three huDdredfeetlongfOne hundred and twenty feet 
idde, and, perhaps, over twenty feet high, was firand to contain a large 
nomber of skeletons. Several pits have been opened in tiie northeast- 
ern end. At the depth of twelve fset the amount of .shells was undi- 
minished. They appear to have been distributed in layers of eight or 
ten Inches in thickness, with intervening strata of sand. An examina- 
tion into the contents of the mound proves conclusively that it must 
have been used only for burial purposes ; that it is, in &ot, a huge ne- 
cropolis. It could not have been the work of a year, or of a ^reneratinn. 
Stratum upon stratum has been heaped, each covering the dead of its 
age, until by degrees, and with the lapse of time, it grew into its present 
surprising dimensions."* 

It is probable that the natives of Noith America obtained i^earls, 
both from fluviatile and marine shells, and further that they caught 
the bivalves, not solely on aecount of the pearls they inclosed, but for 
using them as food. The pearls themselves, in all likelihooil, were 
looked upon as additional, highly valued gifts of nature. 


Among the later Indians, at least those who lived east of the Kocky 
Honntaios, nearly all work ^qs performed by women. When, during 
times of peace, the master of a lodge had supplied his fhmily with the 
game necessary for its support, he thought to be. relieved of further 
duties, and abandoned himself either to indolence or to his favorite 
pastimes, such as games of hazard, and exercises calculated to impart 
strength and agility to the body. He mannihctured, however, his arms 
and kept them in repair, and also condescended to work, when a larger 
•object, a canoe for instance, was to he made, or a dwelling to be con- 
structed. Far more varied, on the other hand, were the duties imposed 
upon women. Not only had they to procure water and fire-wood, to 
prepare the meals, to collect the fruits serving as winter-provisions, to 
make moccasins and other articles of dress, but it was also incumbent upon 
them to perform many other labors, wliicli, from their natiii e, wonld seem 
to be more suited for men. Thus, the lields were cultivated by w omen ;t 
they dressed the skins to tit them for garments and other purposes; 
the manufacture of pottery was a l)ranch of lemale industry; they did 
the principal work in the erection of the huts or tents (<>f skins, mats 
or bark), and their assistance was even required when canoes, especially 
those of bark, were made. During the march they carried heavy loads, 
and on the water they handled the {)addle as skilfully as the men. If 
to all those tasks and toils the bringing up of children is added, the lot 
of the Indian woman appears by no means an enviable one, though she 
bore her burden patiently, not being accustomed to a different manner 
<»f existence. She was, indeed, hardly more than the servant of her l<«d 

* Jones (Charles C), Monumeutal Remains of Georgia, Savannah, 1861, p. 14. 
f Alaoy to MMne tztent, b^- enslared priBonere of war. 

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and inastor, who frcqueutly lived in a state of polygamy merely for com 
luaudnig more a^sistanee in his domestic affairs. 

Such were the occup.itious of Indian men and women in general. Ney- 
ertbeless, there are indioatimis that tbe germs of handimfts already 
existed among the North American tribes, or, to speak more distinctly, 
that certain individuals of the male sex, who were, by natural inclina- 
tion or practice, particularly qualified for a distinct kind of manual labor, 
devoted themselves principally or entirely to this labor. I refer, of 
course, to the period anteceding the occupation of the country by Buro- 
peans— that period about which so little is known, that a carefhl exam- 
ination of the still existing earth works, and of the minor products of 
industry left by the former iuhabitiints, affords the principal guidance 
in the attempt to determine their mode of existence. The earliest writ- 
ings on North America are exceedingly deficient in those details which 
are of interest to the aiehaiologist, and form, as it were, his i)oints of 
departure; and it becomes therefore necessary to adopt here, in the 
pursuit of archfeological iiivostiijation, the same system of careful in- 
quiry and deduction that has been so successfully einploye<l in Europe. 
The only difference is, that in the latter part of the world "prehistoric 
times" reach back thousands of years into the remotest antiquity, while 
in America a comparatively recent period must be drawn within the 
precinct of antiquarian research. 

Any one who examines a collection of North American chipped flint 
implements will notice quite rude and clumsy specimens, but also, along- 
side of these, others of great regularity and exquisite finish, which could 
only have been fashioned by practised workers in flint. This applies par- 
ticularly to the points of arrows and lances, some of which are so sharp and 
pointed that they, when properly shafted, almost would be as eflSBCtual as 
iron ones. In fact, Uie oldest Spanish writings contain marvelous ac- 
counts of the penetrating force of the flint-pointed arrows used by the- 
Indians of Florida i n their encounters with the whites. Not every warrior,, 
it may be presumed, was able to make stone-points, especially those of a- 
superior kind, this labor requiring a skill that could only be attained by 
long practice. There were doubtless certain persons among the various 
tribes who practised arrow-making as a profession, and disposed of 
their manufactures by way of exchange. In reference to this subject 
Mr. Schoolcraft observes as follows: " A hunter, or warrior, it is true, 
expected to make his own arms or implements, yet the manufacture of 
flint and hornstoue into darts and spears and arrowheads demanded too 
much skill and mechanical dexterity for the generality of the Indians to 
succeed in. According to the Ojibway tradition, before the introduction 
of fire-arms, there was a class of men among the northern tribes who were 
called makers 0/ arrmcheade. They selected proper stones, and devoted 
themselves to this art, taking in exchange for tiieir m^ufkctnres, the- 
•kins and flesh of animals." According to Golonel Jones, the tradition 
has been preserved in Georgia that among the Indians whoinhabitedi 

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the moimtaliis, there was a oertaui number or class who devoted theix 
tiiDe and attention to the manofiiotare of these darts. That as soon as 
they had piepaied a general supply, they left their moontain homes and 

visited the sea board aud intermediate localities, exchanging their spear 
and arrowheads for other art icles not to be readily obtained in the region 
where they inhabited. The further fact is stated that these persons 
never mingled in the excitements of war ; that to them a free passport 
was at all times j^ranted, even among tribes actually at variauce with 
that of which tliey were members; that tlieir avocation was esteemed 
honorable, and they tliemselves treate<l with universal liospitality. If 
such was the case, it was surely a reinaikabhi and interesting recogui- 
tion of the claims of the manufacturer by an untutored race.'** 

In a former section 1 have mentioned a Califoruian Indian of the 
Shasta tribe, who was seen making arrowheads of obsidian by Mr. Caleb 
Lyon. The Indian," he says, " seated himself on the iloor, aud, placing 
a stone anvil upon his knee, which was of compact talcose slate, with 
one blow of his agate chisel he separated the obsidian pebble into two 
parts, then giving another blow to the fraetnred side he isplit off a slab 
a fbnrth of an inch in thickness. Holding the piece against the anvil 
with the thumb and finger of his left hand, he commenced a series of 
continoons blows, every one of which chipped off fragments of the brittle 
substance. It gnidoally assumed the required shape. After finishing 
the base of the arrowhead (the whole being only a little over an inch 
in length) he began striking gentler blows, every one of which I expected 
would break it into pieces. Yet such was their adroit implication, his 
skill and dexterity, that in little over an hour he produced a perfect 
obsidian arrowhead. Among them arrow-mal-ing is a distinct trade or 
profession^ whicli many attempt^ but in which few attain excellence.'" t 

Another method of arrow-making practised by tho Califoruian tribes 
is mentioned by Mr. Edward E. Chever in an article published in the 
"American Naturalist," May, 1870. lie has figured the implement used 
in tho process (p. 139). " The arrow-head," he says, " is held in the left 
hand while the nick iu the side of the tool is used as a nipper to chip 
oS small fragments.'' 

Mr. Catlin gives an interesting and full account of the manufacture of 
arrowheads among tho Apaches aud other tribes living west of or in the 
ivocky Mountains. The following extract contains his principal state- 
ments : " Erratic boulders of fliut are collected (and sometimes brought 
an immense distance) and broken with a sort of dedge-hammer made of 
a rounded pebble of homstone, set in a twisted withe, holding the stone 
and forming a handle. The flint, at the indisoriminate blows of the 
aledge, is broken into a hundred pieces. The master-workman, seated 
on the ground, lays one of these flakes on the palm of his left hand, 

* Jones (Charles C.)i Indian Remains in Southern Georgia. Address delivered befozift 
the Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, 1859, p. 19. 
f BaHefefai of the Anleriean Etbnologicftl Gkiciety, Hew York, ISSl, Vol. I, p. 39. 

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holding it firmly down with two or more lingers of the same hand, and 
with his right haud, between the thumb and two foroflngers places bis 
chisel or puDoh* on the point that is to be broken off; and aoo- 
opetator (a striker) sitting in ftont of him, with a mallet of very hard 
wood, stxikes the chisel on the upper end, flaking the flint off on the 
under side, below each projecting point that is straok. The flint is 
then turned and ehipped in the same manner ftom the opposite side; 
and so turned and chipped until the required shape and dunenslons are 
obtained, all ftactures being made on the palm of the hand, whose 
yielding elasticity enables the chip to oome off without breaking the 
body of tlie flint, which would be the case it' they were broken on a 
hard substance. This operation is very carious, both the holder and the 
striker singing, and the strokes of the mallet given exactly in time with 
the mnsic, and with a sharp and reboundirig blow, in which, the Indians 
tell us, is the great medicine (or mystery) of the operation. Every tribe 
has its factory in which these arrowheads are made, and in those only 
certain adepts are able or allowed to male them for the use of the tribe.^i 

Thus tradition as well as modern experience jiiatify the belief that 
the manufacture of arrow and spearheads was formerly carried on as a 
<;raft by certain individuals of the North American tribes, and Longfel- 
low^s "Ancient Arrow-maker," therefore, is not a mythical i)erson, but 
the ideal type of a class of men whose art flonrished in by-gone times. 

The skilfully executed agricultural flint implements <^ Bast St. 
Louis, described 1^ me in the Smithsonian Beport for 1868, have alto- 
gether the appearanoe as if ons hand had fiuhioned them. Is it not 
probable that they formed the magasine of an aboriginal artisan, who 
deiroted his time chiefly to the manufiewture of such tools t The making 
nit wampum and of shell-beads in general may have formed a trade 
among the tribes inhabiting the sea-board ; for this labor required much , 
time and promised success only to those who, by long ptaotioe, had 
attained skill in the operation. The supposition gains some ground by 
an observation of Soger Williams, who states that " most on the 
side make Money and Store up shells in Summer against Winter whereof 
to make their money." He further observes on the same page : " They 
have some who follow onely making of Bowes,someArrowes,8omeDishe8 
{and the women make all their Earthen Vessells,) some follow fishing, 
some hunting."j: 

The most remarkable productions of ancient aboriginal industry are 
the carved stone pipes of peculiar shape exhumed by Messrs. Squier 
and Davis from the mounds of Ohio, and minutely described and fig- 
ured by them in the ^'Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 

* Six or seven inches in length, and made of an inoisor of the aperm-wbale, oHoD 

utraniled on tlie coast of the Pacific. 

V t Catliu, Last liauibles aiuougst the ludiaua, New York, 18G7, p. 187, &g. 
t BogeK WilUama, A Key, &c., p. 133. 
i Chapter XV, Scnlptniea from the Hotrads, pp. 849^8. 

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Four miles north of OhiUioothe, Ohio, tiim lies, close to the Scioto 
river, ao emimiikinent of earth somewhat in the shape of a sqoare 
with strongly ronnded angles, and enclosing an area of thirteen acres, 

over which twenty-three mounds are scattered without mnch regularity. 
This work has been called Mound City," from the great number of 
mounds within its walls. In digging into the mounds, Squier and 
Davis discovered hearths in many of them, which furnished a great 
number of aborifjinal relics. From one of the heartlis nearly two hun- 
dred of tlios(^ ]>oculiar stone pipes were taken, many of them, unfortu- 
nately, erackt'd by the action of the fire, and otherwise daniaged. The 
occurrence of these "mound-pii)es," however, was not confined to the 
mound in question, similar ones havinj^ occasionally been found else- 
where. In the more elaborate pipes from Mound City, the bowl is some- 
times formed in imitation of the human head, but fjenerally of the body 
of an animal, and in the latter cases the peculiar characteristics of the 
species which have served as models are frequently exprcssefl with sur- 
prising fidelity. The following mammals have been recognized: the 
beaver, otter, elk, bear, wolf, dog, panther, wild cat, raccoon, opossum, 
squirrel, and seaHX>w (Manati, Lamantin, Trieheeus manatutj Lin.). 
Of the last-named animal, no less than seven representations were 
found, a droumstance deserving particular notice, because this inhabit- 
ant of tropical waters is not met in the higher latitudes of North Amer- 
ica, but only on the coast of Florida, which is many hundred miles dis- 
tant from Ohio. The Florida Indians called this animal the ^'big 
beaver," and hunted it on account of its flesh and bones.* Most fre- 
quent are (carvings of birds, among which the eagle, hawlc, &lcon, tur- 
key-buzzard, heron, several species of owls, the raven, swallow, paro- 
quet, duck, and other land and water-birds, have been recognized. One 
of the specimens is supposed to represent the toucan, a trojMcal bird 
not inhabiting; the United States. Worthy of particular mention as a 
well-executed sculpture is ;i s[)ccies of eagle or hawk in the attitude ot 
tearing a smaller bird lield in its claws ; and so is that of the tufted 
heron feeding on a fish. The amphibious animals, likewise, have their 
representatives in the snake, toad, froj^-, turtle, nnd alligator. One spe- 
cimen shows a snake that winds itself around the bowl of the pipe. 
The toads, in particular, are very faithful imitations of nature. Indeed, 
it is said in the "Ancient Monuments" that, if placed in the grass be- 
fore an unsuspecting observer, they would probably be mistaken for 
the natural ol^ects; and this statement is in no way exaggerated, as 
every one will admit who has seen the specimens in question. The bird- 
figure supposed to ijepresent the toucan, I think, is not of sufficient dis- 
tinctness to identiiy the original that was before the artistes mind ; it 
would not' be safe, therefore, to make this specimen the subject of Ihr- 
leaehing speculations. For the rest^ the imitated animals belong, with- 

* Bartrom, Tnvels, Dabliu, 1793^ p. 989. 

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oat exception, to the North American fiiana ; and there is, moreover, 
the greatest probability that the scalptnres in question were made in or 
near the pxeeent State of Ohio, where, in corroboration of the last sup- 
position, a few unfinished specimens have oocnrred among the complete 
articles. The discovery of the manati-fignres, however, is in so &r of 
interest as it indicates a oommanication between the ancient inhabitants 
of Oliio and tidose of the Floridian coast-region. 

It was formerly believed most of these pipes were composed of a kind 
of p<nphyry; bnt since their transfer to the Biackmore Mnseum, they 
were carefully examined and partly analyzed by Professor A. H. Ghnrch, 
who found them to consist of softer materials.* Nevertheless, they 
constitnte the most remarkable class of Indian products of art thus far 
discovered, for some of tboui are so skilfully executed that a modern 
artist, notwithstaiidinj? his far superior iiistrument-s, would tind no little 
difficulty iu reproduciujj: them. The manufacture of stone pipes, neces- 
sarily a painful and tedious labor, therefore may have formed a branch 
of aboriginal industry, and the skilful pipe-carver i)robably occupied 
among the former Indians a rank equal to that of the experienced 
sculptor in our time. Even among modern Indians pii)e-makers some- 
times have been met. Thus, Dr. Wilson mentions an old O jib way In- 
dian, whose name is Pabahmeiadf or the Flier," but who, from bis 
skill in making pipes, is more commonly known as Pwahguneka — he 
makes pipes."t Kohl, also, speaks of an Ojibwaypipe:maker whom he 
met on Lake Superior. "There are persons among them," he says, 
« who possess particolar skill in the carving of pipes, and make it their 
j^eofession, or at least the means of gaining in part their livelihood. I 
made the acquaintance of snob a/ilMiir dt ealumt^ and visited him 
occasionally. He inlaid his pipes very tastefolly with figures of stars 
and flowers of black and white stones. Bat his work proceeded very 
slowly^ and he sold his pipes at high prices, from four to five dollars 
apiece. Yet the Indians sometimes pay much higher prices.'' | 

In addition to the articles thus far enamerated, others may have been 
manufactured more or less extensively by way of trade ; but, in default 
of corroborating data, we must rest satisfied with the supposition that 
such was the case. European archa)ologists, in estiniatiug the condi- 
tions of prehistoric races of the Old World, have derived much aid from 
inquiries into the modes of life among still-existing primitive popula- 
tions of foreign parts. The same system may be applied in antiquarian 
researches relative to North America, where the customs and manners 
of the yet lingering aboriginal population can be brought into requisi- 
tion for elucidating the past. Thus, some statements made by Mr. 
James G. Swan, in a recent work on the Makah Indians of Cape Flat- 
tery, (published by the Smithsonian Institute,) are of great Interest in 

• Chnich, in Flint Chips," p. 414. 

t Wilson, Prehistoric Man, Lond., 1862, Vol. II, p. 15. 

X Kohl, Kit«ohi«ami, Vol. II, p. 88. 

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connection with tin* object treated in this article. " The ujauufacture 
of iinplemeuts," lie hays, " is |)racti.sed by all j some, however, produc- 
ing Dealer articles, are more employed la this way. The manufacture 
4yf wlialing implemeDts, parttonlarly the staff of the harpoon and the 
haxpoon-head, is eoofloed to iodividuala who ditpoae of them to the 
othera. This is also the ease with lope-maluDg; altliongh all onder- 
stand the process, some are pecuUarly expert, and generally do tiie most 
of the work. Canoe-making is another braneh that is conilned to oer- 
tain persons who have more skill than otiiers in forming the model and 
in finishing the work. Although they do not seem to have regnlhr 
trades in these manufactnrcvs, yet the most expert principally confine 
themselves to oertain branches. Some are quite skilful in working iron 
and copper, others in carving or in painting, while others again ace 
. more exjiert in catcliiug fish or killing whales."* 

It is true, the conditions of existence of a northern tribe bordering on 
the Pacific coast cannot serve as a standard for the populations for- 
merly inhabiting the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio, or the Atlantic 
sea-board ; yet, that the latter wei*e led by similar motives, in regard to 
the division of labor, seems to be coniirmed by the observations and 
exti'acts given in this sketch. 


In the i)receding series of articles 1 have almost exclusively referred 
to manv/actureSj and among these, ot course, only to such as could, 
from their nature, resist the destroying inllueiice of time. Yet, it can- 
not be doubted that articles consisting of less dnrable materials, for 
instance, dressed skins, basket-work, mats, wooden ware, &c., formed 
objects of traffic The most extensive exchange, perhaps, was carried 
on in provisious that conld be preserved, snch as dried or bueeamd 
meat, maize, maple-sagar, and other animal or vegetable snhstancee. 
Those who were abundantly provided with one or the other article of 
iood bartered it to thdr less flavored neighbors, who, in return, paid 
them in superfluous products or iu manufactures of tiieir own. Con- 
cerning the ways of communication, the Korth Ameiiean continent 
a£forded, by its many navigable waters, rivers as weD as lakes, perhaps 
greater facilities for a primitive commerce than any other part of the 
«aTtfa, and the canoe was the means of conveyance for carrying on this 

The learned Jesuit, LaQtau, has given some account of Indian trade 
as it was in the beginning of the eighteenth century, at which period 
he lived, as a missionary, in North America. "The savage nations," 
be says, "always trade among each other. Their commerce is, like that 
of the ancients, a simple exchange of wares against wares. They all 
have something paiticular which the others have not, and the traffic 

'Swan, The ludiaus of Cape Flattoiy, at the Entnnee to the Stnit of Fiiea» Wadk- 
ington TAixitoiy, WaflhingtOD, 1870, p. 4& 

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makes these things circulate among them. Their wnres are grain, por- 
celain (wampnm), fiira, robes, tobacco, mats, cauoes, work made of moose 
or buffalo hair and of porcupine quills, cotton-beds, domestic utensils — 
in a word, all sorts of necessaries of life required by them."* A passage 
from Lawson, a contemporary of Lafitau, may also be inserted with pro- 
priety in this place. Speaking of the natives of Carolina, ho says: 
"The women make baskets and mats to lie upon, and those that are not 
extraordinary hunters make bowls, dishes, and spoons of gum-wood and 
the talip-tree ; others, where they find a vein of white clay fit for their 
pidrpose, make tohaeco- pipes, all wbieh are aften tnmapcoted to other 
Indiaos that, perhaps, have greater plenty of deer and other game, &c't 
The arriyal of the whites produced a thorough change in Indian life, 
wherever a contact between the two races took plaoe. The age of stone 
and that of iron met, almost without an intervenfiig link, for the so- 
called "Sorih American copper period^ was but of little practical sig- 
nificance. Simultaneously with the settlemcDt of the eastern parts of 
North America by the whites, there arose a traflic between these and the 
Indians in their neighborhood, which provided the latter with imple. 
ments and utensils so far superior to their own, that they soon ceased to 
manufiictnro and use them. The keen-edjzed steel axe superseded the 
clumsy and far less serviceable stone tomahawk; the European kuile 
did away with the cutting implement of flint; and those of the natives 
who could not obtain lire-arms at least headed tlieir arrows with i)oints 
of iron or brass. The potter's art was neglected, soliil and durable 
vessels of metal supplying the i)lace ot" the Iragile aboriginal fabrics of 
clay. Instead of procuring tire by turning a wooden stick, fitting in a 
small cavity of another piece of wood, rapidly oetweeu their hands until 
ignition was effected, the natives now resorted to the fhr€ 
method of striking fire with steel and flint. Their dress, too, underwent 
changes, pliant woolen and cotton textures beuig employed to a certain 
extent instead of dressed sluns. Formerljy when the Indians wished to 
make one of their more durable canoes or a large mortar for pounding 
maize, they had first to fell a suitable tree, a task whiclit <m aoeonnt of 
the insufficiency of their tools, required much labor and time. Being 
unable to cut down a tree with their stone axes, they resorted to fire, 
burning the tree around its foot and removing the charred portion with 
their stone implements, riiis was continued until the tree fell. Then 
they marked the length to be given to the object, and resumed at the 
proper place the process of burning and removing. In a similar manner 
the hollowing of the tree was etfected. But now a few strokes of the 
European axe did the same work which formerly, perhaps, required days ; 
and to a race as indolent and averse to labor as the Indians, theefi'ect 
of that simple tool must have appeared almost miraculous. 

*Lafttan, Moeors deu Sauvages Amdriquaius, PariB, 1724, Vol. II, p. 3.'}2. 
tLttwaon, Hiatozy of Cftrolina, Loudon, 1714; reprin^ Baleigh, 1&60, p. 33b. 

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Gieater, however, tbau these and many other advantages weie the 
evils which the contact with the whites brought upon them ; and in 

Biiccumbing to the overwhelming; power of the Caucasians, they shared 
the fate of every inferior race that takes up the coutest with one occa- 
pying a higher rank in the family of men. 

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By Charus Bau. 

The division of the Euxopean stone age into a period of chipped stone, 
and a sncoeeding one of gronnd or polished stone, or, into the palaeo- 
lithic and neolithic periods, seems to be fally borne oat by fieusts, and ia 
likely to remain an uncontroverted basis for Aiture investigation in 
Europe. In North America chipped as well as ground implements are 
aboDdant; yet they occur promiscuously, and thus far cannot be re- 
ferred respectively to certain epochs in the development of the abo- 
rigines of the couiitry. ArcliaBoloijical investigation in North America, 
however, is but of recent date, and ii careful examination of our eaves 
and drift-beds possibly may lead to results similar to those obtained in 
Euroije. When in the latter part of the world man lived contempo- 
raneously with the now extinct large pachydermatous Jind carnivorous 
animals, he used unground Hint tools of rude workmanship, which were 
superseded in the later stages of the European stone age, comprising 
the neolithic period, by more finished articles of flint and other stone, 
many of which were brought into final shape by the processes of grind- 
ing and polishing. In North America stone implements likewise have 
been found associated with the osseous remains of extinct animals; yet 
these implements, it appears, differed in no wise from those in use among 
the aborigines at the period of their first intercourse with the whites. 

In the year 1839, the late Dr. Albert 0. Koch discovered in the bot- 
tom of the Bourbeuse Biver, in Gasconade Oonnty, IfisBonriy the re- 
mains of a Mmioion giganieus under very peculiar circumstances. The 
greater portion of the bones appeared more or less burned, and there 
was sufficient evidence that the lire bad been kindle<l by liuman agency, 
and with the design of killing the huge creature, which had been found 
mired in the mud, and in an entirely helpless condition. The animal's 
fore and hind legs, untonehed by the tire, were in a per})endicular posi- 
tion, with the toes attached to the feet, showing that the ground in 
which the animal had sunk, now a grayish colored clay, was in a plastic 
condition when the ocenrrence took place. Those portions of the skele- 
ton, however, which had been exposed above the surface of the clay, 
were partially consumed by the fire, and a layer of wood-ashes and 
charred bones, varying in liiickness from two to six inches, indicated 
that the burning had been coutinued for some length of time. The fire 
appeared to have been most destructive around tiie head of tlie animal. 
Mingled with tiie ashes and bones was a large number of broken pleoea 

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ifi rock, which evidently had been carried to the spot from the bank of 
the Boarbense Biver to be hurled at the animal. Bat the burning an^ 
hurling of stoues, it seems, did not satisfy the assaUaots of the masto- 
don ; for Dr. Koch foand among the ashes, bones, and rocks several 
itone arrow-heculSy a spear hea^, and some stone axes^ \vl)ich were taken 
out in the presence of a number of witnesses, consisting of the people of 
the neighborhood, who had been attracted by the novelty of the exca- 
vation. The layer of ashes and bones was covered by strata of alluvial 
deposits, consisting of clay, sand, and soil, from eight to nine feet thick|. 
which form the bottom of the Bourbeuse River in general. 

About one year after this excavation. Dr. Koch found at another 
place, in Benton County, Missouri, in the bottom of the Pommede Terre 
Biver, about ten miles above its junction with the Osage, several stone 
amnc-heads mingled with the bones of a nearly entire skeleton of the 
Hissoniinm. The two anow-keads fonnd with the bones were in sncli 
a position as to fiumidi eridenoe still more condnsive, perhaps, than in 
the other case, of their being of eqnal, if not older datoi than the bonea 
themselves; for, besides that they were fonnd in a layer of vegetable 
mold which was covered by twenty feet in thickness of alternate layers 
of sandy chiy, and gravel, one of the arrow-heads lay nndecneath the 
thigh-bone of the skeleton, the bone actually resting in contact npon it^ 
so that it could not have been brought thither after the deposit of the 
bone I a tiact which I was careful thoroughly to investigate.'** 

Fig. 1. It affords me particular satisfietction to 

present in Fig. 1 a full-size drawing of the 
last-named arrow-head, which is still in the 
possession of Mrs. Elizabeth Koch, of Saint 
Louis, the widow of the discoverer. The 
drawing was made after a photograph, for 
which 1 am indebted to Mrs. Koch. It will 
be noticed that the point, one ot the barbs^ 
and a corner of the stem of this arrow-bead— 
if it really was an arrow-head, and not the 
armature of a javelin or spear — are broken 
oti J but there remains enough of it to make 
oat its original shape, which isezactiy that 
of similar weapons nsed by the aborighies 
in historical times. The specimen in qnes- 
tion, which, as I presnme, wasfbondby I>r» 
Eocb in its present mntilated shapes con- 
sists of alight-brown, somewhat mottled flintt 

•Koeh,inTr«naMfctoiiBofih»Acadttm7<>f S«ienoeof 8untLoaia,voL i,(1860;)p* SI, fte. 
tl am wdl tswmn th«t the naUty of Dr. Eoob's diacovery hM been doabted by some, 

althongli it is difficult to perceive wby he sliould bave mado those statementH, if not 
trae, at a time when the antiquity of man was not yet discussed, either in Europe or 
here, and be, therefore, could expect nothing but contradiction, public opinion being 

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In referriDg to these discoveries of Di . Koch, and some other indica- 
tions of the high antiquity ol' uiuii iu America, Sir John Lnbbock con- 
olades that there does not aa yet appear to be any satisfactory prooT 
that man co-ezisted in America with the Mammotii and Mastodon."* 
Yet^ it may be eq^iected, almost with osTtainty, that the lesolts of fa- 
tore investigations in Ilorth America will IhUy oonobotate 0r. Koch's 
discoveries, and vindicate the trnthftilness of his statements. Indeed, 
some facts have come to light daring the late geological survey of Illinois, 
which confirm^ in a general way, the condasions arrived at by the 
above-named explorer. According to this snrvey, the blue clays at the 
base of the drift contain firagments of wood and tranks of trees, but 
no fossil remains of animals ; but the brown clays above, aoderlying 
the Loess, cootain remains of the Mammoth, the Mastodon, and the Pec- 
cary J and bones of the Mastodon were found in a bed of " local drift," 
near Alton, underlying the Loess in situ above, and also in the same hori- 
zon, atone axe.s and fiini spear heads, indicating the co-existence of the 
human race with the extinct mammalia of the Quaternary period. t 

It must not be overlooked that both Dr. Koch and the Illinois survey 
mention flint arrow ;in<l Ki)ear-heads as well as stone axes as being asso- 
ciated, directly or jiidirectly, with the remains of extinct animals. 
These stone axes uudoubtedly were <irroiirtti implements; lor, bad they 
differed in any way from the ordinary Indian manufactures of the same 
class, the fact certainly would have been noticed by the observers. 
Thns far, then, we are not entitled to speak of a North Amerlcaa pal- 
aeolithic and neolithic period. In the new world, therefbre, the haman 
eootemporary of the Mastod<m and the Mammoth, it would seem, was 
more advanced in the mann&ctare of stone weapons than his savage 
brother of the Enropean drift period, a droamstance which fiivors the 
view that the extinct large mammalia ceased to exist at a later epoch 
in America than in Enrope. The remarks of Lientenaat'Golonel C. H. 
Smith on this point axe of interest. " Over a considerable part of the 
eastern side of the great (American) moontain ridge," he says, **more 
particularly where ancient lakes have been converted into morasses, or 
have been filled by alluvials, organic remains of above thirty species of 
mammals, of the same orders and genera, in some cases of the same 
species, (as in Europe,) have been discovered, demonstrating their ex- 

totally unprepared for such revelations. Not beinf? a Hci<'ntific palaeontoIo(;i8t, he cer- 
taiuly made hoiuo uiistakew in patting together the bones of the aniujalb exhumed by 
him; but IhetM) iuiliugB, iu my opiuiuu, have uo bearing on bis obaervatious relative to 
the co-exiBteiiee of man -with extinot aoimalt ia North America. Only a alKMt tiiiie 
■go some remarka teodiog to depreciate Dr. Koch's acconnt were made by Dr. Schmidt, 
in an article on the antiquity of man in America, ])nl)li8he<l in vol. v, of the Archiv/Hr 
Anlhropoloy^ie. I may state here t hat I w ah personally acquainted with Dr. Koch, whom 
I WW repeatedly at the meetings of the Academy of Science of Saint Looia. 

•PrehiBtoric Times, l8t e<l., \). '2'.>(j. 

iGeological Survey of Illinois, by A. U. Wortheu, vol. i, (1806,) p. 38; quoted lu 
TkaoaactioDB of the Academy of Science of Saint Lonia, vol. ii, (1868,) p. 507. 

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istence in a contemporary era with those of the old continent, and under 
simihir circumstances. But their period of duration in the new world 
' may have been prolonged to dates of a subsequent time, since the Pachy- 
derms of the United States, tis well as those of the Pampas of Brazil, 
are much more perfect ; and, to many cases, possess characters ascribed 
to bones in a recent state. Alligators and erooodiles, moreoTer, con- 
tinne to exist in latitodes where they endure a winter state of torpidity 
beneath ice, as an evidence that the great Sanrians in that region have 
not yet entirely worked ont their mission; whereas, on the old conti> 
nent they had ceased to exist in high latitndes long before the extinc- 
tion of the great Ungnlata."* 

Blint implements of the European drift type," however, are by no 
means scarce in North America, although they cannot (thus far) be 
r<>ferred to any particular period, but must be classed with the other 
chipped and ground implements in use among the North American abo- 
rigines during historical times. 

In the first place I will inention certain leaf-shaped Hint implements 
which have been found in mounds antl on the surface, as well as in de- 
posits below it. They are ct)mparatively thin, of regular outline, and 
exhibit well-chipped edges all around the circumferences. On the whole, 
they are among the best North American flint artic^les which have 
fallen uudir my notice, 'flic specimens found by I^fessrs. Squier and 
Uavis in a mound of the iuelosure called Mound City, on the Scioto 
Elver, some miles north of Ghillicothe, Ohio, belong to this class. Most 
of them were broken, but a f^w were found entire, one of which is repre- 
sented in half-size by Fig. 100 on page 211 of the "Ancient Monuments 
of the Mississippi TaUeor.'* This specimen measures four inches in 
length and about three inches across the broad rounded end. I liave a 
still larger one, consisting of a reddish motUed flint, which was found 
on the surfiice in JeflPerson Oonnty, Missouri. The annexed fhll-size 
drawing, Fig. 2, shows its outline. The edge on the right side is a little 
damaged by subsequent fractures, but for the sake of greater distinct- 
ness I have represented it as perfect. The finest leaf-shaped imple* 
nients which I have had occasion to examine, are in the possession of 
Mr. M. Cowing, of Seneca Falls, New York. The owner told me he had. 
more than a hundred of them, which were all derived from a locality in 
the State of New York, where they were accidentally discovered, form- 
ing a deposit under the surlace. Mr. Cowing, wlio is constantly engaged 
in collecting and buying up Indian relics, refused to give me any in- 
formation concerning the place and luecise character of the deposit, 
basing his refusal on the ground that a few of these implements were 
still in the hands (»f individuals in the neighborhood, and that he would 
reveal nothing in relation to the deposit until he had obtained every 
specimen originally helonging to it. I am, therefore, unable to give any 

*The Natural History of the Uamaa Species, Loodon, 185!^, p. 69. The comparatiTo 
tesbneas of th« boiiM of extinot North Ameiieaii aninalit wu noticed by Gavier. 


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paitieolors, and mnst oonflne myself to the statement tbat the sped* 

mens shown to me present in general the outline of the original of Fig. 2, 

thoogb they are a little smaller; and that they are thin, sharp edged, 

and exquisitely wrought, and consist of a beautiful, variously- colored 

flint, whieh bears some resemblance to chalcedony. 
CJonceming the use or v Pig. 2. 

uses of North American 

leaf-shaped articles, I am 

hardly prepared to give a 

definite opinion, though 

1 think it probable that 

they served for purposes 

of cutting. Tliey were 

certainly not intended for 

spear-heads, their shape 

being ill-adapted for that 

end ; nor do I think that 

they were used as scrap 

ers, as other more massive 

implements of a kindred 

cbaracoer probably were, 

of which I shall speak 

The aborigines were in 

the habit of burying arti 

cles of flint hi the ground, 

and such dejsositSy some- 
times quite large, have 

been discovered in many 

parts of the United States. 
These deposits consist of 
articles representing va- 
rious iyi)es, aiJiong w hich 
I will mention the leaf- 
shaped implements in the 
possession of Mr. Cowing ; the agricultural tools found at East Sain); 
Louis, Illinois, of which I have given an account ia the Smithsonian 
report for 1808 j and the rude flint articles of au elongated oval shape, 
which were found about 18G0 on the bank of the Mississippi, between 
Oarondelet and Saint Lonis, Missouri, and doubtless belonged to a de- 
posit. I have described them in the above-named Smithsonian report, 
(p. 405,) and have also given there a drawing of one of the specimens 
in my possession. This drawing has been reproduced by Mr. E. T. 
Stevens, on page 441 of his valuable work entitled Flint Chips,'' (Lon- 
don, 1870,) with remarks tending to show that the specimen does not 
represent an unfinished implement, as I am inclined to believe^ bat a 

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complete one. I must admit that my drawing is not a very good one. 
It gives the object a more definite character than it really possesses, the 
chipping appearing in the representation far less superficial than it is 
in the original, which, indeed, has such a shape that it could easily be 
reduced to a smaller size by blows aimed at its circumference, i have 
myself scaled off large flat ilakes from similarly-shaped pieces of Hint, 
nsiiig a small iron hammer and direct iug my blows against the edge, 
and hasve thns become conTinoed thai the fnrtber working of otjectB 
like that in question oonld offer no serioos dilBonlties to a praetiaed 
flint-chipper. My collection, moreover, contains several smaller flint 
oldects of similar shape, whic^ are nndonbtedly the rudiments of arrow 
and spear-headSi and I may add that I obteined a few from places where 
the mannfiictnre of snch weapons was eairied on. 

Yet the most important deposit of flint implements xesembling cer- 
tain types of the Bnropean drifts is that discovered by Messrs. Sqaier 
and Davis daring their researches in Ohio. They have described this 
interesting find in the "Anoent Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," 
and a r4sum^ of their acconnt was given by me iu the Smithsonian re- 
port for 1868, (p. 404.) The implements in question, 1 stated, occurred 
in one of the so-called sacrificial mounds of Clark's Work, on North 
Fork of Paint Creek, Eoss County, Ohio. This flat, but very broad 
mound contained, instead of the hearth usually found in this class of 
earth-structures, an enoruious number of flint discs, standing on their 
edges and arranged in two layers, one above the other, at the bottom of 
the mound. The whole extent of these layers has not been ascertained, 
but an excavation six feet long and four broad disclosed ni)ward of six 
hundred of those discs, rudely blocked out of a superior kind of dark 
flint. I had occasion to examine the specimens from this mound, which 
were flitmerly in tiie oolleotion of Dr. Davis, and have now in my col- 
lection a number that belonged to the same deposit They are either 
roundish, oval, or heart-shaped, and of various sizes, but on an average 
six inches long, four inches wide, and fiom three-quarters to an inch in 
thickness. These flint discs are believed to have been buried as a re- 
ligious offiBiing, and the peculiar structure of the mound whidi inclosed 
them rather favors this opinion, while their enormous number, on the 
other hand, affords some probability to the view that they constituted a 
depot or magazine. Many of them are clumsy, and roughly diipped' 
around their edges ; and hence it has been suggested that they are no 
finished implements, but merely rudimentary forms, destined to receive 
more symmetry of outline by subsequent labor. Many of the discs un- 
der notice bear a vStriking resemblance to the flint hatchets" discovered 
by Boucher de rcrthes and Dr. Eigollot in the diluvial gravels of the 
valley of the Somuie, in Northern France. The similarity in form, how- 
ever, is the only analogy that can be claimed for the rude flint articles 
of both continents, considering that they occurred under totally differ- 
ent circumstances. The drift implements of Europe represent the most 
primitive attempts of man in the art of working stone, while the Ohio 

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^UscB, if finished at all, are certainly very rooi^ aamples of the haodi- 
craft of a race that constructed earthworks of astonishing regalarity and 
magnitade, and was already highly skilled in the art of chipping fluit 
into Tarions shapes. 

On page 214 of the ^^Ancieut Monuments of the Mississippi Valley,'' a 
group of the flint articles from Clark's Work is represented. The drawing 
exhibits pretty correctly the irregular outlioe and general rudeness of 
these specimens J yet Mr. Stevens states (Flint Chips, p. 440) that "the 
representations are not at all satisfactory." The only fault, I think, that 
can be found with these drawings is theii* small scale, a lault which is very 
excusable, considering that at the period when Messrs. Squicr and Davis 
published their work, (1848,) Hint articles of such shape were no objects 
of particular attention ; for just then the results of the researches of 
Boucher de Perthes were first laid before the scientific world, which, it 
is well known, ignored for a long time the sigoificance of the rude flint 
tools disoovered by the indefatigable and enthnaiastic Fkench savant in 
the dflavial gravel-beds of the Somme. It is tme, however, that some 
oi the flint discs of Clark's Work are wrought with more care than those 
represented in the ^'Anisient Monuments.'' Xhis fiiet may be ascribed 
to a whim of the worker or workers, wbo gave some of the articles a 
greater degree of regnlarity by some additional blows. Mr. Stevens has 
only seen specimens of this better class, for such were those which Dr. 
Davis sold to the Blackmore Museum among bis collection of Indian 
relics, and bence the author of ^' Flint Chips" seems to attribate to them 
a better general character than they really possess. I learn, however, 
that Mr. Blackmore, during a recent visit to Ohio, has succeeded in re- 
covering a considerable number of the implements of Clark's Work, and 
thus an opportunity will be afforded again to investigate the true nature 
of these relics of a bygone people. 

The objects in question consist of the compact silicious stone of Flint 
Eidge," in Ohio, a locality described on page 214 of the "Ancient Mon- 
uments.^* A careful comparison has established this fact beyond any 
doubt. The iiiut or hornstone which occurs in that region, is a beauti- 
ful material of a dark color, resembling somewhat the real flint found in 
nodules in the cretaceous formations of Europe. It is occasionally 
marked with darker or lighter concentric stripes or bands, the centre of 
which is fhrmed by a small nncleos of blile chalcedony ; and this inter- 
nal stmetnie appears particularly distinct in specimens which, by eat- 
posmey have undergone a snperflcial change of color. The stone, in 
general, possesses peculiarities by which it can be recognized at once^ 
even whoi met in a wrought state far from its orighial site. Acooiding 
to Mr. Sqnier, arrow-heads made of this hornstone have been found in 
Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. That they occur in Illinois, 
I can attest from personal experience. 

• More partiealaily in Sqniet'B *<Aborigiiul Ifomimenti of New Tack," Baflklo, 1851, 

s. 126, 
* 26s 



A few years ago^ when treating of the flint implements of Clark^s 
Work, I was not prepared to escpress a delinite opinion oonoeniing the 

manner in whieh they were nsed. In the mean time, however, I have ob- 
tained additional information in relation to the class of implements under 
notice, which enables mo, as 1 think, to point out the purposes for which 
those of Clark's Work, as well as similar ones from otlior localities, were 
designed. In the annuner of 1869, some children, who were amusing 
themselves near the barn on the farm of Oliver 13. Mullen, in the neigh- 
borhood of Faj etteville, Saint Clair County, Illinois, dug into the ground 
and discovered a deposit of lifty-two disc-shaped flint iniplenients, which 
lay closely heaped together. Several of them came into my possession 
throagh the assistaDce of Dr. Patrick, of BeUeville, in the same coanty. 
They oonsist, like those of Glark's Work, of the pecnliar stone of Flint 
Bidjse. This I noticed at first sight, and so did Messrs. Sgnier and 
DayiSi to whom I showed them. They resemble, in general shape^ the 

oljeots of Olark's Work, but are somewhat smaller and of perfectly sym* 
metrical outline, having a well-chipped, though strong edge; in one 
word, they are highly finished implements, far superior to those or 
Olark's Work. In Fig. 3 1 give a fiill-sise drawing of one of my speci- 

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mens from Fayetteville, which is twenty millimeters thick iu the middle. 
The slipfht iire^uhirities observable in the circumference are owing to 
later accidental fractures. In this specimen, as in the others from the 
same find, the edge is produced by small, carefiil]y*niea8ared blows. 
The edges of my specimeDS from Fayetteville, moreover, exhibit traces of 
wear, being nibbed off to a small degree, and this cirenmstance, in oon- 
neetion with their shape, indnees me to betieve that they were used as 
Kraipmg or mooMng impUmmaB, The aborigines, it is well known, hol- 
lowed their canoes and wooden mortars with the assistanoe of fire, and 
the implements jnst described, were, as I presume, employed for removing 
the ohaned portions of the wood. They are well adapted to the ipisp 
of the hand, and, indeed, of the most convenient form and size to serve 
in that operatioii. Probably they were likewise used in eleaning hide% 
and for other purposes. The tools of Fayetteville, however, are mnoh 
more handy than those of Clark's Work. 

The fact that implements made of the hornstone of Flint Ridge are 
found in Illinois — a distance of about four hundred miles intervening — 
is of i^articular interest, as it shows that the material was quarried for 
exportation to remote parts of the country. It doubtless formed an ar- 
ticle of traffic amon«x the natives, like copper, sea-shells, and other nat- 
ural productions which they applied to the exigencies of common life 
or used for personal adornment. 

Concerning Xorth American flint implements of the European drift 
type in general, Mr. Stevens expresses himself thus: "The legitimate 
conclusion at which we may at present arrive, is that implements, in form 
resembling somcv of the European p^aeoHthic types, were made by the 
aborigines of America at a comparatively late period, and that the peo- 
ple nsoally termed the * moond-boilders,' were, probably, the makers of 
these implements.'' (p. 443.) 

There'is no sufficient ground, I think, for attributing these implements 
exdnsively to the mound-builders, considering that th^ occur on the 
surfiMse, and in deposits below it, in regions where the people designated 
as the monnd-builders are not supposed to have left their traces. In 
tiie States of New York and New Jersey, for instance, such articles 
repeatedly have been met. 1 will only refer to the leaf-shaped imple- 
ments in possession of Mr. Cowing, which were found iu New York, and 
are the finest specimens of that kind ever brought to my notice. That 
the people who erected the mounds made and used tools resembling the 
palaeolithic types of Europe, is proved by the occurrence of those tools 
in the mounds; ])ut it follows by no means that they are to be consid- 
ered as the sole makers of that class of imj)lenieiits. Supi)osing that 
the uiounil huililers really were a people superior in their attainments 
to the aborigines t'ound in possession of the country by the whites, it is 
certainly very diilicult to draw a line of demarcation between the mana- 
factures of the ancient and those of the more recent indigeuoas inhabi- 
tants of North America. The mound-buildws— to pieaerve the adopted 

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term — certainly did not stow away all their articles of use and ornament 
in the mounds, but necessarily left a great many of them scattered over 
the surface, which became mingled with those of the succeeding occu- 
pants of the soil. Both the mound-builders and the later Indians lived 
iu an age of stone, and as their wants were the same, they resorted to 
the same means to satisfy them. Their mamilbctaresj therefore, mosS 
exhibit a considerable degree of similarity, and henee the great diffi- 
culty of separating them. 

Tet Mr. Stevens goes in this respect farther than any one before him* 
He is particolarly corthodoz in the matter of pipes. Those who have 
paid Rome attention to the antiquities of Korth America, are aware of 
the ^t that Messrs. Sqnier and Davis foand in the moonda of Ohio^ 
espeoiaUy in one moand near Cbillicothe, a number of stone pipes of 
peculiar shape, which they have described iu the ^'Ancient Monuments 
of the Mississippi Valley." In these pipes the bowl rises from the mid- 
dle of a flat and somewhat curved base, one side of which commnnicates 
by means of a narrow perforation, usually one-sixth of an inch (about 
four millimeters) iu diameter, with the hollow of the bowl, and repre- 
sents the tube, or rather the mouth piece of the pipe, while the other 
unperforated end forms the handle by which the smoker held the im- 
plement and approached it to his mouth. In the more elaborate speci- 
mens the bowl is formed, iu some instances, in imitation of the human 
head, but generally of the body of an animal — mammal, bird, or reptile. 
These pipes, then, were smoked either without any stem, which seems 
probable, or by means of a very diminutive tube of some kind, the nar- 
row bore of the base not allowing the insertion of anything like a mas- 
sive stNtt. The anthers <^ the "Ancient Monuments" oaUed these pipes 
« mound-pipes,'* merely to designate that particular dasi of smoking 
utensils ; it was not fheir intention to convey the idea that the mound- 
builders had been unacquainted with pipes into wMoh stems- were ia- 
aerted. On the contraiy, they distinctly assign a beautiM pipe of the 
latter kind, representing the body of a bird with a human head* to the 
mound-builders, though this specimen was not found in a mound, bat 
within an ancient inclosnre twelve miles below the city of Ohillicothe. 
Beferring to this pipe, Mr. Stevens says : Squier and Davis consider 
that this object is a relic of the mound-builders ; but it does not appear 
that any pipe of similar form, or indeed any pipe intended to be smoked 
by means of an inserted stem, has been found in any of the Ohio mounds." 
Upon inquiry I leiirncd from Dr. Davis that mounds had been leveled 
by the plough within the inclosure where the pipe in question was found, 
which, he is convinced, belouf^ed to the original contents of one of those 
obliterated mounds. In the Smithsonian report for 1868, I published 
(on page 399) the drawing of a pipe then in possession of Dr. Davis. 
Its shape is that of a barrel somewhat narrowing at the bottom, and its 
material an almost transparent rock-crystal. The two hollows, one for 

* Fig. 147 OD p. 247 of the "Ancient Mouumente;" Fig. lOG on p. 509 of « Flint Chipft.** 

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the i-eceptiou of the smoking material, and the other for inserting a 
stem, meet under an obtuse angle. This pii)e wa^ taken from a mound 
near Bainbridge, lioss County, Okio. Mr. Stevens suggests it had been 
associated with a secondary interment, (p. 524.) Dr. Davis, howeTor, 
who is acqaainted with the eifeamstinices of its discoTery, told me that 
it bdonged, with yarions other objects, to the primary deposit of the 
moand. Thus it woold seem that the monnd-lmflders oonfined them- 
selres by no means to the use of one partiocdar elass of pipes. 

Those who advocate a strict elaasiiication of l^orth American leMcs 
according to eariier or la/ba periods, should bear in mind that monnd- 
bnilding was still in nse— if not in Ohio, at least in other parts of the 
present United States— when the first Boiopeaos amved, though the 
psaefeioe seems to have been abandoned soon after the colonization of 
the conntry by the whites. Yet, even in comparatively modem times, 
isolated cases of mound-building have been recorded,* which fact would 
indicate, perhaps, a lingering inclination to perpetuate an ancient, 
almost forgotten custom. Many of the earthworks in the Southern 
States doubtless were built by the race of Indians inhabiting the country 
when the Si)aniard8 under De Soto made a vain attempt to take pos- 
session of that vast territory, then comprised under the name of Florida. 
For this we have Garcilasso de la Yega's often-quoted statement relat- 
ing to the earth-structures of the Indians. The Floridians, we also 
know, erected at the same period mounds to mark the resting-places of 
their defunct chieftains. Le Moyne de Morgues has left in the ''Brevia 
Nanatio'* a representation and description of a ftanenil of this kind. 
When the momid was heaped up, the moomefs stnek anows in the 
ground aronnd its base, and placed flie drinking vessel of the deceased, 
made of a large sea-shell, on the apex of the pilfrt Bat even withoat 
such historical testimony, the continnance of moond-boilding might be 
dednoed from tiie fiiet that articles of Enropean origin are met, tiioogh 
rarely, among tiie primary deposits of monnds. The following inter- 
esting commonication, fbr which I am indebted to Golonel Oharles 0. 
^Jones, will serve to illostrate one case of mound burial that can be re- 
ferred with certainty to a period posterior to the Eoropean oecapation 
of the country : 

"I have fonrul in several mounds," says my informant, "glass beads 
and silver ornauients, and, in one instance, a part of a rifle-barrel, which 
were evidently buried with the dead. These, however, were secondary 
interments, the graves being upon the top, or sides, or near the base of 
the mound, and only a few feet deep. Kever but in one case have I 
discovered any article of European manufacture interred with the dead 
in whose honor the mound was clearly erected. Upon opening a small 
earth-mound on the Georgia coast, a few miles below Savannah, I found 
a clay vessel, seTeral flint arrow-heads, a hand-axe of stone, and a por- 

*6qaier, Aborigiuul Muuumente of New York, p. 112, &o. 

IliO Ifoyne, in De Bry, yoL ii, FruMofivrti ad Hoennin, 1591, pi. XL. 

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lion of an oldr/ashioned sicord deposited with the dcctiyed bones of th© /, 
skeleton. This tumulus was conical in shape, about seven feet higb^ 
and possessed a base diameter of some twenty feet. It contained only 
Fif?. 4. one skeleton, and that lay, with the articles 1 have 

enamerated, at the bottom of the mound, and od a 
level witlt the plain. The oaken hilt, most of tii* 
guard, and abont seven inches of the blade of the 
sword still remained. The rest of the blade had per- 
ished firOm mst Stranipe to say, the oak had best 
resisted the* gnawing tooth of time.' This moond 
had never been opened or in any way disturbed, ex- 
cept by the winds and rains of the changing seasons. 
I have no donbt but that the interment was primary^ 
and that all the articles enamerated were deposited 
with the dead before this monnd-tomb was heaped 
above him. This, within the range of my observa- 
tion, is an interesting and exce[)tional case. I am 
persuaded that mound-bnilding, at least upon the 
Georgia coast, was abandoned by the natives very shortly after their 
primal contact with the whites." 

From mound-building I turn again to North American flint imple- 
ments. Mr. Stevens refers in his work to the absence of flint scrapers 
in the series from the United States exhibited in the Bhickmore Museum. 
Scrapers of the European spoon-shaped type, however, are not as scarce 
in the United States as Mr. Stevens seems to suppose. The collectiou 
of the Smithsonian Institution contains a number of them ; and I found 
myself two characteristic specimens in the Kjokkenmodding at Key- 
port, New Jersey, described by me in the Smitiisonian report for 1864b. 
They lay npon the shell-covered ground, a short distance from each other^ 
and were pMaps made by the same hand. In Big. 4 1 give a ihll-siza 
drawing of one of my specimens, both of which consist of a brown kind 
of flint, snch as probably wonld be called jasper by mineralogists. The 
Fig> 6* figured ^ecimen, it will be seen, possesses all 

the characteristics of a European scraper. Ita 
lower snrfoce is formed by a single curved 
fracture. The rounded head is somewhat 
turned toward the right, a feature likewise ex- 
hibited in the other specimen, which is a little 
larger, but not quite as typical as the original 
of Fig. 4. As the peculiar curve of the broad 
part is observable in both specimens, it must 
be considered as having been produced inten- 
tionally. Indeed, I have among my flint scrap- 
ers from the pilework at Eobenhausen one 
which is curved in the same direction. In fash- 
ioning their iinpleinents in this particular manner, the Indian and the 
ancient lake-man possibly had the same object in view. 

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Tliere is, however, anotber somewhat differeut chuss of Korth Ameri 
can flmt articles, which, as I believe, were eiiii) by the aborigines 
for scraping and smoothing wood, horn, and other materials in which 
they worked, or perhaps, also, in the preparation af akinl. Thej resem- 
ble stemmed arrow-heads, which, instead of being pointed, terminate in 
a semi-lnnar, regularly chipped edge. It is probable that they were 
partly made ficom arrow-heads whieh had lost Fig. 6. 

tlieir points. Schoolcraft gives in Fig. 3, of 
Plate 18, in the first volome of his large work, 
the drawing of an object of this class, calling it 
^<the blant arrow or BeekwvJCj (Algonkin,) which 
was fired at a mark.^ It is likely enoagh that 
these articles served in ])art the purpose as 
signed to them by Mr. Schoolcraft. Yet, I 
have in my collection several in which the 
rounded edge is worn and polished, while the remaining part retains its 
original sharpness of frncture, a circumstance that can only be ascribed 
to continued use, and therefore leads me to believe that they were em- 
ployed in the manner already indicated. These implements hardly could 
be used without handles. Fig. 5 represents, in natural size, one of my 
specimens, which was found on the surface near West Belleville, Saint 
Clair County, Illinois. The material is a yellowish-brown flint. The edge, 
it will be seen, is perfe<;tly 
scraper-like. Inserted in- 
to a stoat handle, this ob- 
Jeet would make an ex- 
cellent siaaper. The edge 
of this specimen is not 
polished, bnt it seems as 
if small particles of the 
edge had been scaled off 
by the pressore eierted 
in the use of the imple- 
ment. In the original of 
the al)ove full-size rep- 
presentation, Fig. 6, on 
the contrary, the curved 
edge is rubbed oflf to a 
considerable extent and 
l)erfectly polished, while the portion opposite the edge bears not the 
slightest trace of friction. This specimen, which consists of a whitish 
flint, wavS found in Snint Clair County, Illinois. In Fig. 7, lastly, I 
represent, in natural size, a fine large specimen, which 1 class among 
the implements under notice. I formerly supposed it to be a tool des- 
tined for cnttiug purposes, bat the condition of the edge, which is rather 
blunt and hardly fit for cutting, afterwud induced me to change my 

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opinion. Originally, perhaps, one of those unusually large spear bends, 
which are occasionally found, it may have been reduced subsequently, 
after having \ost the point, to its present shape. Yet, it may never 
have possessed a form different from that which it now exhibits. This 
apecimeu is chipped i'rom a fine reddish flint which contains encrinites. 
I obtaioed it from quarrynien near West Belleville, who found it in the 
earth while they were engaged in baring the rock for extending the 
qnany. In oondiuioii, I will state that, since writing the preceding 
pages, I xeoeived a nnmber of stone implements from Mancy, Lycoming^ 
Oonnty, PeonsylTania, among which there aie some laige serapera of 
tiie Bmopean i^pe. Their material, however, is not flint, bnt either 
gnywaoke or a kind of tongfa date. 

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tBB fbbbhitobio AMnQOirns of hdnoabt. 1^ 



From tin JlitMriaiw pour VEkMn FrtmUkm $t UtOmtU 4$ PJJMMM^TnuitlAMd 
te tlw ^mlthioDliiii iMfeltiitioi hy CImiIm Itos. 

In addressing you for the purpose of considering the two allied 
sciences — anthropology and archaeology — upon which the labors of this 
congress will be based, 1 can hardly overcome a feeling of embarrass- 
ment* Ton doabtldBS expect .that, in my position as secretary -general, 
I aboold imroU tiefofe yon » pietnie of what Hangary bas done for tlioie 
aetonoesy sinoe most of yoa never liave yisited onr ooantry, nor have 
lead the Hangarian worka treating of them. 

Here, aa in Barope generaUy, it waa almost considered a disgraoe to 
pay attention to the barbarona nationa, so &r aa their histoiy before and 
Sifter the great migrations is eoneemed. Only the study of the elassloal 
aicbasology of the Greeica and Bomana was in vogae. Prior to the day 
when prehistoric archseology became a universal science, no one cared 
for the forms and decorations of the weapons, ntensils, and trinkets of 
the ,so-oalled barbarous populations, bot, in most eases, only for the 
precious materials of which they were made. The cemeteries, and the 
tamali, with their contents as simple and primitive as the men who nsed 
them, were, without any criticism, attributed to the great Koman peo- 
pie, even in parts of the country where the Romans never had been. 
The defensive works of prehistoric times,, such as trenches, ramparts, 
and castles, were ascribed to them, and even on our geographical maps 
of that period one can see these works marked as Roman trenches, Roman 
fortifications, &c. In the catalogues of the National Museum, likewise, 
the arms, utensils, and ornaments of the barbarians have been assigned 
to the Romans. 

Hungary has not had, like other coantries, official archeologists ap- 
pointed to attend to the preservation of the discovered objects. Only 
foreign savants, who in paat eentnries paid attention to such matters, 
Iwve written on the antiquities of this country; and it mnst be stated 
that they spolLe of them in a manner betokening the utmost aimplielty 
of conception. Thus, they have afllrmed in serious discourses held be- 
fbre academies, that gold grows naturally in the vineyards of Tokay, 
because there have been found in that locality objects made of gold 
wire, which presented no longer their original shape, having been 
altered and distorted by roots growing on the same spots. The bones 
of mammoths were at that time taken for those of giants, nummulites 
pasi^ed for grain, porous basalt for petrified bread, &c. 

It is no matter of surprise, therefore, that during that period the 



coantry people pa.d no attention whatever to the relics they constantly 
met almost everywhere, and sometimes in enorraons quantities, while 
cultivating the ground. In plowing up our ancient cemeteries, re- 
peatedly and at varioas depths, they have destroyed the funeral niiis; 
bat neither their fragments and contents nor the akeletons diseorered 
in the more regular bnrying-placee excited their cnriosity or tempted 
them to closer examinations. When they found articles of bronze they 
. sold them like old iron or applied them to their own use, after they had 
been transformed by the blacksmith according to their notions. How 
many objects have thns been lost which wonld have served to elnddate 
the condition of an nnknown people that has passed away long ago 1 

Our predecessors only collected flint articles, which they brolce into 
pieces of proper size to be used for striking fire. The stone axes or 
thunderbolts,'' to which they attributed in tlieir snpefStitioas minds 
the virtue of curing various diseases of men and beasts, were likewise 
preserved by them, and the myths attached to those implements are 
here the same ns in other parts of Europe. Wherever people speak of 
thunderbolts the superstitions to which they have given rise are so ia- 
veteraUi and general, and the belief in their supposed powers appears 
so hrmly rooted, that no stronger proofs of their high antiquity could be 

This is all 1 can say concerning the opinions which the objects per- 
taining to remote prehistoric ages have elicited among our compatriots, 
even in the present century I 

What lias been done within the last forty years, since the brothers 
Angostns and Francis de Knbinyi and my distinguished predecessor, 
Mr. John Bidy, commenced the stody of onr antiqnitiesy was eomm«- 
nicated by me to the congress at Paris in my sketch of the prehistoric 
times of Hnngaiy, in which I have summed up from memoiy, and in a 
very sacdnct manner, all that lekites to this epoch.* To this I have 
only very little to add at present 

Prior to the Universal Exposition at Paris, iu 1867, several of our 
foreign colleagues had visited onr aiehnological mosenm. They thlly 
appreciated onr articles of bronze and precious metals, which then al- 
most exclusively constituted onr prehistoric collections. The museams 
of the neighboring conn tries were not ahe^id of ns in that respect, con- 
sidering that the study of classical archaeology prevailed every wiieie at 
that period. ISTothinf^ was bought or exhibited but choice specimens of 
classical antiquity, or such as were made of precious metals, and their 
number sufficed to satisfy the interest of the curious. 

The resources of the National Museum being very limited, most of 
the specimens were the gifts of good patriots, and they were depos- 
ited without order or system, occupying the places assigned to them by 
the generous donors. 

A new era for these studies and for our collections dates from the in» 

■ -* 

* See Compte-rendu de la II* Session ik Paris, p. 321, etc 

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•nguratioii of oonstttatiooAl goirerament m Hoagaiy. The members of 

the diet, convinced that much was still needed to raise us to the level 
of the nations who had preceded as in the cnltivation of prehistoric 
aiehaBology, were judicioas and patriotic enough to vote the sams re- 
quisite not only for the purchase of classical objects, for putting our col- 
lections in better order and cataloguing them, but also for the acquisi- 
tion of specimens illustrative of prehistoric archeolofsy and for explo- 
rations in the interest of that science. 

It is very remarkable that the new development of the kingdom co- 
incided with the Paris Exposition, where a retrospective section for the 
study of industries reaching back to the remotest times was, for the 
first time, added to the objects representing the achievements in mod- 
em art and ingenuity. It cannot be denied that the large namber of 
spedmens of stone, clay, bone, bronze, &c., exhibited on that occasion, 
ezdted the destoe to collect analogoas objects in our own conntiy, and 
the labofs of the International Anthropological Congress, then in ees- 
•ion at Paris, served to strengthen this resolation. Thence arose new 
ideas and new plans for enlarging the scope of our National Mnsenm. 
After the Universal Exhibition at Paris, the spacions hall, hitherto ex- 
eliuively used for exhibiting the numismatic collection, was provided 
with glass cases, which already contain a remarkable collection ; ,a large 
portion, however, .cmbnicing new acquisitions and interesting fragments 
had to be deposited in drawers. When this congress is over, the new 
additions, whi(;h are quite numerons, will be placed in an adjoining 
hall. Tbey chiefly comprise objects of stone, the namber of which in- 
creases very rapidly. 

I had tue pleasure of showing at the Paris congress the first obsidian 
nucleus obtained from Transylvania. Until then objects of obsidian 
were generally thought to be of Mexican origin, because none from 
other countries were known, excepting a few found in Italy. This dis- 
covery was followed by another. I found in the niineralogical cabinet 
of our museum a much larger nucleus, and later I was really surprised 
to discover ki the museum of the college of Debreczin our largest obsid- 
ian nuclei, which had all been collected in the neighborhood of the 
eelebiated mountain of Tokay, where obsidian occnrs in consideralile 
quantities. Ptother east the objects and fragmento of obsidian become 
more and more scarce. We are now able to prepare a map showing onr 
obsidian finds, which are already nnmerons and increase from day to 
day. This map will be made more perfect after the congress, and will 
assist in engendering in onr country a higher appreciation of all that 
our honored gnests deem worthy of their attention. Bnt our obsidUin 
flakes are by no means equivalent to those of flint, so frequently met in 
the north and west of Europe; and without attempting to ascribe to 
tbem a too remote antiquity, we will simply state that they often occur 
associated with objects of bronze, as proved by the discoveries made by 
the counselor of mines, Mr. Henry Wolf, on the island of Bodrog 

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(Bodrogkoz.) The coDohoidal fractare of oar obsidian is more curved 

than in the Mexican mineral ; onr knives are nsaally not so long and 
straight, our arrow-heads less elegant and regular than those made of 
transatlantic obsidian or of Danish flint. The occurreuce of large 
nuclei, from which the last flakes suitable for knives have not been de- 
tached, may be owing to the fragility of obsidian implements, which in- 
duced the head of the tribe or the family to preserve these nuclei, in 
order to have the material for the fabrication of knives and arrow-heads 
always on hand. 

The implenienfee of which we have spoken weie for a long time the 
only ones found in Hungary. It was a general belief fha^ no chipped 
flints existed in our eoontry, because none of them had anywhere been 
noticed. Tet this supposition arose solely fiom the ignorance ol the 
value of the ol^ects, and from the want of a word to specUy them. Our 
peasants found them fkequently and called them <* firO'Stones,'' (pMmt 
d/Ni.) When this indicatiye word had been discoveredy and, moreover^ 
when specimens of chipped flint had been sent firom Denmark to some 
of our friends of arehsDology, attention was aronsed, and chipped flints, 
and even nuclei, were found in several counties. In a few years, I am 
confident, we shall be cognizant of their existence in all parts of the 
country where siliceous materials occur, and hence onr museums may 
be gradually enriched with such specimens, just as onr improvised 
expositiou was increased by the knives from the extensive collection of 
Miss Torma. So great has been our progress in securing and inter- 
preting objects of chipped flint, ^hich were still very rare, and much 
sought for, some months ago. 

At present a new field of studies opens before us, and we shall soon 
have to relinquish the erroneous, but widely dififused, idea that during 
the epochs when stone played everywhere such an important part, Hun- 
gary was not yet inhabited on account of being covered by the waters 
of the sea. 

Up to this day we know only a fow well-authenticated celts of poU 
shed flint One of them was found in the oonnty of Szabolc^ the others 
in that of Idptd ; yet how many more will be discovered when we have 
learned to look for fhem, and when our peasants have been made 
acquainted with th^ value. As for other polished stone implement^ 
we possess chiefly objects of serpentine, not only in considerate num- 
ber, but also of very elegant appearance. This is sufficiently demon- 
strated by the old specimens of the National Museum, as well as by the 
late acquisitions of Baron Engene Ny&ri, the Kev. Canon Francis 
Ebenhocb, the Rev. Vicar Stephen Mihdldy, and by the material which 
our compatriots, who take pride in showing you their best and most inter- 
esting pieces, have put here on exhibition. Tet all these interesting 
objects were neither looked at nor preserved prior to the saccessful 
researches made throughout the kingdom. 

You behold, however, only isolated specimens ; for it was not feasible 

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to d^nive the museams of their entire collections ; and the private 
persons wlio iraie desirous of contribating their share in rendering the 
exposition more perfect bad to abstain from sending all their objects, 
considering that the corridors of the National Museom, which alone 
were at oar disposal, are already' too narrow for a really complete exhi- 
bition representing the entire kingdom. 

Objects of stag-horn and bone occur in prodigious number in some 
counties, more especially among the remains of repasts, and they are 
fashioned with a degree of skill which could only be acquired by loug 
practice in the leisure hours of savage life. One may see, for instance, 
atMagyarad,at Szihalom,at T6szeg, at »Szelev6uy, aud at Cs6pa, objects 
of deer-horn and bone by the hundred and thousand, while articles of 
bronze and iron axo bnt singly and sporadically met in these localitlee. 

Oor chaneteristio bronze articles are known thronghont Eniope: it 
has been snffldently demonstrated that they are distingnisbed by peen- 
liar Ibrms. The nnmerons ntensilif weapons, and ornaments of bronze 
bear witness tbat the Dannbian conntries had a civilization of their 
own, a foot becoming still more apparent by the qaantity of the raw 
material and the nomber and size of the objects of oopper. Is it neoes- 
saiy, gentlemen, to recall to your memory that these very articles of 
bronze and copper indnced you at Stockholm to choose the capital of 
Hongaiy as the place of meeting for this year f 

It is known that among semi-savage and warlike nations the nobility 
indulges in an excessive love of show. Their horsemen carry nearly all 
their trekiisure on their persons and horses, and heuce tbey exhibit an 
extravagant taste in their oflfensive and defensive weapons, as well as 
iu their armlets, flbul», necklaces, diadems, and horse trappings, all of 
which are profusely embellished with spirals, with bells of difl'erent 
forms, with pendants presenting the shape of funnels, &c. Certain 
tubes, often overloaded with the ornaments peculiar to our districts, 
also should be mentioned. 

In addition to the weapons and ornaments, there are utensils of cop- 
per and bronze, designed for digging the gronnd, for felling trees, and 
for entting crops and brushwood. Ton will fiirther see the metallie 
raw material, nnmerons l^agments collected for being melted, ingots, 
molds, and nnflnished objects, all of which are indicative of work per- 
formed la looo. Indeed, hearths for melting metals are not rare in onr 

•During the fonrth session of the congress, September 7, Mr. De Pulsky spoke of a 
copper o^e, which, he thinks, can be traced in Haogary. He believes that many imple- 
nMDto in the Natknial Mnsenniy which ora mippoaed to pert^n to the age of braniei 
consist in reality of copper. Nice of thoee instoiuneDtB having been aaelyMd, it was 
found that they contain no trace of tin. Some consisted of pure copper, correspfmding 
to the native copper of Hungary ; others contained a httle silver, like certain copper 
orea famA in the ■ame oonntiy. The hnplementa in qoeation moat Hrequently resemble 
eitliar the hatcheta of woodonttea or the piekasaa atiU naed hj mhieia. Theae fonna 
difbr, aoeanling to MrfDePnliky,fr(nn the Ivpea ohanietetiatio of the bronae ajce^ and 

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And as for fiibrUxi of olay, are theie anywhere found vaaes of this 
epoeh -which show mora finish, more elaboiate omamentation and 
stranger shapes than those of ancient PannoniaT Or are there in other 
parts such qaantities of those cones and pjTamids of clay, hitherto 
considered as weights used in weaving t They probably also served as 
supports for cooking- vessels, cousideriDg that they are often blackened 
by smoke, and, moreover, have been met amid ashes and charcoal. 
Some of onr vessels exhibit forma so singnlar and extraordinary that 
their application thus far has not been explained. The small vases and 
other diminutive objects in the rich collection ol' my friend, Baron 
Eugene Nydri, deserve our ypecial attention, the more so since nearly 
all of them have been ohtained from the yame place, namely, his fam- 
ily estate at Pilin. Who can decide whether these miniatures consti- 
tu ted toys for children or were symbolic in character ^ Perhaps they 
represent on a small scale objects too costly to be abandoned forever. 

The almost unique clay stamps, showing a variety of tasteful pat- 
terns,* and the small terra-cottas, representing animals^ mostly sheep, 
ozen, and hogs, leave much room for speculation concerning their uses, 
especially when fbond with the remains of repasts. 

Among the articles indubitably made in the country, we often meet 
prodocts of the indnstiy and art of remote regions, as, for instance, 
peads from the Indian Ocean, beads of onwronght or polished amber 
lh>m the Baltic Sea, and others of out glass, which must have been de- 
rived from more civilised nations. These last-named relics betoken a 
commerce with the coasts of far-distant countries, and the character of 
their occurrence proves that they were family hoards brought together 
during a long lapse of time. 

Those pagan monuments, the gigantic embankments and ditches dis- 
posed in two or even three parallel lines, which are met throughout the 
kingdom, inform us that it was once inhabited by warlike and quite 
numerous tribes, or by valiant proprietors who kept their large herds 
within immense and inaccessible iudosures. The power of these ancient 

hesiM he eoDoludes that an age of ot^per, ftnning the tcMMUaon inm poliahad itone 

to bronze, moHt bo claimed for Hungary. 

This view, howevLr, was not abared by Mr. John Evans. He observed that uuiong^ 
thu two hundred objects thought to consist of copper, only nine or ten had been ana- 
lysed. Tet if they were aU oompoeed of copper, there wimld be no eoflloimt ground for 
eetsUiehing a copper age. If each an age had existed, its types wonld resemble more 
the forms of the stone age than those of the bronze period. The pierced copper implo- 
menta of Huugary certainly hear an analogy to a certain class of drilled stouo art icles ; 
but the latter, Mr. Evans thinks, are referable to the bronze age rather than to the 
ttmee during which stone was wKdiulTely used. He eonelndeo tiiat the HmignrlKtt 
copper tools belong to the bronze age, but were made in moments when tin — a metftl 
not found in Hungary — conld not be obtained. — ITramJator.'] 

'To judge fruoi wood-engravingS| kindly sent by Professor Bomer, these relics resem- 
ble the stamps which the Ifeiriesiui used fitr impressing ornamental marks on thelr 
ootton doth. They also employed stamps in deoorating their vases before they weirs 
baked.— [Tramslolor.] ^ 

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people, aod their aaeooiiitioii in aeoore places of babitotioii of great; ex- 
tent, can fitrthermoro be io toed from the enormous tnmnli which ods 
sees scattered widely apart over the country, and which, for this reasont 
have beeu cousidered as lookonts for sentinels, or as hills apon which 
the Turkish vizieis pitched tbeir tents ; for our people ascribe every thiug 
of a straoge character to the Turks. Yet these mounds, so dififerent in 
construction and character, stood originally by the side of villages or 
camps, amid large forests which no longer exist. Even in onr tame 
mounds are met in the primeval forests, from Bakony to Szdzhalom, near 
Bakonyb^l, at T4tika, and in other extensive timbered regions of onr 

Arriving at the period of iron, that which lies uearest to our own 
time, it must be confessed that our relics composed of that metal are 
less numerous than those of bronze and even of stone, although these 
latter beloug to more remote times. This fact will not surprise you 
when you learn that until now objects of iron have been totally neglected. 
Being in most cases corroded by rust and broken, and resembling, more- 
over, very often the implements of the present time^ they were generally 
nndervalned, not only by the common people, but also by the more 
instmcted, who chiefly prize ot^Jects composed of predons metals, 
espedally when they are well preserved and present elegant and extra- 
ordinary forms. Thos it has been nntU now; but in fntnre these 
nnderrated relics, which are of snch importance in their hearing on 
arohmological questions, will be carefully collected and preserved. 

This is all we can say in reference to our progress in arohaological 

As lor anlhropologjff it must be confessed that this scie nce has not 
been cultivated among us to the extent it deserves. Wo have not yet a 
noticeable collection, and those of onr savants who pursue that study 
must exert themselves, in order to keep pace with the anthropologists of 
other countries. We expect much, however, from the intimate inter^ 
course that will spring up during this congress. 

In general we may state, w ithout self-praise, that for several years the 
interest of our countrymen has been increasing. Archaeological publi- 
cations are dispersed throughout our lirerature; museums multi[tly in 
the counties in a uiauner highly satist'actoiy to the friends of our science. 
I find everywhere coUectors ut antiquities, and the taste for original 
research is growing, as can be iuferred from our improvised exposition. 
Thus we are entitled to the hope that henceforward onr oompatriots will 
pieserve what they find, and that we shall soou possess all the material 
required ibr our studies. 

Jt is true, we have no megalithio monuments; we cannot show you 
kitchen-middens or lacustrine habitations. They are either wanting in 
onr country, or, if they exist, have not yet been discovered. On the 
other hand, we can place before you all that has come to light in our 
oonntiy within these last years. The liberality of onr museums and the 

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Doble patriotism of oar col leagues enable me^ I am happy to state, to 
fulfill the promise given you at Stockholm, namely, to gather in oar 
National Museum all or nearly all objects scattered over Hungary that 
might serve to facilitate the study of our bronze age, the most interesting 
task before us. What I promised two years ago is now an accomplished 
filct. It is left to you, honored colleagues, to discuss the important 
questioD to what people or peoples we are indebted f6r the ol:s|ect8 which 
characterize so strikingly the deveiopaient of our country. 

I have prepaied a table indicating the nomber of relics and the ma- 
terials composing them. Onr exposition embraces nearly 31,000 ol^jeets, 
of which 22,000 belong to the mnsenms and private persons of this 

coontiy, and 9,000 to the National Hasenm, 
This total comprises— 

Objects of ordinary stone, flint, and obridian 9, 400 

Ol^eets of polished stone 2, 800 

Objects of stag-horn 660 

Objects of bone 1, 600 

Objects of clay. ..^ 3,300 

Ol^jects of copper .* 190 

Objects of bronie..... 7,630 

Weapons 1,170 

Trinkets and otyects of gold and stiver 1, 800 

From the composition of this table, and its incompleteness, it may be 
inferred that there are yet great gaps, and that the neccssaiy minatoness 
is still wanting. Finally we shall obtain deflnito resalts, and the science 
will be cnltiyated among as as in other conntries of Europe. In fact, 
we have had no time for preparing oarselves as thoroughly as we might 
have wished. Most of the works of onr compatriots, written in the 
Hnngarian langnage, arrived so late that it was not possible to translate 
them in time to be sobmitted to the congress | bat as yon doabtless 
desire to acqnaint yourselves with the character of the stadies pnzsned 
in onr country relative to its antiquities, and as onr own interest imposes 
upon as the doty of giving yon fall information, we shall present a com- 
plete risunU in oar forthcoming report, which will reflect oar labors like 
a true mirror. 
S 26 

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mi BftoK-nr-f BAPi or ai uoumift upibakt. 

By Chaklbs Bau. 

Id an easay eotitled ^^Andetit Aboriginal Xtade in North America," 
which was pnblished in the Smithsonian Beporfc for the year 1872, 1 
attempted to traoe the beginning of a division of h&bor among tiie 
former inliabitants of this coantiy. I expressed the opinion that certain 
individuals, who were, by inclination or practice, particularly qaalifled 
for a distinct kind of maonal labor, devoted themselves principally or 
entirely to that labor, basing my conjectaro on the occnrrence of maon- 
foctured articles of homogeneous character in mounds or in deposits 
below the surface of the soil. There is little doubt, for instance, 
that there were persons who devoted their time cbiefl3' to the manufact 
are of stone arrow-heads and of other articles produced by chipping, 
among which may be mentioned those remarkable large digging tools 


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described by me several years ago,* aud the oval or leaf sliaped imple- 
meuts made of the peculiar bornatone of " Flint Ridge," in Ohio. These 
latter, which bear much resemblance to certain palsBolitbic types of 
Euroi)e, were first noticed by Mr. E. G. Squier, who found, many years 
ago, a large deposit of them in a low mound of "Clark's Work,^ in Ross 
County, 01ii(». An excavation, six feet long aud four feet wide, disclosed 
about six hundred specimens, which were standing edgewise, forming 
two layers, one immediately above the other. The deposit extended 
liejoDd the limits of the ezoavatton od eveiy side, and hence the aetoal 
nnmber of specimens has not become known.f Since that time deposita 
oomposed of objects of conespondiog shapes and of the same material 
have been discovered, generally under the groand| in Illinois^ Wisoon- 
sin, and Eentncky ; but the area of their distribution may be much 
greater. Dr. J. F. Snyder has described the SlinolB deposits in the 
Smithsonian Beport for 18764 ^ Beardstown, in Oass Oonnty, 
Is of special interest It contained about fifteen hundred 1eaf<shaped or 
round implements, arranged in five horizontal layers, which weito sepa- 
rated by thin strata of clay. According to Dr. Snyder, another deposit, 
said to have consisted of three thousand five hundred specimens, was 
discovered in Fredericksville, Schuyler County, in the same State. 
Smaller subterranean deposits of flint arrow heads, cutters, &c., have 
been met with in various States in the eastern half ot this continent^ 
the articles showing in many cases no traces of use whatever, and gen- 
erally exhibiting a symmetrical order in their arrangement. Such facts 
naturally lead to the supposition that flint chipj)ing formed a special 
profession, aud, furthermore, that the objects found in these hiding- 
places, or "caches", constituted the magazines of the aboriginal crafts- 
men. The deposit of Clark's Work, it should be stated, has been thought 
to owe its occurrence in a mound of peculiar structure to superstitloua 
or religious motives, and thus to partake of a sacrifldal eharaeter. 
This view, however, whether correct or not, has no bearing on the point 
In question, namely, the production of the chipped articles by way of 

The carved stone pipes, representing imitations of the human head» 
of quadrupeds, birds, fta, which were found In great number by Messrs.. 
Squier and Davis in a mound of the group called Mound Olty,'' not 

&r from Chillicothe, Ohio, illustrate the highest development of early 
aboriginal art in this coontry.§ Their production required much skill 
and patient endurance, and hence we may infer that the manufacture of 
stone pipes formed in past times a branch of industry which was chiefly 
earned on by persons who possessed an extraordinary talent for this 

* A Deposit of Agrioultiuftl FUnt Implfliiiaiit* in Soathom lUiiMia, BmitliMNiiaii Report 

for 1868, p. 401. 

t Squier and Davis: Anoieut Mouaments of the Mississippi Valley, Wastiiugton, Lb4d^ 
p» 168; representatkHW of the oljeoti od p. 214. 
tDflpoelle of Hint ImplenMiitii p. 433. 
i Aneicnt Honnmenti, p. 943, 4fco. 

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pecaliar kind of work. There are to tluR day pipe-makers among the 
Cljibway Indians, and probably among other tribes. 

In corroboration of the foregoinj;, I may state thatcerUiin handicrafts 
were practised to some extent by the North American Indians at the 
time of their first intercourse with the whites. ''They have some,^ says 
lioger Williams, " who follow onely making of Bowes, some Arrowes, some 
Dishes (and the women make all their Earthen Vessells), some follow fish- 
ing, some bunting: most on the Sea side make Money, and Store u[) shells 
in Summer against Winter whereof to make their money." • These re- 
• marks, of course, relate to the New England tribes, with whom Roger 
WUliama ased to asfiociate; bat a later writer, Lawaon, gives a similar 
aoooant of the Soathem Indians, among whom labor was doobtless still 
more flgrstematized, considering that they had attained a somewhat 
higher degree of civilization than their Northern kinsmen. It ia known 
that until within late jeara the mannfactnre of arrow-heada waa prao- 
tiaed aa a profeadon by certain individnala among aeveral Indian tribea. 

I will now proceed to desorijie a depoait of aboriginal mannfactarea, 
which illastrates the anbject of divialon of labor among the earlier in- 
habitanta of this country better than any other diacoveiy of kindred 
character with which I have become acquainted. 

In the spring of 1876, Mr. T. J. R. Keenan, of Brookbaven, Lincoln 
Count}^ Mississippi, presented to the National Museum a collection of 
jasper ornaments, mostly unfinished, which had been found in Lawrence 
County, in the same State, forming a deposit of a very remarkable 
Character. Being desirous of learning the particulars of this discovery, 
I addressed a letter to Mr. Keenan, and obtained from him the desired 
information. The deposit was accidentally discovered on the fnrni of 
Anthony Hutchins, situated on the east side of Silver Creek, about one 
mile distant from Hebron church, in the northetistern part of the above- 
named county. While Mr. Huchins's son was engaged ore day in July, 
1875, in ploughing a cotton-field, entirely free from pebbles and stones of 
any kind, a grating of the ploaghabare attracted bis attention, and upon 
eiamination be fonnd that be had atmck the deposit, which appeared 
originally to have been buried two feet and a half below the aurfkce, 
lUling an excavation of about eighteen inchea in diameter. The 
arrangement of the articles cooatitnting thia depoait will be deaeribed 
hereafter. They all conaiat of jaaper of a red or reddiah color, which ia 
sometimea variegated with apota or atreaka of a pale yellow. But fem 
of these objecta, which were undoubtedly deaigned for ornament, may 
be considered as entirely finished. 

The following is an inventory of the apedmena aent to the National 
Museum by Mr. Keenan : 

1. Twenty-two pebbles of jasper, showing no work whatever. They 
are irregnUir in shape and mostly small, being from half an inch to an 
mch and oue-fourth in size. 

* A Key into the Langnage of Amerloft (Lottdoo, 1643); PxoTidflooe, 1887 ; p. 183. 

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Twelve radliiMntaiy oniaiiieiits of diflnraot fimiia, bronglit into 

shape by chipping. 
9, Thiee poHsbed pieces with narrow grooves, sbowiog tbatoattliig 

was also resorted to ia the manufactareof the objects. 

4. Two hundred and ninety-tive beads of more or less elongated cylin- 
drical shape, measuring from one-fonrtb of an inch to three inches in 
length, and from one-fourth of an inch to one inch in thickness. 
Though they are polished, they exhibit but rarely a perfectly regular 
cylinder form. Ten of them show the begiuniugs of holeS| in most cases 
at one end. 

5. One hundred and one round beads of a more compressed or dis- 
coidal ebape. They are from one eighth to five eigbtbs of an inch long, 
while Lbeir diameters vary from one -fourth to three-fourths of an inch. 
They are polished, and only five of tbe number exhibit incipient holes. 

6. l^ine polished ornaments of elongated flattlah shape, sbowiog an 
ezpaosioD on each side (like Fig. 10). They measure ftom an inch and 
ooe-fonrth to two inehes and one-fonrtb In length, and firom three- 
fourths of an inch to an loch and one-lbarth in width across the middle. 
One specimen is partly drilled. 

7. Two specimens of similar oharaot^, but expanding on one side 
only (Fig. 11). They are from an inch and a half to two inches in 
length and seven-eighths of an inch wide across the middle. 

S, One large ornament showing two expansions on each side (Fig. 12). 
A more minute description will follow. 

9. Two small animal-sbaped objects. They are about an inch long 
and well polished. 

10. Two semicircular polished pieces, probably designed to be worked 
into tbe shapes of animals. 

There are four hundred ond forty-nine pieces in all. Mr. Keenan has 
kept for himself sixteen specimens, and four had been disposed of be- 
fore be became tbe owner of tbe collection. One of tbe latter was drilled 
entirely through. Ueuce the entire deposit consisted of four hundred 
and sixty-nine objects. 

From the character of the inventory just given several iuferenoesmay 
be drawn. 

There can hardly be any doubt that the deport constituted the atodk- 
in-tiade of some aboriginal mannfiictnrer of ornaments of jasper, whioh 
he made from pebbles of that material.* He shaped them 1^ the oper* 
ation of chipping before he proceeded to grindingi and he likewise im- 
plied the method of cutting In the mannfacture of the articles. The cat- 
ting, however, was done after the piece had been reduced to a oertain 
shape by grinding. The drilling of the beads and bead-like ornamenta 
was tbe final process in their fabrication. This fact affords an additional 

'Aoootdiag to Mr. Keeoui's oxprew itsteiMiit, no jasper pebUM ooenr In the nsigh- 
bo th oo d of tbe plooo whoro tho onuunonti worn ontombed. They miifl ham Imm 
braoi^t ftom a diatsnoo. 

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proof that in this conntry stone objects requiriDg perforations were 
brought into perfect shape before the drilling was commencecl. The 
same rule prevailed in Earope, as every one knows who has stodied 
the stone antiquities of that part of the world. 


jMperonuuuenU from MiMi«a]ppl (i). 

The accompanying illustrations represent, in full size, typical 8|)eci- 
mens of the different classes of wrought articles composing the deposit. 

Fig. 1. — A jasper pebble, chipped into the form of a cylindrical bead. 
The smooth surface of the pebble has not entirely disappeared. 

Fig. 2, — A long, comparatively slender piece, designed for a bead. It 
sbows the chipping very distinctly, though the sharp edges have beeo 
removed by grinding. 


Fig. 3. — Polished cjlindrlcal* bead (uudrilled). 
Fig. 4.— Very legolar and well polished cylindrical bead of a fine red 
eolor (nodrilled). 

Fig. ft.— Long and slender bead, apparently not entirely ground into 
shape (undrilled). 

Fig. 6. — ^Large oylindrical bead, which exhibits a rather rough sur- 
face, the traces of dilpping not having been entirely removed by the 
grinding process (undrilled). 

Fig. 7.— Small cylindrical bead, polished, but not regular in shape, 
and showing at one end the beginning of a hole, which forms a cylin- 
drical cavity nearly three millimeters in diameter and two millimeters 
in depth. 

Fig. 8. — Polished bead of discoidal shape, with incipient holes at both 
ends. One of the holes is merely indicated by a small depression ; the 
other forms a cup like cavity of two and a half millimeters diameter and 
two millimeters depth. 

Fig. y. — Ornament of elongated flattish shape, with an expansion on 
each side. It is uufiuished, having been brought into shape by chip- 
ping alone. 

Fig. 10. — Object of the same form ; ^ve^ polislied, but not absolutely 
regular in outline. There can be no doubt that the ornaments ot this de- 
scription were intended to be drilled in the direction of the longitudinal 
axis. A broken specimen of the collection shows the commencements 
of holes at both extremities. 

Fig. 11.— Polished ornament of dmilar character, exhibiting an ex- 
pansion or projection only on one side (undrilled). 

Fig. 12.— Large polished ornament of elongated flattish form, with 
two expansions on each side. The object is irregular in outline, the ex- 
pansions being larger at one extremity than at the other. It is three- 
fourths of an inch thick in the middle. A longitudinal perforation was 
doubtless intended. 

Fig. 13. — A small, flattish, bird-shaped object, made of beantifol 
cherry-red jasper, and well polished. The wings are indicated on iM>th 
sides by slight grooves. 

Fig. 14. — A similar polished object of dark-red jasper, in which the 
bird Ibrm is less distinctly expressed. Indeed, the maker may have pur- 
posed to represent some quadruped. It would be unprofitable to spec 
ulate on the use of these two carvings. They probably were merely toys, 
though it is not impossible that they had a totemic significance, or were 
designed to serve as charms. They could not well be worn aboat the 
person, and I doubt whether it was intended to perforate them. 

Fig. 15. — A polished semicircular piece, perhaps designed to be 
worked into the shape of a bird ; its size is exactly the same as that of 
the original of Fig. 13. 

* In this description of omuneiiti the tem "oylindrical" vaaat not be taken in a 
aisllMiiisttoal lenae^ as I mmly intend to indieate by it »n apprariraeite neemUaiiM 
to a ejlinder. 

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Fig. 16. — polished piece, of a compressed oval shape, sbowiDg two* 
parallel inoisioDS in the direction of the miuor axis. They were erideotly 
made with » sharp flint tool. It is probable that this specimen illas- 
trates a stage in tiie manufacture of a small animal-shaped trinket, like 
those already described, the piece being almoet too flat to be made into 
a bead of <qrlindrical form. 

9 11 

jMper oraaments ftmn Mifwlnipi>i 

It now remains to be stated in what manner the objects forminjr the 
deposit were arranged. The large piece, represented by Fig. 12, lay Hat 
on the bottom of the hole ; the long and massive cylindrical beads were 

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placed oil end, on and aroand it, as closely as possible, and the smaller 

objects wero spread over them in a rather promiscoons way. 

The owner of the articles here described, we may snppose, had no in- 
tention of leaving them buried in the ground ; ho would Rome day have 
recovered them, had circumstances permitted. Death, captivity, or re- 
moval to another part of the country, from which he never returned, may 
have frustrated bis design. The deposit in question shared the fate of 
many others which have been preserved to our time, iu order to add, 
as it were, to our knowledge of the former occupants of this country. 

It would be a vain endeavor to offer any conjecture as to the age 
of the deposit. The objects appear absolutely fresh, not showing the 
slightest alteration of the surface. Jasper, however, iti a very hard sub- 
Stance, capable of resisting the influences of exposure for ages. On the 
other hand, there is nothing that would militate against a oompuratiTely 
reoent^ though pre-Oolambian, origin of the deposit. 

It most liave been a very difficult tasb: to worlc a stone as hard as 
iasper without the proper appliances, and we cannot but admire the 
skill, and, above all, the patience of the artist or artists who fashioned 
the ornaments fiom such an obdurate materiaL let it is known that 
even at the present time mineral substances of equal hardness are 
shaped and perforated in the most primitive manner by tribes occupy- 
ing a very low position in other respects. The execution of such work 
is but a trial of endurance, a quality displayed in an eminent degree by 
uncivilized man when his mind is bent upon a definite purpose. 

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Bj Cbabus 

Id Deoember^lS??, ICr, DaiiiooCkeeiilm^i^ JaeksonTilley Blorida, aent 
for ezaminatioa to the National Hasenm a earions relio of gold| lately 
diaf»vered in a moand in Manatee County, Southern Florida, with a 
reqoeatfor ioformatioD as to its probable origin and use. 

The acoompanyiD^ illustration represents the object in qaestion re- 
daced to one-half of its natural size, the original measuring exactly nine 
inches from the point to the middle of the opposite curve. It is cut from 
a flat piece of gold plate, not quite a millimeter in thickness, and some- 
what thinner toward the edge. The specimen is broken iu two pieces, 
as indicated by the dotted line iu the figure; but the two parts tit well 
together, and thus the original character of the object remains unal- 
tered. Ou the whole, it is in a good state of preservation, though the 
effects of long exposure are plainly visible. Both faces appear bright 
and smooth, and the engraved lines, which represent exactly the same 
pattern on both aides, seem to be aa fresh as on the day when they 
were traced* 

Little need be said eoneeming the shape of the omamenti oonaidering 
that all its ftatarea are distinotly expressed in the cat. The maker 


evidently intended to represent a bird^s head, the neck of which forms 
a blade-like prolongation, and the grotesque ezecation clearly illastrates 

Gold onmnwDtlhHB ft nooBd la Florida, and hMd of tbeWoiT-billedt^^ (i). 

tbe carious taste ebanoterizlDg the ornamental work of the North 
American Indian. It never would occur to a person of Oanoasian origin 
to represent a bird's head in the peooliar manner here exhibited. The 
eye of the bird, it sbonld be stated, has been formed with great regu- 
larity by the prooess of punching ftom the under side, and perfectly 
resembles in sise and oonvezity tbe head of a common brass tack. 
However dnmsy tbe design of the object may appear to a common 
observer, the ornithologists of the National Masenm have discovered 
the prototype that was before the aboriginal artist's mind. The trun- 
cated bill and recarved crest leave no doubt that he intended to repre- 
sent the ivory-billed woodpecker {Picus principalis^ JAun. -j Campephilus 
principalis. Gray), a bird quite frequent in Southern Florida, but not 
found at any great distance from the Gulf of Mexico. To facilitate 
comparison, a half 8ize sketch of the head of the ivorybilled wood- 
pecker is placed in juxtaposition with tbe cat representing tbe aborig- 
inal relic. 

The composition of the gold plate from which the specimen is made 
indicates its post Colunibian oiigiu. llaving been forwarded, through 
the courtesy of Mr. E. 13. Elliott, chief clerk of the Bureau of Statistics, 
to tbe Mint at Philadelphia, for the purpose of ascertaining its weight 
and composition or fineness, it was found to weigh 1^ ounces (troy), 
and to consist exclusively of gold and silver, in the proportion of 8^ 
parts of gold to 107 parts of silver. Oonsequently, the amount of gold 
therein contained is 1.360 ounces, and of silver 0.164 ounce (troy). 
The metal value of the relic is twenty-eight dollars and forty-five cents. 
According to Mr. BUiott^s statement, its composition corresponds almost 
exactly with that of the " ounce'' of gold or quadruple of Spain hearing 
the date of 1772; and this cfareumstance is not without significanee, in 
so far as it seems to point to the source from which the material of the 
figure was derived. It may have been given by Spaniards to some 

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Indian, who fashioned it, according to his ta8t<^, to serve as a totemic 
emblem or ornament, perhaps designed to form a part of the head- 
dress; for, though a small elongated aperture is formed by the inner 
carve of the bird's neck, I hardly deem it likely that the object was 
intended for saspeDsion. The Florida Indians, it is well known, paid 
partloalar attention to the decoration of their heads, and hence it is 
not an Improbable ooq|e«star6 that it onoe embeUisbed the erown of 
flome ohief or brave while living, and was afterward placed in hie grave^ 
in acoordance with aboriginal onetom. 

Whether the llgare was broaght into ahape by hammering a large 
gold coin or a bar of gold, or was made from a piece of sheet gold, can- 
not now be decided. The soifiices certainly look as though they had 
nndergone the process of beating; bnt it is jnst as likely that the orna- 
ment was made from a piece of gold plate famished by whites. That 
the Indians were skillful in working metal in a cold state is shown by 
the implements and oniaments of copper fonnd in various parts of the 
United States, more especially in the neighborhood of Lake Superior, 
where their supplies of native copper were chiefly obtained. Even 
modern Indians practise the art of working silver dollars, beating and 
catting them into tasteful gorgets, ear-rings, and other objects of per- 
sonal adornment. On the other hand, there is no ground whatever 
for supposing that the Indians north of Mexico possessed the skill of 
casting gold, and far less of producing an alloy like that of which the 
Florida ornament is composed. 

While I am of opinion that the material of the relic was obtained from 
whites, I ascribe (as stated) the work itself— that i8| the catting out of 
the flgnre and the tracing of the lines— to the agen<^ of an aboriginal 
artist. The ornamental lines, though incised with a steady hand| are 
not uniform in width, and in some places the tracing forms a double 
line, as though the implement used in lieu of a graver had not been pro* 
Yided with a sharp point A knifb which has lost its extreme point 
^wonld produce such lines; perhaps also a pointed flint The latter 
alternative, however, is hardly admissible, considering that at the time 
when the object was made, implements of such primitive character prob- 
ably had been superseded by more efficient instruments of iron or steel. 
The North American Indians, like other savages, were not slow in recog- 
nizing the superiority of the whitd man's tools, and adopted them with- 
out hesitation. 

Though it would be hazardous to pronounce a definite opinion con- 
cerning the ago of the relic, it may be assumed that it is not very old. 
Its origin may not date back more than a century. It was perhaps 
made during the second period of Spanish supremacy in Florida, which 
lasted from 1780 to 1821, when the province was ceded to the United 
States. The ornament was taken from the centre of the mound, and 
doubtless formed a part of a primary burial. This fact affords an addi- 
tional evidence that mound-building was continaed in this coantry alter 

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Itf oocapation bj Europeans. **Ihe man who dug it out,^ says Mr. 
Greenleaf, ba<l no idea tiiat it was gold. He bad been digging all 
day, and was just giving up the work, when, witli a final desperate 
blow, he struck, broke, and brought to lifjht the gold ornament. Ho 
then explored the rest of the mound careiully, bat foand uothiog bat 
fragments of pottery and crumbling bones.'' 

Purely aboriginal relics of gold appear to be extremely rare in this 
ooantry. According to Colonel Charles C. Jones, Indian beads composed 
of that metal have been met with in Georgia. lie says: "Gold beads — 
evidently not European in their manufacture — have been found in the 
Etowah Valley, in the vicinity of the large mounds on Colonel Tamlin's 
plaDtatioD.''* This statement is eonoborated by Mr. M. F. Stephenson 
in an artide on aoelent moonds in Georgia, wbicb was poblisbed in the 
Bmitbsonian Report for 1870. I am not aware that Indian relies of gold 
have been found in Florida in modem times ; but mention is made of a 
small Isold bell obtained in lff27 by the party of the nnfortnnate Pam- 
phUo de Narvaes, immediately after his landing in Florida. It was 
discovered in one of the large houses {bukbu), wbieb the natives had 
deserted opoD the approach of the Spaniards, t 

We learn from the old acconnts relating to the discovery and coloni- 
zation of the large tiaet of land formerly calied Florida that the abo- 
riginal inhabitants were cognizant of the occarrence of gold in their dis- 
tricts. The grains of gold which the early Spanish visitorn saw in the 
possession of the Floridians excited their cupidity, and inspired tbem 
with the hope of finding a second Mexico or Peru in tbo more northern 
portion of the new continent. Upon asking the Indians where the 
precious metal had been obtained, they were referred to the ''Apalatcy* 
Mountains, in the north, from wbicb rivers carrying ])articIeA of gold, 
silver, and copper were flowing. The Indian method of collecting these 
metallic grains is represented on plate 41, vol. ii, of De Bry's Feregri 
nationea (Frankfort on the Main, 1591), where the natives are pictured 
as asing long tabes for this purpose. Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues, 
the artist of Landonnitee^s expedition, to whieh the volnme relates, 
probably drew the sketoh ftom imagination, or aeoordhig to what he 
had heard fkom the Indians, who were never noted for their veracity. 
The short Latin deseription aocompanyiDg the sketch ohMes with the 
statement that the Spaniards knew hdw to apply these treasores to their 
own use. Indeed, tiaoes of mining operations whieh are ascribed to 
the Spaniards have been found in the gold district of Georgia. It 
wonld be foreign to my purpose to enlarge on this subject ; bat I will 
refer to two articles by Dr. D. G. Brinton, which treat of this early 

*AntiqnitiMattha8oiitbaffnliid!sai. Hew York, ISm, p. 4& 

t *' Un de OM buhloe ^tait si grand, qi^il poovalt flooteoJr plus de trola Miitifcnoii- 

oee : lea antrea iStaient mohit vaster ; noas y tronv&mes nne clochett') en or parmi des 
filets." — Belaiion et Natifraget d' Ahar Nunes Cabefa de Vaca. Paria, 1837, p. 24. (Ter- 
aaaz-CompaQB Collection.) The Spaoisb original wa« publittbed in the year 1566 at 

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mining : one forms the third appendix to his excellent little work entitled 
Xotes on the Floridian Peninsula ; the other is published in the Historical 
Magazine^ vol. x (1866 ), p. 137, under the title " Early Spanish Mining in 
Northern Georgia." Additional information on the subject is to be found 
in Colonel Jones's work to which I have referred on the preceding page. 

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This book it under no oircumstanoes to be 
taken from the Building 

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